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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3892/BR.2021.1418

Nanotechnology and its use in imaging and drug delivery (Review)

05 Mar 2021-Biomedical Reports (Spandidos Publications)-Vol. 14, Iss: 5, pp 42-42
Abstract: Nanotechnology is the exploitation of the unique properties of materials at the nanoscale. Nanotechnology has gained popularity in several industries, as it offers better built and smarter products. The application of nanotechnology in medicine and healthcare is referred to as nanomedicine, and it has been used to combat some of the most common diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The present review provides an overview of the recent advances of nanotechnology in the aspects of imaging and drug delivery.

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Topics: Nanomedicine (54%)
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8 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CHEMOSENSORS9040067
30 Mar 2021-
Abstract: Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the world’s leading cause of mortality and represent a large contributor to the costs of medical care. Although tremendous progress has been made for the diagnosis of CVDs, there is an important need for more effective early diagnosis and the design of novel diagnostic methods. The diagnosis of CVDs generally relies on signs and symptoms depending on molecular imaging (MI) or on CVD-associated biomarkers. For early-stage CVDs, however, the reliability, specificity, and accuracy of the analysis is still problematic. Because of their unique chemical and physical properties, nanomaterial systems have been recognized as potential candidates to enhance the functional use of diagnostic instruments. Nanomaterials such as gold nanoparticles, carbon nanotubes, quantum dots, lipids, and polymeric nanoparticles represent novel sources to target CVDs. The special properties of nanomaterials including surface energy and topographies actively enhance the cellular response within CVDs. The availability of newly advanced techniques in nanomaterial science opens new avenues for the targeting of CVDs. The successful application of nanomaterials for CVDs needs a detailed understanding of both the disease and targeting moieties.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PH14050486
Goeun Choi1, Huiyan Piao1, N. Sanoj Rejinold1, Seungjin Yu1  +4 moreInstitutions (2)
19 May 2021-Pharmaceuticals
Abstract: COVID-19 has been affecting millions of individuals worldwide and, thus far, there is no accurate therapeutic strategy. This critical situation necessitates novel formulations for already existing, FDA approved, but poorly absorbable drug candidates, such as niclosamide (NIC), which is of great relevance. In this context, we have rationally designed NIC-loaded hydrotalcite composite nanohybrids, which were further coated with Tween 60 or hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose (HPMC), and characterized them in vitro. The optimized nanohybrids showed particle sizes <300 nm and were orally administrated to rats to determine whether they could retain an optimum plasma therapeutic concentration of NIC that would be effective for treating COVID-19. The pharmacokinetic (PK) results clearly indicated that hydrotalcite-based NIC formulations could be highly potential options for treating the ongoing pandemic and we are on our way to understanding the in vivo anti-viral efficacy sooner. It is worth mentioning that hydrotalcite-NIC nanohybrids maintained a therapeutic NIC level, even above the required IC50 value, after just a single administration in 8-12 h. In conclusion, we were very successfully able to develop a NIC oral formulation by immobilizing with hydrotalcite nanoparticles, which were further coated with Tween 60 or HPMC, in order to enhance their emulsification in the gastrointestinal tract.

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3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.4236/PP.2021.126011
Abstract: Cancer is a set of diseases including abnormal growth of cells that can spread to another tissue. Verbascoside (or acteoside) is a naturally occurring, water-soluble secondary metabolite with significant biological properties, which is distributed widely in plant kingdom. Verbascoside is pharmacologically active compounds with many recent evidences that support its biological activities and safety. This review focuses on the recent studies that concerned with the antitumor activities of verbascoside alone and as a synergistic agent as well as nanoproduct. It also shows the latest advances in its antitumor effects, cytotoxic selectivity and its efficiencies in treating cancer, in vitro and/or vivo.

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Topics: Verbascoside (57%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S40580-021-00288-1
30 Nov 2021-Nano Convergence
Abstract: Nanoparticles have drawn intense interest as delivery agents for diagnosing and treating various cancers. Much of the early success was driven by passive targeting mechanisms such as the enhanced permeability and retention (EPR) effect, but this has failed to lead to the expected clinical successes. Active targeting involves binding interactions between the nanoparticle and cancer cells, which promotes tumor cell-specific accumulation and internalization. Furthermore, nanoparticles are large enough to facilitate multiple bond formation, which can improve adhesive properties substantially in comparison to the single bond case. While multivalent binding is universally believed to be an attribute of nanoparticles, it is a complex process that is still poorly understood and difficult to control. In this review, we will first discuss experimental studies that have elucidated roles for parameters such as nanoparticle size and shape, targeting ligand and target receptor densities, and monovalent binding kinetics on multivalent nanoparticle adhesion efficiency and cellular internalization. Although such experimental studies are very insightful, information is limited and confounded by numerous differences across experimental systems. Thus, we focus the second part of the review on theoretical aspects of binding, including kinetics, biomechanics, and transport physics. Finally, we discuss various computational and simulation studies of nanoparticle adhesion, including advanced treatments that compare directly to experimental results. Future work will ideally continue to combine experimental data and advanced computational studies to extend our knowledge of multivalent adhesion, as well as design the most powerful nanoparticle-based agents to treat cancer.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COCHE.2021.100709
Paul Westerhoff1, Pedro J. J. Alvarez2, Jae-Hong Kim3, Qilin Li2  +5 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Clean water is critical for drinking, industrial processes, and aquatic organisms. Existing water treatment and infrastructure are chemically intensive and based on nearly century-old technologies that fail to meet modern large and decentralized communities. The next-generation of water processes can transition from outdated technologies by utilizing nanomaterials to harness energy from across the electromagnetic spectrum, enabling electrified and solar-based technologies. The last decade was marked by tremendous improvements in nanomaterial design, synthesis, characterization, and assessment of material properties. Realizing the benefits of these advances requires placing greater attention on embedding nanomaterials onto and into surfaces within reactors and applying external energy sources. This will allow nanomaterial-based processes to replace Victorian-aged, chemical intensive water treatment technologies.

