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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/BIOM11030381

Mutations of Intrinsically Disordered Protein Regions Can Drive Cancer but Lack Therapeutic Strategies.

04 Mar 2021-Vol. 11, Iss: 3, pp 381
Abstract: Many proteins contain intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) which carry out important functions without relying on a single well-defined conformation. IDRs are increasingly recognized as critical elements of regulatory networks and have been also associated with cancer. However, it is unknown whether mutations targeting IDRs represent a distinct class of driver events associated with specific molecular and system-level properties, cancer types and treatment options. Here, we used an integrative computational approach to explore the direct role of intrinsically disordered protein regions driving cancer. We showed that around 20% of cancer drivers are primarily targeted through a disordered region. These IDRs can function in multiple ways which are distinct from the functional mechanisms of ordered drivers. Disordered drivers play a central role in context-dependent interaction networks and are enriched in specific biological processes such as transcription, gene expression regulation and protein degradation. Furthermore, their modulation represents an alternative mechanism for the emergence of all known cancer hallmarks. Importantly, in certain cancer patients, mutations of disordered drivers represent key driving events. However, treatment options for such patients are currently severely limited. The presented study highlights a largely overlooked class of cancer drivers associated with specific cancer types that need novel therapeutic options.

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Topics: Protein degradation (53%)
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JMB.2021.167196
Abstract: Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) constitute a broad set of proteins with few uniting and many diverging properties. IDPs-and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) interspersed between folded domains-are generally characterized as having no persistent tertiary structure; instead they interconvert between a large number of different and often expanded structures. IDPs and IDRs are involved in an enormously wide range of biological functions and reveal novel mechanisms of interactions, and while they defy the common structure-function paradigm of folded proteins, their structural preferences and dynamics are important for their function. We here discuss open questions in the field of IDPs and IDRs, focusing on areas where machine learning and other computational methods play a role. We discuss computational methods aimed to predict transiently formed local and long-range structure, including methods for integrative structural biology. We discuss the many different ways in which IDPs and IDRs can bind to other molecules, both via short linear motifs, as well as in the formation of larger dynamic complexes such as biomolecular condensates. We discuss how experiments are providing insight into such complexes and may enable more accurate predictions. Finally, we discuss the role of IDPs in disease and how new methods are needed to interpret the mechanistic effects of genomic variants in IDPs.

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10092374
09 Sep 2021-Cells
Abstract: A hallmark of cancer is dysregulated protein turnover (proteostasis), which involves pathologic ubiquitin-dependent degradation of tumor suppressor proteins, as well as increased oncoprotein stabilization. The latter is due, in part, to mutation within sequences, termed degrons, which are required for oncoprotein recognition by the substrate-recognition enzyme, E3 ubiquitin ligase. Stabilization may also result from the inactivation of the enzymatic machinery that mediates the degradation of oncoproteins. Importantly, inactivation in cancer of E3 enzymes that regulates the physiological degradation of oncoproteins, results in tumor cells that accumulate multiple active oncoproteins with prolonged half-lives, leading to the development of “degradation-resistant” cancer cells. In addition, specific sequences may enable ubiquitinated proteins to evade degradation at the 26S proteasome. While the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway was originally discovered as central for protein degradation, in cancer cells a ubiquitin-dependent protein stabilization pathway actively translates transient mitogenic signals into long-lasting protein stabilization and enhances the activity of key oncoproteins. A central enzyme in this pathway is the ubiquitin ligase RNF4. An intimate link connects protein stabilization with tumorigenesis in experimental models as well as in the clinic, suggesting that pharmacological inhibition of protein stabilization has potential for personalized medicine in cancer. In this review, we highlight old observations and recent advances in our knowledge regarding protein stabilization.

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Topics: Protein stabilization (72%), Ubiquitin ligase (63%), Protein degradation (63%) ... show more

Open accessPosted Content
Abstract: Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) constitute a broad set of proteins with few uniting and many diverging properties. IDPs-and intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) interspersed between folded domains-are generally characterized as having no persistent tertiary structure; instead they interconvert between a large number of different and often expanded structures. IDPs and IDRs are involved in an enormously wide range of biological functions and reveal novel mechanisms of interactions, and while they defy the common structure-function paradigm of folded proteins, their structural preferences and dynamics are important for their function. We here discuss open questions in the field of IDPs and IDRs, focusing on areas where machine learning and other computational methods play a role. We discuss computational methods aimed to predict transiently formed local and long-range structure, including methods for integrative structural biology. We discuss the many different ways in which IDPs and IDRs can bind to other molecules, both via short linear motifs, as well as in the formation of larger dynamic complexes such as biomolecular condensates. We discuss how experiments are providing insight into such complexes and may enable more accurate predictions. Finally, we discuss the role of IDPs in disease and how new methods are needed to interpret the mechanistic effects of genomic variants in IDPs.

