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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15548627.2020.1728096

Mutant HTT (huntingtin) impairs mitophagy in a cellular model of Huntington disease.

04 Mar 2021-Autophagy (Autophagy)-Vol. 17, Iss: 3, pp 672-689
Abstract: The precise degradation of dysfunctional mitochondria by mitophagy is essential for maintaining neuronal homeostasis. HTT (huntingtin) can interact with numerous other proteins and thereby perform multiple biological functions within the cell. In this study, we investigated the role of HTT during mitophagy and analyzed the impact of the expansion of its polyglutamine (polyQ) tract. HTT is involved in different mitophagy steps, promoting the physical proximity of different protein complexes during the initiation of mitophagy and recruiting mitophagy receptors essential for promoting the interaction between damaged mitochondria and the nascent autophagosome. The presence of the polyQ tract in mutant HTT affects the formation of these protein complexes and determines the negative consequences of mutant HTT on mitophagy, leading to the accumulation of damaged mitochondria and an increase in oxidative stress. These outcomes contribute to general mitochondrial dysfunction and neurodegeneration in Huntington disease.Abbreviations: AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG13: autophagy related 13; BECN1: beclin 1, autophagy related; BNIP3: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3; BNIP3L/Nix: BCL2/adenovirus E1B interacting protein 3-like; CCCP: carbonyl cyanide 3-chlorophenyl hydrazone; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified eagle medium; EDTA: ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; EGTA: ethylene glycol bis(2-aminoethyl ether)tetraacetic acid; FUNDC1: FUN14 domain containing 1; HD: Huntington disease; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; HTT: huntingtin; LC3-II: lipidated form of MAP1LC3/LC3; mtDNA: mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid; MTDR: MitoTracker Deep Red; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; NBR1: NBR1, autophagy cargo receptor; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; OCR: oxygen consumption rate; OPTN: optineurin; OXPHOS: oxidative phosphorylation; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PIK3R4/VPS15: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PLA: proximity ligation assay; PMSF: phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride; polyQ: polyglutamine; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; ROS: reactive oxygen species; Rot: rotenone; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; SEM: standard error of the mean; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TMRM: tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester; UB: ubiquitin; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1.

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Topics: Mitophagy (68%), Huntingtin (61%), Sequestosome 1 (57%) ... read more
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38 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40478-020-01062-W
Abstract: Mutations in the PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and Parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase (PARKIN) genes are associated with familial forms of Parkinson’s disease (PD). PINK1, a protein kinase, and PARKIN, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, control the specific elimination of dysfunctional or superfluous mitochondria, thus fine-tuning mitochondrial network and preserving energy metabolism. PINK1 regulates PARKIN translocation in impaired mitochondria and drives their removal via selective autophagy, a process known as mitophagy. As knowledge obtained using different PINK1 and PARKIN transgenic animal models is being gathered, growing evidence supports the contribution of mitophagy impairment to several human pathologies, including PD and Alzheimer’s diseases (AD). Therefore, therapeutic interventions aiming to modulate PINK1/PARKIN signalling might have the potential to treat these diseases. In this review, we will start by discussing how the interplay of PINK1 and PARKIN signalling helps mediate mitochondrial physiology. We will continue by debating the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s diseases, as well as eye diseases such as age-related macular degeneration and glaucoma, and the causative factors leading to PINK1/PARKIN-mediated neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation. Finally, we will discuss PINK1/PARKIN gene augmentation possibilities with a particular focus on AD, PD and glaucoma.

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Topics: Parkin (75%), PINK1 (64%), Mitophagy (60%) ... read more

22 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ARR.2020.101129
Abstract: Mitophagy serves as a cardinal regulator in the maintenance of mitochondrial integrity, function, and cardiovascular homeostasis, through the fine control and governance of cellular metabolism, ATP production, redox balance, and mitochondrial quality and quantity control. As a unique form of selective autophagy, mitophagy specifically recognizes and engulfs long-lived or damaged (depolarized) mitochondria through formation of the double-membraned intracellular organelles - mitophagosomes, ultimately resulting in lysosomal degradation. Levels of mitophagy are reported to be altered in pathological settings including cardiovascular diseases and biological ageing although the precise nature of mitophagy change in ageing and ageing-associated cardiovascular deterioration remains poorly defined. Ample clinical and experimental evidence has depicted a convincing tie between cardiovascular ageing and altered mitophagy. In particular, ageing perturbs multiple enigmatic various signal machineries governing mitophagy, mitochondrial quality, and mitochondrial function, contributing to ageing-elicited anomalies in the cardiovascular system. This review will update novel regulatory mechanisms of mitophagy especially in the perspective of advanced ageing, and discuss how mitophagy dysregulation may be linked to cardiovascular abnormalities in ageing. We hope to pave the way for development of new therapeutic strategies against the growing health and socieconomical issue of cardiovascular ageing through targeting mitophagy.

