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Journal ArticleDOI

Nanostructured ZnTe films prepared by D.C. magnetron sputtering

01 May 1994-Nanostructured Materials (Pergamon)-Vol. 4, Iss: 3, pp 329-336
TL;DR: The shift of the band gap to higher energies depended on the relative magnitudes of substrate temperature and gas pressure during deposition as mentioned in this paper, and the relative magnitude of temperature and pressure during the sputtering of a ZnTe target was determined.
Abstract: ZnTe films in nanostructured form have been deposited by high pressure d.c. magnetron sputtering of a ZnTe target onto different substrates kept at various temperatures ranging from 223–373 K. Shift of the band gap to higher energies depended on the relative magnitudes of substrate temperature and gas pressure during deposition.
Citations
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Journal Article

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TL;DR: In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and the phonon broadening of these lines is considered.
Abstract: We analyze theoretically the optical properties of ideal semiconductor crystallites so small that they show quantum confinement in all three dimensions [quantum dots (QD's)]. In the limit of a QD much smaller than the bulk exciton size, the linear spectrum will be a series of lines, and we consider the phonon broadening of these lines. The lowest interband transition will saturate like a two-level system, without exchange and Coulomb screening. Depending on the broadening, the absorption and the changes in absorption and refractive index resulting from saturation can become very large, and the local-field effects can become so strong as to give optical bistability without external feedback. The small QD limit is more readily achieved with narrow-band-gap semiconductors.

786 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: The optical absorption in these films could be explained by the combined effects of phonon and inhomogeneity broadening along with optical loss due to light scattering at the nanocrystallites.
Abstract: Nanocrystalline ZnS films with different thickness (10–40 nm) were deposited onto quartz and NaCl substrates by magnetron sputtering of a ZnS target in argon plasma. All the films showed a zinc blende structure and the photoluminescence peak positions depended on the surface to volume ratio of the films. The optical absorption in these films could be explained by the combined effects of phonon and inhomogeneity broadening along with optical loss due to light scattering at the nanocrystallites.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: In this paper, structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27°C) and post-deposition annealing temperature ( at 200, 300 and 400°C).
Abstract: The structural, morphological, optical and electrical properties of ZnTe films deposited by evaporation were investigated as a function of substrate temperature (at −123 and 27 °C) and post-deposition annealing temperature (at 200, 300 and 400 °C). It was determined that films deposited at both substrate temperatures were polycrystalline in nature with zinc-blende structure and a strong (1 1 1) texture. A small Te peak was detected in XRD spectra for both substrate temperatures, indicating that as-deposited ZnTe films were slightly rich in Te. Larger grains and a tighter grain size distribution were obtained with increased substrate temperature. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the microstructures of the as-deposited films agreed well with the expectations from structure zone model. Post-deposition annealing induced further grain growth and tightened the grain size distribution. Annealing at 400 °C resulted in randomization in the texture of films deposited at both substrate temperatures. Optical spectroscopy results of the films indicated that the optical band gap value increased from 2.13 to 2.16 eV with increased substrate temperature. Increasing the annealing temperature sharpened the band-edge. Resistivity measurements showed that the resistivity of films deposited at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C were 32 Ω cm, and 1.0 × 104 Ω cm, respectively with corresponding carrier concentrations of 8.9 × 1015 cm−3 and 1.5 × 1014 cm−3. Annealing caused opposite changes in the film resistivity between the samples prepared at substrate temperatures of −123 and 27 °C.

55 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, thin films of GaAs were electrochemically prepared from acidic solutions of pure metallic Ga and As 2 O 3, and structural characterization of the nanoparticles were carried out by XRD technique which exhibits partial amorphization of the crystallites in the low electrolysis current regime.
Abstract: Nanoparticulate thin films of GaAs we electrochemically prepared from acidic solutions of pure metallic Ga and As 2 O 3 . Samples of different crystallite sizes were prepared by varying the electrolysis parameters. Structural characterization of the nanoparticles were carried out by XRD technique which exhibits partial amorphization of the crystallites in the low electrolysis current regime. Quantum confinement effect was prominently observed in the optical absorption spectra with blue-shift of absorption onsets with respect to the bulk band gap. Room temperature photoluminescence exhibit band edge luminescence as well as other surface related bands. Incorporation of transition element as impurity leads to enhanced luminescence intensity and generates deep traps.

