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Book ChapterDOI

Neologisms in Contemporary Persian Approved by the Academy of Persian Language and Literature: A Case Study of Epidemiology Terms

01 Jan 2021-pp 81-103
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors identify ten terms in the field of epidemiology related to the outbreak of the Corona pandemic in 2020 and classify them into three groups: (1) terms that have no previously existing equivalent approved by the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL), (2) terms for which the APLL has approved Persian equivalents but which are still in use in parallel with foreign ones.
Abstract: Amid the openness we witness in the world, it is difficult to control the mixing of foreign terms and loanwords that enter into the vocabulary of other languages – be it Arabic, Persian, or French. However, some countries are still setting out to codify the use of foreign terms and maintain their language and national identity. As such we find the Academy of Persian Language and Literature (APLL) in Iran with its attempt to preserve Persian identity, culture, civilization, and heritage. While its original goal was and still is to maintain the strength and originality of the Persian language, this task has become harder with the influx of new words from across all disciplines of science. Methodologically, this paper is based on a corpus analysis using the software Sketch Engine. The corpus contains texts from the online archives of numerous Persian-language Iranian newspapers. To shed light on foreign terms and their Persian equivalents this paper identifies ten terms in the field of epidemiology related to the outbreak of the Corona pandemic in 2020. The shortlisted terms can be categorized into three different groups: (1) terms that have no previously existing equivalent approved by the APLL, (2) terms that have been accepted and approved by the APLL for their prevalence in popular usage, and (3) terms for which the APLL has approved Persian equivalents but which are still in use in parallel with foreign ones. The ten epidemiology-related terms in this case study can be distributed among the three categories as follows: two in group 1, three in group 2, and five terms in group 3. Two examples of group 3 terms will be given compared to just one each from groups 1 and 2. The group 3 terms facilitate a direct comparison between approved and non-approved terms and are therefore especially relevant in the context of this study. This not only reveals the mixed success of APLL approved equivalents, but it shows more generally how the APLL has created new terms or reused existing terms and how the APLL carries out its tasks in the past, present, and future.
References
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Book
13 Jan 2006
TL;DR: In this paper, Elana Shohamy considers the effects that these policies have on the real people involved and argues for a more democratic and open approach to language policy and planning, suggesting strategies for resistance to language attrition and ways to protect the linguistic rights of groups and individuals.
Abstract: Policies concerning language use are increasingly tested in an age of frequent migration and cultural synthesis. With conflicting factors and changing political climates influencing the policy-makers, Elana Shohamy considers the effects that these policies have on the real people involved. Using examples from the US and UK, she shows how language policies are promoted and imposed, overtly and covertly, across different countries and in different contexts. Concluding with arguments for a more democratic and open approach to language policy and planning, the final note is one of optimism, suggesting strategies for resistance to language attrition and ways to protect the linguistic rights of groups and individuals.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed PWI is expressed as a product of the occurrence probabilities of terms and their amounts of information, and corresponds well with the conventional term frequency-inverse document frequency measures that are commonly used in today's information retrieval systems.
Abstract: This paper presents a mathematical definition of the "probability-weighted amount of information" (PWI), a measure of specificity of terms in documents that is based on an information-theoretic view of retrieval events. The proposed PWI is expressed as a product of the occurrence probabilities of terms and their amounts of information, and corresponds well with the conventional term frequency-inverse document frequency measures that are commonly used in today's information retrieval systems. The mathematical definition of the PWI is shown, together with some illustrative examples of the calculation.

1,011 citations

Book
01 Oct 1997
TL;DR: This chapter discusses initial concepts for language planning: a contextual and terminological basis for planning a framework for planning - who does what to whom?
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Book
01 Jan 2004
TL;DR: The authors outlines the relationshop between our identity as members of groups-ethnic, national, religious and gender-and the language varieties important to each group, and discusses the importance of language varieties for each group.
Abstract: This book about outlines the relationshop between our identity as members of groups-ethnic, national, religious and gender-and the language varieties important to each group.

125 citations