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Journal ArticleDOI

Net-Widening of the Juvenile Justice System in Japan:

01 May 1989-Criminal Justice Review (SAGE Publications)-Vol. 14, Iss: 1, pp 43-53
TL;DR: In this article, the authors identify the boundaries of the juvenile justice system with those of other components of the justice system and attempt to explain how the net-widening has occurred in Japan.
Abstract: The phenomenon of net-widening was identified by American scholars carrying out research for the evaluation of diversion programs in the American juvenile justice system. The phenomenon, however, can occur independent of diversion programs. This paper emphasizes that, when assessing the net-widening or the net-narrowing of the juvenile justice system, researchers should compare the boundaries of the juvenile justice system with those of other components of the justice system. By identifying the boundaries, one can attempt to explain how the net-widening of the juvenile justice system has occurred in Japan.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the impact of shock incarceration programs on prison crowding in five states was examined using a model to estimate bed space loss or savings, and the authors concluded that if the goal of a short-term incarceration program is to reduce prison overcrowding, it must be carefully designed and monitored with this purpose in mind.
Abstract: The impact of shock incarceration programs on prison crowding in five states was examined using a model to estimate bed space loss or savings. Recidivism rates, duration of imprisonment, dismissal rates, and program capacity were used to estimate the programs' impact if the probabilities that the offenders would have been in prison or on probation were varied. Results indicated that if the goal of a short-term incarceration program is to reduce prison crowding, it must be carefully designed and monitored with this purpose in mind.

42 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The Prostitution Prevention Law (PPL) as discussed by the authors made prostitution a punishable criminal offence in Japan and the movement for anti-prostitution law was initiated by female groups.
Abstract: Before World War II, we witnessed the purification movement, on which Christian groups embarked as moral entrepreneurs. After the war, female groups took the initiative in a movement for anti‐prostitution law. The movement resulted in the enactment of the Prostitution Prevention Law in 1956, which made prostitution a punishable criminal offense. On the other hand, in the United States in the 1960s, some criminologists advocated the necessity of de‐criminalization of victimless crimes, one of which was prostitution. Some groups of feminists also insisted on the de‐criminalization of prostitution to emancipate women toward a freer and more liberated sexuality. New ideas regarding the control, or lack thereof, of prostitution were then introduced into Japan — a country where decriminalization was not realized in the dimension of criminal laws. With its rapid economic growth, Japan became a consumer's society, in which the demand for prostitution increased. In response to this trend, more prostitutes committe...

9 citations

Book ChapterDOI
14 Oct 2014

5 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a study of empirical data, formal statistics, media resources, and a host of other resources was conducted to investigate the role of economic factors in the development of criminal activity by alien newcomers to Japan.
Abstract: In Japan, the crimes committed by foreigners have not historically been considered a primary social problem prior to the 1980s. In the decade of the 1980s, many foreigners entered Japan in hopes of making a substantial amount of money. With the increase in the total number of new alien entrants, the crimes by foreigners gradually increased. However, all of the publicity focused on the country's economic prosperity and little attention was drawn to crimes by foreigners. After the summer of 1990, a severe economic depression began. As the depression deepened, the crimes by foreigners increased drastically. The quality of these crimes became aggravated. This paper analyzes such phenomena through a study of empirical data, formal statistics, media resources, and a host of other resources. The paper will conclude that the economic elements played an important role in the development of criminal activity by alien newcomers to Japan.

3 citations

Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2018
TL;DR: In this article, the crime problem in Japan is analyzed demographically by the use of framework presented by David Riesman et al. As they foresaw, Japan seems to move toward a stagnant society with advancement of aging.
Abstract: In this paper the crime problem in Japan is analyzed demographically by the use of framework presented by David Riesman et al. As they foresaw, Japan seems to move toward a stagnant society with advancement of aging. We see many young persons with the social character of being other-directed. The delinquency committed by them is different from that committed by previous youngsters with the social character of inner-directedness. We see prevalence of a social-typed delinquency instead of antisocial-typed one. However, the reaction to juvenile delinquency has become harsh since the upsurge of movement by victim crimes.

3 citations


Cites background from "Net-Widening of the Juvenile Justic..."