30 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, a Schottky junction in the configuration ITO/nano-CdS/Au has been fabricated and the current(I) −voltage(V) and capacitance(C)−voltage (V) characteristics studied.
Abstract: A Schottky junction in the configuration ITO/nano-CdS/Au has been fabricated and the current(I)–voltage(V) and capacitance(C)–voltage(V) characteristics studied. The I–V studies show series resistance effect resulting in two ideality factors: one in low and the other in high forward bias regime, suggesting the presence of surface/interface traps in nano-CdS. Frequency dependent capacitance has also been studied and different semiconductor parameters have been estimated from the I–V and C–V analysis.

29 citations

References
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Book

[...]

01 Jan 1959
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals, including interference, interferometers, and diffraction.
Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,811 citations

[...]

01 Oct 1999
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals, including interference, interferometers, and diffraction.
Abstract: The book is comprised of 15 chapters that discuss various topics about optics, such as geometrical theories, image forming instruments, and optics of metals and crystals. The text covers the elements of the theories of interference, interferometers, and diffraction. The book tackles several behaviors of light, including its diffraction when exposed to ultrasonic waves.

19,501 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

2,654 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

TL;DR: In this article, an extensive numerical calculation for the eigenvalue problem is carried out by Ritz's variational technique, and the motional state of the lowest level is classified into three regimes: the regime of exciton confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the regime for individual particle confinement forR/${b}^{*}+1.2.
Abstract: Quantum-size effects of an electron-hole system confined in microcrystals of semiconductors are studied theoretically with the spherical-dielectric continuum model. An extensive numerical calculation for the eigenvalue problem is carried out by Ritz's variational technique. The motional state of the lowest level is classified into three regimes: the regime of exciton confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the regime of individual particle confinement for R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}2, and the intermediate regime for 2\ensuremath{\lesssim}R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}4, where R is the radius of the quantum well and ${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$ is the exciton Bohr radius. In the region R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\gtrsim}4, the high-energy shift of the lowest exciton state is described by the rigid-sphere model of the exciton quite well, which takes into account the spatial extension of the relative motion of the electron and the hole. The oscillator strength of the interband optical transition changes dramatically across the region 2\ensuremath{\lesssim}R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$\ensuremath{\lesssim}4. The metamorphosis of the absorption spectrum is shown as a function of R/${a}_{B}^{\mathrm{*}}$ and compared with the experimental data.

1,067 citations

Journal ArticleDOI

[...]

Louis E. Brus1
TL;DR: In this paper, a review and analysis of the optical properties of quantum crystallites, with principal emphasis on the electro-optic Stark effect and all optical third order nonlinearity is presented.
Abstract: This is a review and analysis of the optical properties of quantum crystallites, with principal emphasis on the electro-optic Stark effect and all optical third order nonlinearity. There are also introductory discussions on physical size regimes, crystallite synthesis, quantum confinement theory, and linear optical properties. The experiments describe CdSe crystallites, exhibiting strong confinement of electrons and holes, and CuCl crystallites, exhibiting weak confinement of the exciton center of mass. In the CdSe system, neither the Stark effect nor the third order nonlinearity is well understood. The Stark shifts appear to be smaller than calculated, and field inducted broadening also occurs. The third order nonlinearity is only modestly stronger than in bulk material, despite theoretical prediction. Unexpectedly large homogeneous widths, due to surface carrier trapping, in the nominally discrete crystallite excited states appear to be involved. The CuCl system shows far narrower spectroscopic homogeneous widths, and corresponds more closely to an ideal quantum dot in the weak confinement limit. CuCl also exhibits exciton superradiance at low temperature. Surface chemistry and crystallite encapsulation are critical in achieving the predicted large Stark and third order optical effects in II-VI and III-V crystallites.

978 citations