Nano-metal oxides-activated carbons for dyes removal: A review
01 Sep 2022-Materials Today: Proceedings-Vol. 77, pp 19-30
TL;DR: An approach to the synthesis, characterization, and dye removal capabilities of nano-metal oxides-activated carbons is presented in this paper , which also includes a discussion of several operating parameters associated with the adsorption process.
Abstract: It is common for dyes to be utilized in a wide range of industries such as leather and textiles as well as the printing, paper, and packaging industry. Most dyes fall into a dangerous category of water toxins that have had a significant impact on the ecosystem. Dye removal from wastewater can be done in a variety of methods. It is now necessary to develop advanced and cost-effective methods. Organic dyes may be removed from textiles using adsorption, which is a more effective and environmentally beneficial process. Nanomaterials are a more attractive option for dye removal because of their unique characteristics. An approach to the synthesis, characterization, and dye removal capabilities of nano-metal oxides-activated carbons is presented. This review also includes a discussion of several operating parameters associated with the adsorption process, adsorption isotherms, kinetics, thermodynamic behavior, and reusability of the adsorbent.
TL;DR: In this article , a composite hydrogel by entrapping cherry stones powder on chitosan, which is known as one of the most abundant natural polymers, was used for the treatment of contaminated water.
Abstract: The treatment of contaminated water is currently a major concern worldwide. This work was directed towards the preparation of a composite hydrogel by entrapping cherry stones powder on chitosan, which is known as one of the most abundant natural polymers. The synthesized material was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and by the point of zero charge determination. Its ability to remove two azo dyes models (Acid Red 66 and Reactive Black 5) existing in single form and in binary mixture was evaluated. Response Surface Methodology–Central Composite Design was used to optimize three parameters affecting the process while targeting the lowest final contaminant concentrations. The best results were obtained at pH 2, an adsorbent dose of 100 g/L, and a temperature of 30 °C, when more than 90% of the pollutants from the single component systems and more than 70% of those of the binary mixtures were removed from their aqueous solutions. The adsorption process was in accordance with Elovich and pseudo-second-order kinetic models, and closely followed the Freundlich and Temkin equilibrium isotherms. The obtained results led to the conclusion that the prepared hydrogel composite possesses the ability to successfully retain the target molecules and that it can be considered as a viable adsorbent material.
TL;DR: In this article , the adsorption capacity of PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs was evaluated using three anionic dyes: congo red (CR), sunset yellow (SY), and methyl orange (MO).
Abstract: Considering the notable mechanical properties of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU), polydopamine–polyethyleneimine (PEI) -modified TPU nanofiber membranes (PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs) have been developed successfully for removal of anionic azo dyes. The adsorption capacity of PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs was evaluated using three anionic dyes: congo red (CR), sunset yellow (SY), and methyl orange (MO). Interestingly, it exhibited different adsorption behaviors and mechanisms of CR on PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs compared with SY and MO. With the decrease in pH, leading to more positive charges on the PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs, the adsorption capacity of SY and MO increased, indicating electrostatic interaction as a main mechanism for SY and MO adsorption. However, wide pH range adaptability and superior adsorption have been observed during the CR adsorption process compared to SY and MO, suggesting a synergistic effect of hydrogen bonding and electrostatic interaction, likely as a critical factor. The adsorption kinetics revealed that chemical interactions predominate in the CR adsorption process, and multiple stages control the adsorption process at the same time. According to the Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of CR, SY and MO were reached 263, 17 and 23 mg/g, respectively. After six iterations of adsorption–desorption, the adsorption performance of the PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs did not decrease significantly, which indicated that the PDA/PEI-TPU NFMs have a potential application for the removal of CR molecules by adsorption from wastewater.
TL;DR: In this article , a highly efficient, non-toxic, low-cost MgO particles were prepared by sol-gel technique and utilized for the removal of Reactive Red 21 azo dye by adsorption process.
