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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.6004/JNCCN.2021.0013

NCCN Guidelines Insights: Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer, Version 2.2021

02 Mar 2021-Journal of The National Comprehensive Cancer Network (Cold Spring Publishing LLC)-Vol. 19, Iss: 3, pp 254-266
Abstract: The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology (NCCN Guidelines) for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) address all aspects of management for NSCLC. These NCCN Guidelines Insights focus on recent updates to the NCCN Guidelines regarding targeted therapies, immunotherapies, and their respective biomarkers.

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65 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S13045-021-01063-9
Abstract: The recent approvals by the Food and Drug Administration several tumor-agnostic drugs have resulted in a paradigm shift in cancer treatment from an organ/histology-specific strategy to biomarker-guided approaches. RET gene fusions are oncogenic drivers in multiple tumor types and are known to occur in 1–2% of non-squamous NSCLC patients. RET gene fusions give rise to chimeric, cytosolic proteins with constitutively active RET kinase domain. Standard therapeutic regimens provide limited benefit for NSCLC patients with RET fusion-positive tumors, and the outcomes with immunotherapy in the these patients are generally poor. Selpercatinib (LOXO-292) and pralsetinib (BLU-667) are potent and selective inhibitors that target RET alterations, including fusions and mutations, irrespective of the tissue of origin. Recently, the results from the LIBRETTO-001 and ARROW clinical trials demonstrated significant clinical benefits with selpercatinib and pralsetinib respectively, in NSCLC patients with RET gene fusions, with tolerable toxicity profiles. These studies also demonstrated that these RET-TKIs crossed the blood brain barrier with significant activity. As has been observed with other TKIs, the emergence of acquired resistance may limit long-term efficacy of these agents. Therefore, understanding the mechanisms of resistance is necessary for the development of strategies to overcome them.

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4 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13112603
26 May 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Multimodality therapy for locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a complex and controversial issue, especially regarding optimal treatment regimens for patients with ipsilateral positive mediastinal nodes (N2 disease) Many trials investigating neoadjuvant immunotherapy and targeted therapy in this subpopulation have shown promising results, although concerns have risen regarding surgical feasibility A thorough literature review was performed, analyzing all recent studies regarding surgical morbidity and mortality Despite the fact that two major trials investigating this subject were terminated early, the overall consensus is that surgical management seems feasible However, dissection of hilar vessels may be challenging due to hilar fibrosis Further research is necessary to identify the role of surgery in these multimodality treatment regimens, and to define matters such as the optimal treatment regimen, the dosage of the different agents used, the interval between induction therapy and surgery, and the role of adjuvant therapy

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Topics: Multimodality Therapy (62%), Adjuvant therapy (61%), Targeted therapy (59%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.LUNGCAN.2021.08.001
Parth Shah1, Jacob Sands2, Nicola NormannoInstitutions (2)
05 Aug 2021-Lung Cancer
Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation testing in advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has evolved rapidly over the past decade, largely triggered by the introduction of the targeted EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Initially used to detect common EGFR mutations and determine the most appropriate first-line therapy at diagnosis, testing methodologies have expanded to test for multiple mutations at multiple time points throughout the disease course. Here we review the current mutation testing approaches, including types of biopsies, and the available assays commonly used in the clinic. Specific application of these approaches in advanced NSCLC, including current guideline recommendations, and potential future developments are discussed.

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2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41379-021-00880-0
Lawrence Hsu Lin1, Douglas H R Allison1, Yang Feng1, George Jour1  +9 moreInstitutions (1)
06 Aug 2021-Modern Pathology
Abstract: Screening for therapeutic targets is standard of care in the management of advanced non-small cell lung cancer. However, most molecular assays utilize tumor tissue, which may not always be available. “Liquid biopsies” are plasma-based next generation sequencing (NGS) assays that use circulating tumor DNA to identify relevant targets. To compare the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of a plasma-based NGS assay to solid-tumor-based NGS we retrospectively analyzed sequencing results of 100 sequential patients with lung adenocarcinoma at our institution who had received concurrent testing with both a solid-tissue-based NGS assay and a commercially available plasma-based NGS assay. Patients represented both new diagnoses (79%) and disease progression on treatment (21%); the majority (83%) had stage IV disease. Tissue-NGS identified 74 clinically relevant mutations, including 52 therapeutic targets, a sensitivity of 94.8%, while plasma-NGS identified 41 clinically relevant mutations, a sensitivity of 52.6% (p < 0.001). Tissue-NGS showed significantly higher sensitivity and accuracy across multiple patient subgroups, both in newly diagnosed and treated patients, as well as in metastatic and nonmetastatic disease. Discrepant cases involved hotspot mutations and actionable fusions including those in EGFR, ALK, and NTRK1. In summary, tissue-NGS detects significantly more clinically relevant alterations and therapeutic targets compared to plasma-NGS, suggesting that tissue-NGS should be the preferred method for molecular testing of lung adenocarcinoma when tissue is available. Plasma-NGS can still play an important role when tissue testing is not possible. However, given its low sensitivity, a negative result should be confirmed with a tissue-based assay.

