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Journal ArticleDOI

Mycotherapy: Potential of Fungal Bioactives for the Treatment of Mental Health Disorders and Morbidities of Chronic Pain

TL;DR: A literature review aims to explore recent evidence relating to the application of fungal bioactives in treating chronic mental health and chronic pain morbidities.
Abstract: Mushrooms have been used as traditional medicine for millennia, fungi are the main natural source of psychedelic compounds. There is now increasing interest in using fungal active compounds such as psychedelics for alleviating symptoms of mental health disorders including major depressive disorder, anxiety, and addiction. The anxiolytic, antidepressant and anti-addictive effect of these compounds has raised awareness stimulating neuropharmacological investigations. Micro-dosing or acute dosing with psychedelics including Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and psilocybin may offer patients treatment options which are unmet by current therapeutic options. Studies suggest that either dosing regimen produces a rapid and long-lasting effect on the patient post administration with a good safety profile. Psychedelics can also modulate immune systems including pro-inflammatory cytokines suggesting a potential in the treatment of auto-immune and other chronic pain conditions. This literature review aims to explore recent evidence relating to the application of fungal bioactives in treating chronic mental health and chronic pain morbidities.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Insight is provided into the role of the nervous system and immune system in chronic pain disorders associated with the musculoskeletal system, and central and peripheral nervous systems.
Abstract: Functional somatic syndromes are increasingly diagnosed in chronically ill patients presenting with an array of symptoms not attributed to physical ailments. Conditions such as chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, or irritable bowel syndrome are common disorders that belong in this broad category. Such syndromes are characterised by the presence of one or multiple chronic symptoms including widespread musculoskeletal pain, fatigue, sleep disorders, and abdominal pain, amongst other issues. Symptoms are believed to relate to a complex interaction of biological and psychosocial factors, where a definite aetiology has not been established. Theories suggest causative pathways between the immune and nervous systems of affected individuals with several risk factors identified in patients presenting with one or more functional syndromes. Risk factors including stress and childhood trauma are now recognised as important contributors to chronic pain conditions. Emotional, physical, and sexual abuse during childhood is considered a severe stressor having a high prevalence in functional somatic syndrome suffers. Such trauma permanently alters the biological stress response of the suffers leading to neuroexcitatory and other nerve issues associated with chronic pain in adults. Traumatic and chronic stress results in epigenetic changes in stress response genes, which ultimately leads to dysregulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, the autonomic nervous system, and the immune system manifesting in a broad array of symptoms. Importantly, these systems are known to be dysregulated in patients suffering from functional somatic syndrome. Functional somatic syndromes are also highly prevalent co-morbidities of psychiatric conditions, mood disorders, and anxiety. Consequently, this review aims to provide insight into the role of the nervous system and immune system in chronic pain disorders associated with the musculoskeletal system, and central and peripheral nervous systems.

7 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The application of eukaryotic expression systems for the manufacture of biologics of therapeutic importance is described in this article , where the authors describe their application in the development of recombinant therapeutic proteins in yeast and filamentous fungal systems.
Abstract: Biologics have become an important area of medical research generating therapeutics essential for the treatment of many disease states. Biologics are defined as biologically active compounds manufactured by living cells or through biological processes termed bioprocessing. Compared to small molecules which are chemically synthesised they are relatively complex and therapeutically specific molecules. Biologics include hormones, vaccines, blood products, monoclonal antibodies, recombinant therapeutic proteins, enzymes, gene and cellular therapies amongst others. For biologic production prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells (mammalian and non-mammalian) are used as expression systems. Eukaryotic expression systems offer many advantages over prokaryotic based systems. The manufacture of high-quality proteins for human clinical use via recombinant technologies has been achieved in yeast and filamentous fungal systems. Advances in bioprocessing such as genetic engineering, bioreactor design, continuous processing, and quality by design has allowed for increased productivity and higher yield in in these non-mammalian eukaryotic systems with protein translation similar to mammalian systems. The application of eukaryotic expressions systems for the manufacture of biologics of therapeutic importance are described herein.

2 citations

ReportDOI
06 Oct 2022
TL;DR: The first surveillance report since the annual update of a living systematic review on cannabis and other plant-based treatments for chronic pain was published in 2018 as mentioned in this paper , which addressed concerns about severe adverse effects, abuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction.
Abstract: Overview This is the first surveillance report since the annual update of a living systematic review on cannabis and other plant-based treatments for chronic pain. The systematic review synthesizes evidence on the benefits and harms of plant-based compounds (PBCs), such as cannabinoids and kratom, used to treat chronic pain, and addresses concerns about severe adverse effects, abuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction. The purpose of this surveillance report is to describe new studies identified since the last search (April 2022) and provide a synthesis of the accumulated evidence. Surveillance update reports are planned on a quarterly basis, and the systematic review will be updated annually. The systematic review is available on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) website (https://effectivehealthcare.ahrq.gov/products/plant-based-chronic-pain-treatment/livingreview). Table 1 provides a summary of the version history.