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76 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3322/CAAC.21166
Abstract: Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths expected in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival based on incidence data from the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data from the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,660,290 new cancer cases and 580,350 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2013. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2005-2009), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.5% per year in women. Overall, cancer death rates have declined 20% from their peak in 1991 (215.1 per 100,000 population) to 2009 (173.1 per 100,000 population). Death rates continue to decline for all 4 major cancer sites (lung, colorectum, breast, and prostate). Over the past 10 years of data (2000-2009), the largest annual declines in death rates were for chronic myeloid leukemia (8.4%), cancers of the stomach (3.1%) and colorectum (3.0%), and non-Hodgkin lymphoma (3.0%). The reduction in overall cancer death rates since 1990 in men and 1991 in women translates to the avoidance of approximately 1.18 million deaths from cancer, with 152,900 of these deaths averted in 2009 alone. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population, with an emphasis on those groups in the lowest socioeconomic bracket and other underserved populations.

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Topics: Mortality rate (62%), Cancer (59%), Population (54%)

11,209 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BIOMATERIALS.2004.10.012
Ajay Kumar Gupta1, Mona Gupta2Institutions (2)
01 Jun 2005-Biomaterials
Abstract: Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with appropriate surface chemistry have been widely used experimentally for numerous in vivo applications such as magnetic resonance imaging contrast enhancement, tissue repair, immunoassay, detoxification of biological fluids, hyperthermia, drug delivery and in cell separation, etc. All these biomedical and bioengineering applications require that these nanoparticles have high magnetization values and size smaller than 100 nm with overall narrow particle size distribution, so that the particles have uniform physical and chemical properties. In addition, these applications need special surface coating of the magnetic particles, which has to be not only non-toxic and biocompatible but also allow a targetable delivery with particle localization in a specific area. To this end, most work in this field has been done in improving the biocompatibility of the materials, but only a few scientific investigations and developments have been carried out in improving the quality of magnetic particles, their size distribution, their shape and surface in addition to characterizing them to get a protocol for the quality control of these particles. Nature of surface coatings and their subsequent geometric arrangement on the nanoparticles determine not only the overall size of the colloid but also play a significant role in biokinetics and biodistribution of nanoparticles in the body. The types of specific coating, or derivatization, for these nanoparticles depend on the end application and should be chosen by keeping a particular application in mind, whether it be aimed at inflammation response or anti-cancer agents. Magnetic nanoparticles can bind to drugs, proteins, enzymes, antibodies, or nucleotides and can be directed to an organ, tissue, or tumour using an external magnetic field or can be heated in alternating magnetic fields for use in hyperthermia. This review discusses the synthetic chemistry, fluid stabilization and surface modification of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles, as well as their use for above biomedical applications.

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Topics: Magnetic nanoparticles (61%), Iron oxide nanoparticles (61%), Surface coating (61%) ... show more