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Topics: Liquid biopsy (53%), Gene mutation (51%), Adenocarcinoma (51%)

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FGENE.2021.723670
Jun Lu1, Yanwei Zhang1, Yuqing Lou1, Bo Yan1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Atezolizumab, an immune checkpoint inhibitor, has been approved for use in clinical practice in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients, but potential biomarkers for response stratification still need further screening. In the present study, a total of 399 patients with high-quality ctDNA profiling results were included. The mutation status of ubiquitin-like conjugation (UBL) biological process genes (including ABL1, APC, LRP6, FUBP1, KEAP1, and TOP2A) and clinical information were further integrated. The results suggested that the patients with the clinical characteristics of male or history of smoking had a higher frequency of UBL mutation positivity [UBL (+)]; the patients who were UBL (+) had shorter progression-free survival (PFS) (1.69 vs. 3.22 months, p = 0.0007) and overall survival (8.61 vs. 16.10 months, p < 0.0001) than those patients with UBL mutation negativity [UBL (-)]; and more promising predictive values were shown in the smoker subgroup and ≤ 3 metastasis subgroup. More interestingly, we found the predictor has more performance in TP53-negative cohorts [training in an independent POPLAR and OAK cohorts (n = 200), and validation in an independent MSKCC cohort (n = 127)]. Overall, this study provides a predictor, UBL biological process gene mutation status, not only for identifying NSCLC patients who may respond to atezolizumab therapy but also for screening out the potential NSCLC responders who received other immune checkpoint inhibitors.

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Topics: Gene mutation (55%), Atezolizumab (55%)

1 Citations


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53 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1606774
Abstract: BackgroundPembrolizumab is a humanized monoclonal antibody against programmed death 1 (PD-1) that has antitumor activity in advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), with increased activity in tumors that express programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1). MethodsIn this open-label, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 305 patients who had previously untreated advanced NSCLC with PD-L1 expression on at least 50% of tumor cells and no sensitizing mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene or translocation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene to receive either pembrolizumab (at a fixed dose of 200 mg every 3 weeks) or the investigator’s choice of platinum-based chemotherapy. Crossover from the chemotherapy group to the pembrolizumab group was permitted in the event of disease progression. The primary end point, progression-free survival, was assessed by means of blinded, independent, central radiologic review. Secondary end points were overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. ResultsMedi...

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Topics: Pembrolizumab (65%), Lung cancer (58%), Avelumab (56%) ... show more

5,332 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1801005
Abstract: Background First-line therapy for advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) that lacks targetable mutations is platinum-based chemotherapy. Among patients with a tumor proportion score for programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) of 50% or greater, pembrolizumab has replaced cytotoxic chemotherapy as the first-line treatment of choice. The addition of pembrolizumab to chemotherapy resulted in significantly higher rates of response and longer progression-free survival than chemotherapy alone in a phase 2 trial. Methods In this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned (in a 2:1 ratio) 616 patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC without sensitizing EGFR or ALK mutations who had received no previous treatment for metastatic disease to receive pemetrexed and a platinum-based drug plus either 200 mg of pembrolizumab or placebo every 3 weeks for 4 cycles, followed by pembrolizumab or placebo for up to a total of 35 cycles plus pemetrexed maintenance therapy. Crossover to pembrolizumab monotherapy...