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Topics: Mitophagy (73%)

22 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/APHA.13590
Hang Zhu1, Sam Toan2, David Mui3, Hao Zhou1Institutions (3)
01 Mar 2021-Acta Physiologica
Abstract: Myocardial infarction (MI) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As mitochondrial dysfunction critically contributes to the pathogenesis of MI, intensive research is focused on the development of therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial homeostasis. Mitochondria possess a quality control system which maintains and restores their structure and function by regulating mitochondrial fission, fusion, biogenesis, degradation and death. In response to slight damage such as transient hypoxia or mild oxidative stress, mitochondrial metabolism shifts from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, in order to reduce oxygen consumption and maintain ATP output. Mitochondrial dynamics are also activated to modify mitochondrial shape and structure, in order to meet cardiomyocyte energy requirements through augmenting or reducing mitochondrial mass. When damaged mitochondria cannot be repaired, poorly structured mitochondria will be degraded through mitophagy, a process which is often accompanied by mitochondrial biogenesis. Once the insult is severe enough to induce lethal damage in the mitochondria and the cell, mitochondrial death pathway activation is an inevitable consequence, and the cardiomyocyte apoptosis or necrosis program will be initiated to remove damaged cells. Mitochondrial quality surveillance is a hierarchical system preserving mitochondrial function and defending cardiomyocytes against stress. A failure of this system has been regarded as one of the potential pathologies underlying MI. In this review, we discuss the recent findings focusing on the role of mitochondrial quality surveillance in MI, and highlight the available therapeutic approaches targeting mitochondrial quality surveillance during MI.

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Topics: Mitochondrial biogenesis (71%), Mitochondrial fission (68%), Mitophagy (59%) ... read more

20 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJMS21197174
Abstract: With aging, the nervous system gradually undergoes degeneration. Increased oxidative stress, endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cell death are considered to be common pathophysiological mechanisms of various neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), organophosphate-induced delayed neuropathy (OPIDN), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Autophagy is a cellular basic metabolic process that degrades the aggregated or misfolded proteins and abnormal organelles in cells. The abnormal regulation of neuronal autophagy is accompanied by the accumulation and deposition of irregular proteins, leading to changes in neuron homeostasis and neurodegeneration. Autophagy exhibits both a protective mechanism and a damage pathway related to programmed cell death. Because of its "double-edged sword", autophagy plays an important role in neurological damage and NDDs including AD, PD, HD, OPIDN, and ALS. Melatonin is a neuroendocrine hormone mainly synthesized in the pineal gland and exhibits a wide range of biological functions, such as sleep control, regulating circadian rhythm, immune enhancement, metabolism regulation, antioxidant, anti-aging, and anti-tumor effects. It can prevent cell death, reduce inflammation, block calcium channels, etc. In this review, we briefly discuss the neuroprotective role of melatonin against various NDDs via regulating autophagy, which could be a new field for future translational research and clinical studies to discover preventive or therapeutic agents for many NDDs.

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Topics: Neurodegeneration (58%), Programmed cell death (57%), Autophagy (56%) ... read more

16 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/1873-3468.13802
01 Aug 2020-FEBS Letters
Abstract: Ageing is driven by the inexorable and stochastic accumulation of damage in biomolecules vital for proper cellular function. Although this process is fundamentally haphazard and uncontrollable, genetic and extrinsic factors influence senescent decline and ageing. Numerous gene mutations and treatments have been shown to extend the lifespan of organisms ranging from the unicellular Saccharomyces cerevisiae to primates. Most such interventions ultimately interface with cellular stress response mechanisms, suggesting that longevity is intimately related to the ability of the organism to counter both intrinsic stress and extrinsic stress. Mitochondria, the main energy hub of the cell, are highly dynamic organelles, playing essential roles in cell physiology. Mitochondrial function impinges on several signalling pathways modulating cellular metabolism, survival and healthspan. Maintenance of mitochondrial function and energy homeostasis requires both generation of new healthy mitochondria and elimination of the dysfunctional ones. Here, we survey the mechanisms regulating mitochondrial number in cells, with particular emphasis on neurons. We, further, discuss recent findings implicating perturbation of mitochondrial homeostasis in cellular senescence and organismal ageing as well as in age-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

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Topics: Mitochondrial Turnover (62%), Mitophagy (54%), Cellular stress response (54%) ... read more

13 Citations


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96 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCB2152
Abstract: Autophagy is a process by which components of the cell are degraded to maintain essential activity and viability in response to nutrient limitation. Extensive genetic studies have shown that the yeast ATG1 kinase has an essential role in autophagy induction. Furthermore, autophagy is promoted by AMP activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is a key energy sensor and regulates cellular metabolism to maintain energy homeostasis. Conversely, autophagy is inhibited by the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), a central cell-growth regulator that integrates growth factor and nutrient signals. Here we demonstrate a molecular mechanism for regulation of the mammalian autophagy-initiating kinase Ulk1, a homologue of yeast ATG1. Under glucose starvation, AMPK promotes autophagy by directly activating Ulk1 through phosphorylation of Ser 317 and Ser 777. Under nutrient sufficiency, high mTOR activity prevents Ulk1 activation by phosphorylating Ulk1 Ser 757 and disrupting the interaction between Ulk1 and AMPK. This coordinated phosphorylation is important for Ulk1 in autophagy induction. Our study has revealed a signalling mechanism for Ulk1 regulation and autophagy induction in response to nutrient signalling.