5,812 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1116/1.2815690
Cristina Buzea1, Ivan Pacheco1, Kevin Robbie1Institutions (1)
28 Dec 2007-Biointerphases
Abstract: This review is presented as a common foundation for scientists interested in nanoparticles, their origin, activity, and biological toxicity. It is written with the goal of rationalizing and informing public health concerns related to this sometimes-strange new science of “nano,” while raising awareness of nanomaterials’ toxicity among scientists and manufacturers handling them. We show that humans have always been exposed to tiny particles via dust storms, volcanic ash, and other natural processes, and that our bodily systems are well adapted to protect us from these potentially harmful intruders. The reticuloendothelial system, in particular, actively neutralizes and eliminates foreign matter in the body, including viruses and nonbiological particles. Particles originating from human activities have existed for millennia, e.g., smoke from combustion and lint from garments, but the recent development of industry and combustion-based engine transportation has profoundly increased anthropogenic particulate pollution. Significantly, technological advancement has also changed the character of particulate pollution, increasing the proportion of nanometer-sized particles-“nanoparticles”-and expanding the variety of chemical compositions. Recent epidemiological studies have shown a strong correlation between particulate air pollution levels, respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, various cancers, and mortality. Adverse effects of nanoparticles on human health depend on individual factors such as genetics and existing disease, as well as exposure, and nanoparticle chemistry, size, shape, agglomeration state, and electromagnetic properties. Animal and human studies show that inhaled nanoparticles are less efficiently removed than larger particles by the macrophage clearance mechanisms in the lungs, causing lung damage, and that nanoparticles can translocate through the circulatory, lymphatic, and nervous systems to many tissues and organs, including the brain. The key to understanding the toxicity of nanoparticles is that their minute size, smaller than cells and cellular organelles, allows them to penetrate these basic biological structures, disrupting their normal function. Examples of toxic effects include tissue inflammation, and altered cellular redox balance toward oxidation, causing abnormal function or cell death. The manipulation of matter at the scale of atoms, “nanotechnology,” is creating many new materials with characteristics not always easily predicted from current knowledge. Within the nearly limitless diversity of these materials, some happen to be toxic to biological systems, others are relatively benign, while others confer health benefits. Some of these materials have desirable characteristics for industrial applications, as nanostructured materials often exhibit beneficial properties, from UV absorbance in sunscreen to oil-less lubrication of motors. A rational science-based approach is needed to minimize harm caused by these materials, while supporting continued study and appropriate industrial development. As current knowledge of the toxicology of “bulk” materials may not suffice in reliably predicting toxic forms of nanoparticles, ongoing and expanded study of “nanotoxicity” will be necessary. For nanotechnologies with clearly associated health risks, intelligent design of materials and devices is needed to derive the benefits of these new technologies while limiting adverse health impacts. Human exposure to toxic nanoparticles can be reduced through identifying creation-exposure pathways of toxins, a study that may someday soon unravel the mysteries of diseases such as Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s. Reduction in fossil fuel combustion would have a large impact on global human exposure to nanoparticles, as would limiting deforestation and desertification. While nanotoxicity is a relatively new concept to science, this review reveals the result of life’s long history of evolution in the presence of nanoparticles, and how the human body, in particular, has adapted to defend itself against nanoparticulate intruders.

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2,206 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ADDR.2008.03.018
Conroy Sun1, Jerry S.H. Lee, Miqin Zhang1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) possess unique magnetic properties and the ability to function at the cellular and molecular level of biological interactions making them an attractive platform as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as carriers for drug delivery. Recent advances in nanotechnology have improved the ability to specifically tailor the features and properties of MNPs for these biomedical applications. To better address specific clinical needs, MNPs with higher magnetic moments, non-fouling surfaces, and increased functionalities are now being developed for applications in the detection, diagnosis, and treatment of malignant tumors, cardiovascular disease, and neurological disease. Through the incorporation of highly specific targeting agents and other functional ligands, such as fluorophores and permeation enhancers, the applicability and efficacy of these MNPs have greatly increased. This review provides a background on applications of MNPs as MR imaging contrast agents and as carriers for drug delivery and an overview of the recent developments in this area of research.

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Topics: Drug delivery (50%)

2,099 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/TOXSCI/KFG243
Abstract: Nanomaterials are part of an industrial revolution to develop lightweight but strong materials for a variety of purposes. Single-wall carbon nanotubes are an important member of this class of materials. They structurally resemble rolled-up graphite sheets, usually with one end capped; individually they are about 1 nm in diameter and several microns long, but they often pack tightly together to form rods or ropes of microscopic sizes. Carbon nanotubes possess unique electrical, mechanical, and thermal properties and have many potential applications in the electronics, computer, and aerospace industries. Unprocessed nanotubes are very light and could become airborne and potentially reach the lungs. Because the toxicity of nanotubes in the lung is not known, their pulmonary toxicity was investigated. The three products studied were made by different methods and contained different types and amounts of residual catalytic metals. Mice were intratracheally instilled with 0, 0.1, or 0.5 mg of carbon nanotubes, a carbon black negative control, or a quartz positive control and euthanized 7 d or 90 d after the single treatment for histopathological study of the lungs. All nanotube products induced dose-dependent epithelioid granulomas and, in some cases, interstitial inflammation in the animals of the 7-d groups. These lesions persisted and were more pronounced in the 90-d groups; the lungs of some animals also revealed peribronchial inflammation and necrosis that had extended into the alveolar septa. The lungs of mice treated with carbon black were normal, whereas those treated with high-dose quartz revealed mild to moderate inflammation. These results show that, for the test conditions described here and on an equal-weight basis, if carbon nanotubes reach the lungs, they are much more toxic than carbon black and can be more toxic than quartz, which is considered a serious occupational health hazard in chronic inhalation exposures.

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1,882 Citations


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