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Topics: Pembrolizumab (65%), Pemetrexed (56%), Nivolumab (54%) ... show more

2,674 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1713137
Abstract: BackgroundOsimertinib is an oral, third-generation, irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) that selectively inhibits both EGFR-TKI–sensitizing and EGFR T790M resistance mutations. We compared osimertinib with standard EGFR-TKIs in patients with previously untreated, EGFR mutation–positive advanced non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). MethodsIn this double-blind, phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned 556 patients with previously untreated, EGFR mutation–positive (exon 19 deletion or L858R) advanced NSCLC in a 1:1 ratio to receive either osimertinib (at a dose of 80 mg once daily) or a standard EGFR-TKI (gefitinib at a dose of 250 mg once daily or erlotinib at a dose of 150 mg once daily). The primary end point was investigator-assessed progression-free survival. ResultsThe median progression-free survival was significantly longer with osimertinib than with standard EGFR-TKIs (18.9 months vs. 10.2 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.46; 95% confi...

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Topics: Osimertinib (73%), Gefitinib (60%), T790M (59%) ... show more

1,982 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1801946
Abstract: Background Nivolumab plus ipilimumab showed promising efficacy for the treatment of non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) in a phase 1 trial, and tumor mutational burden has emerged as a potential biomarker of benefit. In this part of an open-label, multipart, phase 3 trial, we examined progression-free survival with nivolumab plus ipilimumab versus chemotherapy among patients with a high tumor mutational burden (≥10 mutations per megabase). Methods We enrolled patients with stage IV or recurrent NSCLC that was not previously treated with chemotherapy. Those with a level of tumor programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression of at least 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab monotherapy, or chemotherapy; those with a tumor PD-L1 expression level of less than 1% were randomly assigned, in a 1:1:1 ratio, to receive nivolumab plus ipilimumab, nivolumab plus chemotherapy, or chemotherapy. Tumor mutational burden was determined by the FoundationOne CDx...

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Topics: Nivolumab (67%), Ipilimumab (65%), Lung cancer (53%)

1,687 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA1716948
Abstract: Background The cancer-cell–killing property of atezolizumab may be enhanced by the blockade of vascular endothelial growth factor–mediated immunosuppression with bevacizumab. This open-label, phase 3 study evaluated atezolizumab plus bevacizumab plus chemotherapy in patients with metastatic nonsquamous non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who had not previously received chemotherapy. Methods We randomly assigned patients to receive atezolizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (ACP), bevacizumab plus carboplatin plus paclitaxel (BCP), or atezolizumab plus BCP (ABCP) every 3 weeks for four or six cycles, followed by maintenance therapy with atezolizumab, bevacizumab, or both. The two primary end points were investigator-assessed progression-free survival both among patients in the intention-to-treat population who had a wild-type genotype (WT population; patients with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations were excluded) and among patients in the WT population who had high expression of an effector T-cell (Teff) gene signature in the tumor (Teff-high WT population) and overall survival in the WT population. The ABCP group was compared with the BCP group before the ACP group was compared with the BCP group. Results In the WT population, 356 patients were assigned to the ABCP group, and 336 to the BCP group. The median progression-free survival was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (8.3 months vs. 6.8 months; hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.52 to 0.74; P<0.001); the corresponding values in the Teff-high WT population were 11.3 months and 6.8 months (hazard ratio, 0.51 [95% CI, 0.38 to 0.68]; P<0.001). Progression-free survival was also longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group in the entire intention-to-treat population (including those with EGFR or ALK genetic alterations) and among patients with low or negative programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression, those with low Teff gene-signature expression, and those with liver metastases. Median overall survival among the patients in the WT population was longer in the ABCP group than in the BCP group (19.2 months vs. 14.7 months; hazard ratio for death, 0.78; 95% CI, 0.64 to 0.96; P=0.02). The safety profile of ABCP was consistent with previously reported safety risks of the individual medicines. Conclusions The addition of atezolizumab to bevacizumab plus chemotherapy significantly improved progression-free survival and overall survival among patients with metastatic nonsquamous NSCLC, regardless of PD-L1 expression and EGFR or ALK genetic alteration status. (Funded by F. Hoffmann–La Roche/Genentech; IMpower150 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT02366143.)

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Topics: Atezolizumab (57%), Population (55%), Hazard ratio (50%)

1,612 Citations