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Journal ArticleDOI

Natural hdr image tone mapping based on retinex

01 Nov 2011-IEEE Transactions on Consumer Electronics (IEEE)-Vol. 57, Iss: 4, pp 1807-1814
TL;DR: New k factor decision method and highlight compression operator are proposed to enhance the appearance and naturalness of rendered High Dynamic Range (HDR) images and shows better rendering in terms of naturalness and dark area details than the previous tone-mapping algorithm.
Abstract: In this paper, new k factor decision method and highlight compression operator are proposed to enhance the appearance and naturalness of rendered High Dynamic Range (HDR) images. The retinex algorithm is one of the outstanding local operators, which well preserves local contrast in highlights. However, the retinex algorithm gives a worse overall appearance and undistinguishable dark area contrast than global operators or other local operators in some cases. The most prominent improvement of the proposed method is that the decision method of the k factor, which is one of the parameters in retinex algorithm, is proposed by using the dynamic range in images. The proposed parameter decision method enhances the overall quality and preference of the image and solves any parameter setting problems. Also, dark area details become more distinguishable by the highlight compression operator. According to the results of many HDR image experiments, the proposed method shows better rendering in terms of naturalness and dark area details than the previous tone-mapping algorithm.1.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Shutao Li1, Xudong Kang1
TL;DR: A weighted sum based multi-exposure image fusion method which consists of three image features composed of local contrast, brightness and color dissimilarity are first measured to estimate the weight maps refined by recursive filtering to obtain accurate weight maps for image fusion.
Abstract: This paper proposes a weighted sum based multi-exposure image fusion method which consists of two main steps: three image features composed of local contrast, brightness and color dissimilarity are first measured to estimate the weight maps refined by recursive filtering. Then, the fused image is constructed by weighted sum of source images. The main advantage of the proposed method lies in a recursive filter based weight map refinement step which is able to obtain accurate weight maps for image fusion. Another advantage is that a novel histogram equalization and median filter based motion detection method is proposed for fusing multi-exposure images in dynamic scenes which contain motion objects. Furthermore, the proposed method is quite fast and thus can be directly used for most consumer cameras. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the proposed method in terms of subjective and objective evaluation.

227 citations


Cites methods from "Natural hdr image tone mapping base..."

  • ...proposes a tone mapping method based on Retinex model [4]....

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  • ...Many effective tone mapping methods have been proposed [4]-[6]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Quality assessment using both quantitative evaluations and user studies suggests that the presented algorithm produces tone-mapped images that are visually pleasant and preserve details of the original image better than the existing methods.
Abstract: High-dynamic-range (HDR) images require tone mapping to be displayed properly on lower dynamic range devices. In this paper, a tone-mapping algorithm that uses histogram of luminance to construct a lookup table (LUT) for tone mapping is presented. Characteristics of the human visual system (HVS) are used to give more importance to visually distinguishable intensities while constructing the histogram bins. The method begins with constructing a histogram of the luminance channel, using bins that are perceived to be uniformly spaced by the HVS. Next, a refinement step is used, which removes the pixels from the bins that are indistinguishable by the HVS. Finally, the available display levels are distributed among the bins proportionate to the pixels counts thus giving due consideration to the visual contribution of each bin in the image. Quality assessment using both quantitative evaluations and user studies suggests that the presented algorithm produces tone-mapped images that are visually pleasant and preserve details of the original image better than the existing methods. Finally, implementation details of the algorithm on GPU for parallel processing are presented, which could achieve a significant gain in speed over CPU-based implementation.

73 citations


Cites background from "Natural hdr image tone mapping base..."

  • ...Local tone-mapping algorithms, in general, are good at preserving the details by utilizing the local features in each region; however, they may induce halo and other artefacts [15]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The main aim of this paper is to study image enhancement by using sparse and redundant representations of the reflectance component in the Retinex model over a learned dictionary to provide better visual quality of the enhanced high-contrast images than the other variational methods.
Abstract: The main aim of this paper is to study image enhancement by using sparse and redundant representations of the reflectance component in the Retinex model over a learned dictionary. This approach is different from existing variational methods, and the advantage of this approach is that the reflectance component in the Retinex model can be represented with more details by the dictionary. A variational method based on the dynamic dictionaries is adopted here, where it changes with respect to iterations of the enhancement algorithm. Numerical examples are also reported to demonstrate that the proposed methods can provide better visual quality of the enhanced high-contrast images than the other variational methods, i.e., revealing more details in the low-light part.