1 citations

ReportDOI
01 Jan 2022
TL;DR: This surveillance report is to describe new studies identified since the last search and provide a synthesis of the accumulated evidence on the benefits and harms of plant-based compounds used to treat chronic pain.
Abstract: Overview This is the fourth surveillance report for a living systematic review on cannabis and other plant-based treatments for chronic pain. The systematic review synthesizes evidence on the benefits and harms of plant-based compounds (PBCs), such as cannabinoids and kratom, used to treat chronic pain, and addresses concerns about severe adverse effects, abuse, misuse, dependence, and addiction. The purpose of this surveillance report is to describe new studies identified since the last search (January 2022) and provide a synthesis of the accumulated evidence. Surveillance reports are planned on a quarterly basis, and the full systematic review will be updated annually. A draft of the full systematic review was posted for public comments on the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) website for four weeks in March and April 2022. Table 1 provides a summary of the version history.
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of the resident microbial species in the human gastrointestinal tract has become evident as discussed by the authors and dysbiosis, an alteration in the microbial species present in favour of non-beneficial and pathogenic species has emerged as important in many chronic pain conditions, including functional somatic syndromes, autoimmune disease and neurological diseases.
Abstract: The prevalence of neurological conditions which manifest with chronic pain is increasing globally, where the World Health Organisation has now classified chronic pain as a risk factor for death by suicide. While many chronic pain conditions have a definitive underlying aetiology, non-somatic conditions represent difficult-to-diagnose and difficult-to-treat public health issues. The interaction of the immune system and nervous system has become an important area in understanding the occurrence of neuroinflammation, nociception, peripheral and central sensitisation seen in chronic pain. More recently, however, the role of the resident microbial species in the human gastrointestinal tract has become evident. Dysbiosis, an alteration in the microbial species present in favour of non-beneficial and pathogenic species has emerged as important in many chronic pain conditions, including functional somatic syndromes, autoimmune disease and neurological diseases. In particular, a decreased abundance of small chain fatty acid, e.g., butyrate-producing bacteria, including Faecalibacterium, Firmicutes and some Bacteroides spp., is frequently evident in morbidities associated with long-term pain. Microbes involved in the production of neurotransmitters serotonin, GABA, glutamate and dopamine, which mediate the gut-brain, axis are also important. This review outlines the dysbiosis present in many disease states manifesting with chronic pain, where an overlap in morbidities is also frequently present in patients.
References
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01 Jan 2007
TL;DR: As many mental disorders begin in childhood or adolescents, interventions aimed at early detection and treatment might help reduce the persistence or severity of primary disorders and prevent the subsequent onset of secondary disorders.
Abstract: Data are presented on the lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk, and age-of-onset distributions of mental disorders in the World Health Organization (WHO)’s World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Face-to-face community surveys were conducted in seventeen countries in Africa, Asia, the Americas, Europe, and the Middle East. The combined numbers of respondents were 85,052. Lifetime prevalence, projected lifetime risk, and age of onset of DSM-IV disorders were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), a fully-structured lay administered diagnostic interview. Survival analysis was used to estimate lifetime risk. Median and inter-quartile range (IQR) of age of onset is very early for some anxiety disorders (7-14, IQR: 8-11) and impulse control disorders (7-15, IQR: 11-12). The age-of-onset distribution is later for mood disorders (29-43, IQR: 35-40), other anxiety disorders (24-50, IQR: 31-41), and substance use disorders (18-29, IQR: 21-26). Median and IQR lifetime prevalence estimates are: anxiety disorders 4.8-31.0% (IQR: 9.9-16.7%), mood disorders 3.3-21.4% (IQR: 9.8-15.8%), impulse control disorders 0.3-25.0% (IQR: 3.1-5.7%), substance use disorders 1.3-15.0% (IQR: 4.8-9.6%), and any disorder 12.0-47.4% (IQR: 18.1-36.1%). Projected lifetime risk is proportionally between 17% and 69% higher than estimated lifetime prevalence (IQR: 28-44%), with the highest ratios in countries exposed to sectarian violence (Israel, Nigeria, and South Africa), and a general tendency for projected risk to be highest in recent cohorts in all countries. These results document clearly that mental disorders are commonly occurring. As many mental disorders begin in childhood or adolescents, interventions aimed at early detection and treatment might help reduce the persistence or severity of primary disorders and prevent the subsequent onset of secondary disorders.

1,617 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: High-dose psilocybin produced large decreases in clinician- and self-rated measures of depressed mood and anxiety, along with increases in quality of life, life meaning, and optimism, and decreases in death anxiety.
Abstract: Cancer patients often develop chronic, clinically significant symptoms of depression and anxiety. Previous studies suggest that psilocybin may decrease depression and anxiety in cancer patients. Th...

1,016 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Preliminary support for the safety and efficacy of psilocybin for treatment-resistant depression is provided and motivates further trials, with more rigorous designs, to better examine the therapeutic potential of this approach.

842 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Psilocybin was associated with enduring anxiolytic and anti-depressant effects in patients with cancer-related psychological distress, sustained benefits in existential distress and quality of life, as well as improved attitudes towards death.
Abstract: Background:Clinically significant anxiety and depression are common in patients with cancer, and are associated with poor psychiatric and medical outcomes. Historical and recent research suggests a...

823 citations

Trending Questions (1)
Do psychoactive mushrooms have any therapeutic value?

Psychoactive mushrooms, such as psilocybin-containing mushrooms, have therapeutic potential for mental health disorders, including addiction, major depressive disorder, and anxiety, according to the provided paper.