  • ...Police carried out a net widening to arrest or guide more and more juvenile delinquents for minor offenses and deviant behaviors (Yokoyama, 1989, p. 47)....

    [...]

References
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Book
01 Jan 1949

13,688 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the origins of diversion in juvenile justice are discussed, as well as the meaning of and various rationales for diversion, and questions about the future of diversion are raised, drawing on English and Scottish experiences.
Abstract: The origins of diversion in juvenile justice are discussed, as are the meaning of and various rationales for diversion. Judicious nonintervention is clarified. The diver sion movement has to a large extent been preempted or coopted by law enforcement agencies, in part by police because of their dominant, narrowly conceived social control function. More particularly, diversion has offered police a solution to the dilemma posed by pressures for control and the decarceration of status offenders. Questions are raised about the future of diversion in the juvenile justice system, drawing on English and Scottish experiences.

68 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors assesses the literature evaluating diversion in order to identify an evaluation orientation capable of describing and differentiating the positive and negative out-turns of diversion programs, focusing on the positive or negative outcomes of these programs.
Abstract: In 1967 a nationwide effort began in the United States to &dquo;divert&dquo; youths from the formal juvenile justice system into various forms of community treatment. A major conceptual rationale underlying diversion policy was that reducing penetration of youths into the juvenile court system would lessen the dangers assumed to be associated with delinquency stigmatization and delinquent associations, thereby lowering the likelihood of subsequent delinquent behavior. Until the early 1970s, the literature on diversion was largely without a critical or an empirical focus; this deficiency reflected, in part, broad and unquestioning support for this liberal reform. Starting in the early 1970s, critical concern began to be given to diversion’s potential to produce &dquo;unintended consequences,&dquo; and helped stimulate evaluative studies of diversion programs. To date, the reported findings from various evaluations of diversion programs have been mixed and fragmented. Specifically, characteristic evaluation studies of diversion programs have been focused upon determining either the positive or the negative outcomes of these programs. Notably absent from the literature evaluating diversion programs have been broadly based studies concerned simultaneously with the positive and negative outcome potential of diversion programs and the program operations producing these outcomes for particular youth groups. This paper assesses the literature evaluating diversion in order to identify an evaluation orientation capable of describing and differentiating the positive and negative out-

46 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper summarized trends and issues related to the differential institutional handling of all youths who are in trouble with the law of their jurisdiction, or who could be if the enforce ment and judicial systems took official note of their behavior.
Abstract: Instead of focusing exclusively on status offenders, or on youths adjudicated by a juvenile court, this paper summarizes trends and issues related to the differential institutional handling of all youths who are in trouble with the law of their jurisdiction, or who could be if the enforce ment and judicial systems took official note of their behavior. Three cate gories of institutional handling of juveniles, usually treated separately, are discussed: juvenile correction, child welfare, and mental health. There have been significant reductions in long-term correctional handling of youths in trouble, but there have also been offsetting changes in the use of private correctional facilities, residential treatment institutions associated with child welfare, and psychiatric units of general and state hospitals. Seven factors contributing to the emergence of new modes of in stitutional handling are discussed: (1) shift in the balance between the public and private sectors, (2) increase in voluntary commitments, ...

34 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors report on evaluations of several California diversion projects, con ducted by means of quasi-experimental designs, designed to strike a balance between five valid but often conflicting goals of diversion: avoidance of negative labeling, reduction of unnecessary social control, reduction in recidivism, provision of service, and reduction of justice sys-tem costs.
Abstract: This article reports on evaluations of several California diversion projects, con ducted by means of quasi-experimental designs. The delinquent behavior of diver sion clients was reduced relative to that of a matched comparison group. Modest financial savings resulted for justice system referrals. No single type of program— voluntary or otherwise—and no single program setting were found to be optimal for all or even most youths deemed appropriate for diversion; however, a series of pro grams and settings are recommended for specific groups of youths. The recommen dations are designed to strike a balance between five valid but often conflicting goals of diversion: avoidance of negative labeling, reduction of unnecessary social control, reduction of recidivism, provision of service, and reduction of justice sys tem costs. Using this balanced-goals approach, the researchers also focus on the question of when intervention in a youth's career might be most desirable.

33 citations