33 citations


Cites background from "Natural hdr image tone mapping base..."

  • ...There are also some Retinex-based methods to study how to display the high dynamic range images better on the traditional low dynamic range devices.(14,15) In the literature, a number of approaches have been developed for implementing the Retinex theory, for instance, the path-based algorithms,(2,3,16) the recursive algorithms,(17,18) the single-scale Retinex model,(19) the multiscale Retinex (MSR) model,(20) the partial differential equation (PDE)-based algorithm,(8) and several variational methods....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a large scale HDR image benchmark dataset (LVZ-HDR dataset) is created to enable performance evaluation of TMOs across a diverse conditions and scenes that will also contribute to facilitate the development of more robust TMO operators using state-of-the-art deep learning methods.
Abstract: Currently published tone mapping operators (TMO) are often evaluated on a very limited test set of high dynamic range (HDR) images. Thus, the resulting performance index is highly subject to extensive hyperparameter tuning, and many TMOs exhibit sub-optimal performance when tested on a broader spectrum of HDR images. This indicates that there are deficiencies in the generalizable applicability of these techniques. Finally, it is a challenge developing parameter-free tone mapping operators using data-hungry advanced deep learning methods due to the paucity of large scale HDR datasets. In this paper, these issues are addressed through the following contributions: a) a large scale HDR image benchmark dataset (LVZ-HDR dataset) with multiple variations in sceneries and lighting conditions is created to enable performance evaluation of TMOs across a diverse conditions and scenes that will also contribute to facilitate the development of more robust TMOs using state-of-the-art deep learning methods; b) a deep learning-based tone mapping operator (TMO-Net) is presented, which offers an efficient and parameter-free method capable of generalizing effectively across a wider spectrum of HDR content; c) finally, a comparative analysis, and performance benchmarking of 19 state-of-the-art TMOs on the new LVZ-HDR dataset are presented. Standard metrics including the Tone Mapping Quality Index (TMQI), Feature Similarity Index for Tone Mapped images (FSITM), and Natural Image Quality Evaluator (NIQE) are used to qualitatively evaluate the performance index of the benchmarked TMOs. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed TMO-Net qualitatively and quantitatively outperforms current state-of-the-art TMOs.

25 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently enhance the contrast of backlit images without the oversaturation problem and can be applied to enhance very low light-level video sequences for video surveillance systems.
Abstract: This paper presents a dark region detection and enhancement method with low computational complexity for low-cost imaging devices. Conventional contrast enhancement methods generally have an oversaturation problem while brightness of the dark region increases. To solve this problem, the proposed method first divides an input image into dark object and bright background regions using adaptively partitioned blocks. Next, the contrast stretching is performed only in the dark region. The major advantage of the proposed method is the minimized block artifacts using optimally partitioned blocks using fuzzy logic and a refining step to accurately detect boundaries between two regions. Experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently enhance the contrast of backlit images without the oversaturation problem. Because of low computational complexity, the proposed method can be applied to enhance very low light-level video sequences for video surveillance systems.

18 citations


Cites methods from "Natural hdr image tone mapping base..."

  • ...The retinexbased method can be considered as a locally adaptive contrast enhancement method that reduces the illumination dependency and stretches the dynamic range of only reflectance component using a Gaussian filter (Kim et al. 2011)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The mathematics of a lightness scheme that generates lightness numbers, the biologic correlate of reflectance, independent of the flux from objects is described.
Abstract: Sensations of color show a strong correlation with reflectance, even though the amount of visible light reaching the eye depends on the product of reflectance and illumination. The visual system must achieve this remarkable result by a scheme that does not measure flux. Such a scheme is described as the basis of retinex theory. This theory assumes that there are three independent cone systems, each starting with a set of receptors peaking, respectively, in the long-, middle-, and short-wavelength regions of the visible spectrum. Each system forms a separate image of the world in terms of lightness that shows a strong correlation with reflectance within its particular band of wavelengths. These images are not mixed, but rather are compared to generate color sensations. The problem then becomes how the lightness of areas in these separate images can be independent of flux. This article describes the mathematics of a lightness scheme that generates lightness numbers, the biologic correlate of reflectance, independent of the flux from objects