Abstract: Recently, there has been an increasing interest in environmentally friendly methods for the removal of toxic dyes to enable sustainable textile dyeing processes. In this study, a highly efficient, non-toxic, low-cost MgO particles were prepared by sol-gel technique and utilized for the removal of Reactive Red 21 azo dye by adsorption process. The prepared MgO particles were characterized by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, X-Ray Diffraction, and Particle Size Analysis. The batch adsorption studies were performed for optimizing the parameters affecting adsorption. The adsorption behavior of Reactive Red 21 was accurately characterized by the Langmuir model. The adsorption process was found to be thermodynamically spontaneous at room temperatures as indicated by the negative Gibbs free energy change (∆G) value of −30.65 kj/mol. The kinetic studies indicate that the pseudo-second-order model provides a good fit to the adsorption of Reactive Red 21. The adsorption capacity of the prepared MgO particles for Reactive Red 21 was determined to be 355 mg/g at room temperature over a wide pH range of 5–9, with a contact time of 20 min. The regeneration of dye-adsorbed MgO particles was conducted at 500 °C for 2 h. The regenerated MgO particles were then utilized for adsorbing Reactive Red 21 five times with a sufficiently high dye removal efficiency. The prepared MgO particles provided a 98 % dye removal in real textile wastewater containing Reactive Red 21 dye.
TL;DR: In this paper , the adsorption proprieties of two anionic dyes, i.e., acid yellow 36 (AY36) and acid orange 6 (AO6), on the (1 1 0) surface of rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) in an aqueous medium were investigated using computational methods.
Abstract: Metal oxides are gaining momentum rapidly for application in water pollutant remediation. In this study, the adsorption proprieties of two anionic dyes, i.e., acid yellow 36 (AY36) and acid orange 6 (AO6) on the (1 1 0) surface of rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) in an aqueous medium were investigated using computational methods. The density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the reactivity of organic molecules by calculating the frontier molecular orbital energies, energy gap (ΔEgap), chemical hardness (η), chemical softness (σ), electronegativity (χ), chemical potential (μ), electrophilicity (ω), the fraction of electrons transferred (ΔN), back-donation energy (ΔEback-donation), Mulliken charge, and Fukui indices. The obtained results showed that the AY36 molecule is more reactive than the AO6 molecule and may have a good adsorption capability compared to the AO6 dye. The most favorable adsorption configurations of AY36 and AO6 molecules were investigated using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. The calculated interaction energies by MD simulation showed that the TiO2 (1 1 0) surface has a high sensitivity to interact with the two anionic dyes, with more affinity toward the AY36 molecule. Furthermore, to get deep insights into the chemistry of interactions between the anionic dyes and the TiO2 (1 1 0) surface, the self-consistent charge density functional tight-binding (SCC-DFTB) method was carried out. Results showed that anionic dyes adsorbed on the TiO2 (1 1 0) surface by forming covalent bonds between oxygen atoms of the sulfonic group and Ti atoms. Theoretical insights from this work would serve as a guide for researchers to explore the application of oxides in water pollutant remediation.
TL;DR: In this article , a state-of-the-art review provides and combines the advancements in different conventional and advanced adsorents, biosorbents, and adsorptive membranes for the removal of trace elements from water streams.
Abstract: Water and wastewater are contaminated with various types of trace elements that are released from industrial activities. Their presence, at concentrations above the permissible limit, will cause severe negative impacts on human health and the environment. Due to their cost-effectiveness, simple design, high efficiency, and selectivity, adsorption, and adsorptive filtration are techniques that have received lots of attention as compared to other water treatment techniques. Adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies help to understand the mechanisms of adsorption and adsorption rates, which can be used to develop and optimize different adsorbents. This state-of-the-art review provides and combines the advancements in different conventional and advanced adsorbents, biosorbents, and adsorptive membranes for the removal of trace elements from water streams. Herein, this review discusses the sources of different trace elements and their impact on human health. The review also covers the adsorption technique with a focus on various advanced adsorbents, their adsorption capacities, and adsorption isotherm modeling in detail. In addition, biosorption is critically discussed together with its mechanisms and biosorption isotherms. In the end, the application of various advanced adsorptive membranes is discussed and their comparison with adsorbents and biosorbents is systematically presented.
TL;DR: From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that some LCAs, in addition to having wide availability, have fast kinetics and appreciable adsorption capacities too.