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Topics: Atg1 (64%), Autophagy database (64%), Autophagy-Related Protein-1 Homolog (63%) ... read more

4,350 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE04724
Taichi Hara1, Kenji Nakamura2, Makoto Matsui3, Makoto Matsui1  +9 moreInstitutions (8)
15 Jun 2006-Nature
Abstract: Autophagy is an intracellular bulk degradation process through which a portion of the cytoplasm is delivered to lysosomes to be degraded. Although the primary role of autophagy in many organisms is in adaptation to starvation, autophagy is also thought to be important for normal turnover of cytoplasmic contents, particularly in quiescent cells such as neurons. Autophagy may have a protective role against the development of a number of neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report that loss of autophagy causes neurodegeneration even in the absence of any disease-associated mutant proteins. Mice deficient for Atg5 (autophagy-related 5) specifically in neural cells develop progressive deficits in motor function that are accompanied by the accumulation of cytoplasmic inclusion bodies in neurons. In Atg5-/- cells, diffuse, abnormal intracellular proteins accumulate, and then form aggregates and inclusions. These results suggest that the continuous clearance of diffuse cytosolic proteins through basal autophagy is important for preventing the accumulation of abnormal proteins, which can disrupt neural function and ultimately lead to neurodegeneration.

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Topics: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (72%), Autophagy database (66%), ATG5 (64%) ... read more

3,383 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NATURE04723
Masaaki Komatsu1, Satoshi Waguri2, Satoshi Waguri3, Tomoki Chiba1  +9 moreInstitutions (4)
15 Jun 2006-Nature
Abstract: Protein quality-control, especially the removal of proteins with aberrant structures, has an important role in maintaining the homeostasis of non-dividing neural cells. In addition to the ubiquitin-proteasome system, emerging evidence points to the importance of autophagy--the bulk protein degradation pathway involved in starvation-induced and constitutive protein turnover--in the protein quality-control process. However, little is known about the precise roles of autophagy in neurons. Here we report that loss of Atg7 (autophagy-related 7), a gene essential for autophagy, leads to neurodegeneration. We found that mice lacking Atg7 specifically in the central nervous system showed behavioural defects, including abnormal limb-clasping reflexes and a reduction in coordinated movement, and died within 28 weeks of birth. Atg7 deficiency caused massive neuronal loss in the cerebral and cerebellar cortices. Notably, polyubiquitinated proteins accumulated in autophagy-deficient neurons as inclusion bodies, which increased in size and number with ageing. There was, however, no obvious alteration in proteasome function. Our results indicate that autophagy is essential for the survival of neural cells, and that impairment of autophagy is implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders involving ubiquitin-containing inclusion bodies.

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Topics: Chaperone-mediated autophagy (65%), Autophagy database (62%), Programmed cell death (58%) ... read more

3,094 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV-GENET-102808-114910
Congcong He1, Daniel J. Klionsky1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Autophagy is a process of self-degradation of cellular components in which double-membrane autophagosomes sequester organelles or portions of cytosol and fuse with lysosomes or vacuoles for breakdown by resident hydrolases. Autophagy is upregulated in response to extra- or intracellular stress and signals such as starvation, growth factor deprivation, ER stress, and pathogen infection. Defective autophagy plays a significant role in human pathologies, including cancer, neurodegeneration, and infectious diseases. We present our current knowledge on the key genes composing the autophagy machinery in eukaryotes from yeast to mammalian cells and the signaling pathways that sense the status of different types of stress and induce autophagy for cell survival and homeostasis. We also review the recent advances on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the autophagy machinery at various levels, from transcriptional activation to post-translational protein modification.

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Topics: BAG3 (67%), Autophagy (61%), Programmed cell death (61%) ... read more

2,934 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.277.5334.1990
26 Sep 1997-Science
Abstract: The cause of neurodegeneration in Huntington's disease (HD) is unknown. Patients with HD have an expanded NH2-terminal polyglutamine region in huntingtin. An NH2-terminal fragment of mutant huntingtin was localized to neuronal intranuclear inclusions (NIIs) and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in the HD cortex and striatum, which are affected in HD, and polyglutamine length influenced the extent of huntingtin accumulation in these structures. Ubiquitin was also found in NIIs and DNs, which suggests that abnormal huntingtin is targeted for proteolysis but is resistant to removal. The aggregation of mutant huntingtin may be part of the pathogenic mechanism in HD.

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Topics: Huntingtin Protein (75%), Huntingtin (72%), Neurodegeneration (54%) ... read more

2,597 Citations