3,480 citations


"Natural hdr image tone mapping base..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The retinex is one of the local operators that reflects HVS well [11], [12]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2002
TL;DR: The work presented in this paper leverages the time-tested techniques of photographic practice to develop a new tone reproduction operator and uses and extends the techniques developed by Ansel Adams to deal with digital images.
Abstract: A classic photographic task is the mapping of the potentially high dynamic range of real world luminances to the low dynamic range of the photographic print. This tone reproduction problem is also faced by computer graphics practitioners who map digital images to a low dynamic range print or screen. The work presented in this paper leverages the time-tested techniques of photographic practice to develop a new tone reproduction operator. In particular, we use and extend the techniques developed by Ansel Adams to deal with digital images. The resulting algorithm is simple and produces good results for a wide variety of images.

1,708 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A practical implementation of the retinex is defined without particular concern for its validity as a model for human lightness and color perception, and the trade-off between rendition and dynamic range compression that is governed by the surround space constant is described.
Abstract: The last version of Land's (1986) retinex model for human vision's lightness and color constancy has been implemented and tested in image processing experiments. Previous research has established the mathematical foundations of Land's retinex but has not subjected his lightness theory to extensive image processing experiments. We have sought to define a practical implementation of the retinex without particular concern for its validity as a model for human lightness and color perception. We describe the trade-off between rendition and dynamic range compression that is governed by the surround space constant. Further, unlike previous results, we find that the placement of the logarithmic function is important and produces best results when placed after the surround formation. Also unlike previous results, we find the best rendition for a "canonical" gain/offset applied after the retinex operation. Various functional forms for the retinex surround are evaluated, and a Gaussian form is found to perform better than the inverse square suggested by Land. Images that violate the gray world assumptions (implicit to this retinex) are investigated to provide insight into cases where this retinex fails to produce a good rendition.

1,674 citations


"Natural hdr image tone mapping base..." refers background in this paper

  • ...With a larger filter size, local contrast and rendition of image is enhanced, and dynamic range compression is sacrificed [19]....

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Book
28 May 2010
TL;DR: The Human Visual System and HDR Tone Mapping and Frequency Domain and Gradient Domain Tone Reproduction and an Image-Based Lighting List of Symbols References Index are presented.
Abstract: Foreword Preface 1 Introduction 2 Light And Color 3 HDR Image Encodings 4 HDR Image Capture 5 Display Devices 6 The Human Visual System and HDR Tone Mapping 7 Spatial Tone Reproduction 8 Frequency Domain and Gradient Domain Tone Reproduction 9 Image-Based Lighting List of Symbols References Index

1,484 citations


"Natural hdr image tone mapping base..." refers background in this paper

  • ...In the same manner, the k factor in SSR is also a remarkably important element and, by its use, a tradeoff exists between dynamic range compression and artifact [2]....

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  • ...This is because conventional displays can represent just a range of luminance about 100:1 cd/m(2), while luminance of the real world has a range of 100,000,000:1 cd/m(2) and human eyes can percept a range of luminance about 10,000:1 cd/m(2) by our visual system by adaptation [2]....

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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2002
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that the method is capable of drastic dynamic range compression, while preserving fine details and avoiding common artifacts, such as halos, gradient reversals, or loss of local contrast.
Abstract: We present a new method for rendering high dynamic range images on conventional displays. Our method is conceptually simple, computationally efficient, robust, and easy to use. We manipulate the gradient field of the luminance image by attenuating the magnitudes of large gradients. A new, low dynamic range image is then obtained by solving a Poisson equation on the modified gradient field. Our results demonstrate that the method is capable of drastic dynamic range compression, while preserving fine details and avoiding common artifacts, such as halos, gradient reversals, or loss of local contrast. The method is also able to significantly enhance ordinary images by bringing out detail in dark regions.

1,441 citations


"Natural hdr image tone mapping base..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...[21] is the representative operator processed in the frequency domain....

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  • ...In the paper [21], 6 TMOs (retinex, sigmoid function, histogram adjustment, iCAM, photographic reproduction, bilateral filter) are evaluated by 6 attributes (highlight details, shadow details, overall contrast, sharpness, colorfulness, lack of artifact)....

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