Abstract: Dyes are an important class of pollutants, and can even be identified by the human eye. Disposal of dyes in precious water resources must be avoided, however, and for that various treatment technologies are in use. Among various methods adsorption occupies a prominent place in dye removal. The growing demand for efficient and low-cost treatment methods and the importance of adsorption has given rise to low-cost alternative adsorbents (LCAs). This review highlights and provides an overview of these LCAs comprising natural, industrial as well as synthetic materials/wastes and their application for dyes removal. In addition, various other methods used for dye removal from water and wastewater are also complied in brief. From a comprehensive literature review, it was found that some LCAs, in addition to having wide availability, have fast kinetics and appreciable adsorption capacities too. Advantages and disadvantages of adsorbents, favourable conditions for particular adsorbate-adsorbent systems, and adsorption capacities of various low-cost adsorbents and commercial activated carbons as available in the literature are presented. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.
TL;DR: This review presents in brief the history of adsorption and highlights the progress in theoretical description of the phenomenon under consideration, as well as presenting some of the latest important results and giving a source of up-to-date literature on it.
Abstract: Adsorption at various interfaces has concerned scientists since the beginning of this century. This phenomenon underlies a number of extremely important processes of utilitarian significance. The technological, environmental and biological importance of adsorption can never be in doubt. Its practical applications in industry and environmental protection are of paramount importance. The adsorption of substrates is the first stage in many catalytic processes. The methods for separation of mixtures on a laboratory and on an industrial scale are increasingly based on utilising the change in concentration of components at the interface. Moreover, such vital problems as purification of water, sewages, air and soil are involved here too. On the other hand, many areas in which technological innovation has covered adsorption phenomena have been expanded more through art and craft than through science. A basic understanding of the scientific principles is far behind; in part because the study of interfaces requires extremely careful experimentation if meaningful and reproducible results are to be obtained. In recent years, however, considerable effort has been increasingly directed toward closing the gap between theory and practice. Crucial progress in theoretical description of the adsorption has been achieved, mainly through the development of new theoretical approaches formulated on a molecular level, by means of computer simulation methods and owing to new techniques which examine surface layers or interfacial regions. Moreover, during the last 15 years new classes of solid adsorbents have been developed, such as activated carbon fibres and carbon molecular sieves, fullerenes and heterofullerenes, microporous glasses and nanoporous--both carbonaceous and inorganic--materials. Nanostructured solids are very popular in science and technology and have gained extreme interest due to their sorption, catalytic, magnetic, optical and thermal properties. Although the development of adsorption up to the 1918s has been following rather a zig-zag path, this arm of surface science is now generally considered to have become a well-defined branch of physical science representing an intrinsically interdisciplinary area between chemistry, physics, biology and engineering. This review presents in brief the history of adsorption and highlights the progress in theoretical description of the phenomenon under consideration. The paper deals with the above problems critically, showing the development of adsorption, presenting some of the latest important results and giving a source of up-to-date literature on it. Moreover, in this paper the most important aspects are overviewed referring to today's trends and visions in application of adsorption science in industry, environmental protection and in environmental analysis. The relationship between development of adsorption theory and adsorption practice is pointed out. Current understanding and perspectives pertaining to applications of adsorption phenomena on laboratory and on industrial scale as well as environmental protection are discussed and illustrated by means of a few spectacular examples.
TL;DR: In this paper, the potential of surface modified activated carbons towards water treatment has been discussed and a review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of surface modification of activated carbon for water pollution control.
Abstract: Activated carbon has been recognized as one of the oldest and widely used adsorbent for the water and wastewater treatment for removing organic and inorganic pollutants. The application of activated carbon in adsorption process is mainly depends on the surface chemistry and pore structure of porous carbons. The method of activation and the nature of precursor used greatly influences surface functional groups and pore structure of the activated carbon. Therefore, the main focus of researchers is to develop or modifies the activation/treatment techniques in an optimal manner using appropriate precursors for specific pollutants. In recent years, emphasis is given to prepare the surface modified carbons using different procedures to enhance the potential of activated carbon for specific contaminants. Various methods such as, acid treatment, base treatment, impregnation treatment, ozone treatment, surfactant treatment, plasma treatment and microwave treatment have been studied to develop surface modified activated carbons. In this paper, these modification methods have been reviewed and the potential of surface modified activated carbons towards water treatment has been discussed. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of surface modification of activated carbon for water pollution control.