... read more


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13184586
13 Sep 2021-Cancers
Abstract: We have performed mutational profiling of 25 genes involved in epigenetic processes on 135 gastric cancer (GC) samples. In total, we identified 79 somatic mutations in 49/135 (36%) samples. The minority (n = 8) of mutations was identified in DNA methylation/demethylation genes, while the majority (n = 41), in histone modifier genes, among which mutations were most commonly found in KMT2D and KMT2C. Somatic mutations in KMT2D, KMT2C, ARID1A and CHD7 were mutually exclusive (p = 0.038). Mutations in ARID1A were associated with distant metastases (p = 0.03). The overall survival of patients in the group with metastases and in the group with tumors with signet ring cells was significantly reduced in the presence of mutations in epigenetic regulation genes (p = 0.036 and p = 0.041, respectively). Separately, somatic mutations in chromatin remodeling genes correlate with low survival rate of patients without distant metastasis (p = 0.045) and in the presence of signet ring cells (p = 0.0014). Our results suggest that mutations in epigenetic regulation genes may be valuable clinical markers and deserve further exploration in independent cohorts.

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Topics: Epigenetics (55%), DNA methylation (55%), Histone (51%) ... show more

Book ChapterDOI: 10.1016/BS.PMBTS.2021.06.017
Abstract: Protein sequences are the result of an evolutionary process that involves the balancing act of experimenting with novel mutations and selecting out those that have an undesirable functional outcome. In the case of globular proteins, the function relies on a well-defined conformation, therefore, there is a strong evolutionary pressure to preserve the structure. However, different evolutionary rules might apply for the group of intrinsically disordered regions and proteins (IDR/IDPs) that exist as an ensemble of fluctuating conformations. The function of IDRs can directly originate from their disordered state or arise through different types of molecular recognition processes. There is an amazing variety of ways IDRs can carry out their functions, and this is also reflected in their evolutionary properties. In this chapter we give an overview of the different types of evolutionary behavior of disordered proteins and associated functions in normal and disease settings.

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114 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2011.02.013
Douglas Hanahan1, Robert A. Weinberg2Institutions (2)
04 Mar 2011-Cell
Abstract: The hallmarks of cancer comprise six biological capabilities acquired during the multistep development of human tumors. The hallmarks constitute an organizing principle for rationalizing the complexities of neoplastic disease. They include sustaining proliferative signaling, evading growth suppressors, resisting cell death, enabling replicative immortality, inducing angiogenesis, and activating invasion and metastasis. Underlying these hallmarks are genome instability, which generates the genetic diversity that expedites their acquisition, and inflammation, which fosters multiple hallmark functions. Conceptual progress in the last decade has added two emerging hallmarks of potential generality to this list-reprogramming of energy metabolism and evading immune destruction. In addition to cancer cells, tumors exhibit another dimension of complexity: they contain a repertoire of recruited, ostensibly normal cells that contribute to the acquisition of hallmark traits by creating the "tumor microenvironment." Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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42,275 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/75556
01 May 2000-Nature Genetics
Abstract: Genomic sequencing has made it clear that a large fraction of the genes specifying the core biological functions are shared by all eukaryotes. Knowledge of the biological role of such shared proteins in one organism can often be transferred to other organisms. The goal of the Gene Ontology Consortium is to produce a dynamic, controlled vocabulary that can be applied to all eukaryotes even as knowledge of gene and protein roles in cells is accumulating and changing. To this end, three independent ontologies accessible on the World-Wide Web (http://www.geneontology.org) are being constructed: biological process, molecular function and cellular component.

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30,473 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/28.1.235
Abstract: The Protein Data Bank (PDB; http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/ ) is the single worldwide archive of structural data of biological macromolecules. This paper describes the goals of the PDB, the systems in place for data deposition and access, how to obtain further information, and near-term plans for the future development of the resource.

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30,190 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1235122
29 Mar 2013-Science
Abstract: Over the past decade, comprehensive sequencing efforts have revealed the genomic landscapes of common forms of human cancer. For most cancer types, this landscape consists of a small number of “mountains” (genes altered in a high percentage of tumors) and a much larger number of “hills” (genes altered infrequently). To date, these studies have revealed ~140 genes that, when altered by intragenic mutations, can promote or “drive” tumorigenesis. A typical tumor contains two to eight of these “driver gene” mutations; the remaining mutations are passengers that confer no selective growth advantage. Driver genes can be classified into 12 signaling pathways that regulate three core cellular processes: cell fate, cell survival, and genome maintenance. A better understanding of these pathways is one of the most pressing needs in basic cancer research. Even now, however, our knowledge of cancer genomes is sufficient to guide the development of more effective approaches for reducing cancer morbidity and mortality.

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Topics: Carcinogenesis (54%), Cancer (54%), Genome (52%) ... show more

5,607 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NG.2764
01 Oct 2013-Nature Genetics
Abstract: The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network has profiled and analyzed large numbers of human tumors to discover molecular aberrations at the DNA, RNA, protein and epigenetic levels. The resulting rich data provide a major opportunity to develop an integrated picture of commonalities, differences and emergent themes across tumor lineages. The Pan-Cancer initiative compares the first 12 tumor types profiled by TCGA. Analysis of the molecular aberrations and their functional roles across tumor types will teach us how to extend therapies effective in one cancer type to others with a similar genomic profile.

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Topics: Genomics (50%)

4,022 Citations