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Proceedings ArticleDOI

NeTra: a toolbox for navigating large image databases

26 Oct 1997-Vol. 1, pp 568-571
TL;DR: An implementation of NeTra, a prototype image retrieval system that uses color, texture, shape and spatial location information in segmented image regions to search and retrieve similar regions from the database, is presented.
Abstract: We present an implementation of NeTra, a prototype image retrieval system that uses color texture, shape and spatial location information in segmented image database. A distinguishing aspect of this system is its incorporation of a robust automated image segmentation algorithm that allows object or region based search. Image segmentation significantly improves the quality of image retrieval when images contain multiple complex objects. Other important components of the system include an efficient color representation, and indexing of color, texture, and shape features for fast search and retrieval. This representation allows the user to compose interesting queries such as "retrieve all images that contain regions that have the color of object A, texture of object B, shape of object C, and lie in the upper one-third of the image" where the individual objects could be regions belonging to different images.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation are surveyed, and the spawning of related subfields are discussed, to discuss the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world.
Abstract: We have witnessed great interest and a wealth of promise in content-based image retrieval as an emerging technology. While the last decade laid foundation to such promise, it also paved the way for a large number of new techniques and systems, got many new people involved, and triggered stronger association of weakly related fields. In this article, we survey almost 300 key theoretical and empirical contributions in the current decade related to image retrieval and automatic image annotation, and in the process discuss the spawning of related subfields. We also discuss significant challenges involved in the adaptation of existing image retrieval techniques to build systems that can be useful in the real world. In retrospect of what has been achieved so far, we also conjecture what the future may hold for image retrieval research.

3,433 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The survey includes 100+ papers covering the research aspects of image feature representation and extraction, multidimensional indexing, and system design, three of the fundamental bases of content-based image retrieval.
Abstract: This paper provides a comprehensive survey of the technical achievements in the research area of image retrieval, especially content-based image retrieval, an area that has been so active and prosperous in the past few years. The survey includes 100+ papers covering the research aspects of image feature representation and extraction, multidimensional indexing, and system design, three of the fundamental bases of content-based image retrieval. Furthermore, based on the state-of-the-art technology available now and the demand from real-world applications, open research issues are identified and future promising research directions are suggested.

2,197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: SIMPLIcity (semantics-sensitive integrated matching for picture libraries), an image retrieval system, which uses semantics classification methods, a wavelet-based approach for feature extraction, and integrated region matching based upon image segmentation to improve retrieval.
Abstract: We present here SIMPLIcity (semantics-sensitive integrated matching for picture libraries), an image retrieval system, which uses semantics classification methods, a wavelet-based approach for feature extraction, and integrated region matching based upon image segmentation. An image is represented by a set of regions, roughly corresponding to objects, which are characterized by color, texture, shape, and location. The system classifies images into semantic categories. Potentially, the categorization enhances retrieval by permitting semantically-adaptive searching methods and narrowing down the searching range in a database. A measure for the overall similarity between images is developed using a region-matching scheme that integrates properties of all the regions in the images. The application of SIMPLIcity to several databases has demonstrated that our system performs significantly better and faster than existing ones. The system is fairly robust to image alterations.

2,117 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "NeTra: a toolbox for navigating lar..."

  • ...Berkeley Blobworld [2], Columbia VisualSEEK and WebSEEK [21], CMU Informedia [23], UCSB NeTra [ 11 ], UCSD [9], University of Maryland [16], Stanford EMD [18], and Stanford WBIIS [28] are some of the recent systems....

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  • ...On the other hand, because of the great difficulty of achieving accurate segmentation, systems in [ 11 ], [2] often partition one object into several regions with none of them being representative for the object, especially for images without distinctive objects and scenes....

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  • ...Traditionally, region-based matching is performed on individual regions [2], [ 11 ]....

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  • ...By contrast, there are also “partial search” querying systems that retrieve based on a particular region in an image [ 11 ], [2]....

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  • ...Region-based retrieval systems include the NeTra system [ 11 ], the Blobworld system [2], and the query system with color region templates [22]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A relevance feedback based interactive retrieval approach that effectively takes into account the subjectivity of human perception of visual content and the gap between high-level concepts and low-level features in CBIR.
Abstract: Content-based image retrieval (CBIR) has become one of the most active research areas in the past few years. Many visual feature representations have been explored and many systems built. While these research efforts establish the basis of CBIR, the usefulness of the proposed approaches is limited. Specifically, these efforts have relatively ignored two distinct characteristics of CBIR systems: (1) the gap between high-level concepts and low-level features, and (2) the subjectivity of human perception of visual content. This paper proposes a relevance feedback based interactive retrieval approach, which effectively takes into account the above two characteristics in CBIR. During the retrieval process, the user's high-level query and perception subjectivity are captured by dynamically updated weights based on the user's feedback. The experimental results over more than 70000 images show that the proposed approach greatly reduces the user's effort of composing a query, and captures the user's information need more precisely.

1,933 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive survey of the recent technical achievements in high-level semantic-based image retrieval, identifying five major categories of the state-of-the-art techniques in narrowing down the 'semantic gap'.
Abstract: In order to improve the retrieval accuracy of content-based image retrieval systems, research focus has been shifted from designing sophisticated low-level feature extraction algorithms to reducing the 'semantic gap' between the visual features and the richness of human semantics. This paper attempts to provide a comprehensive survey of the recent technical achievements in high-level semantic-based image retrieval. Major recent publications are included in this survey covering different aspects of the research in this area, including low-level image feature extraction, similarity measurement, and deriving high-level semantic features. We identify five major categories of the state-of-the-art techniques in narrowing down the 'semantic gap': (1) using object ontology to define high-level concepts; (2) using machine learning methods to associate low-level features with query concepts; (3) using relevance feedback to learn users' intention; (4) generating semantic template to support high-level image retrieval; (5) fusing the evidences from HTML text and the visual content of images for WWW image retrieval. In addition, some other related issues such as image test bed and retrieval performance evaluation are also discussed. Finally, based on existing technology and the demand from real-world applications, a few promising future research directions are suggested.

1,713 citations


Cites background or methods or result from "NeTra: a toolbox for navigating lar..."

  • ...Common color features or descriptors in RBIR systems include, color-covariance matrix, color histogram, color moments, and color coherence vector [16,28,34–36]....

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  • ...Keywords: Content-based image retrieval; Semantic gap; High-level semantics; Survey...

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  • ...For color images used in most papers, however, it is difficult to apply shape features compared to color and texture due to the inaccuracy of segmentation....

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  • ...It is observed that in most cases, average color and dominant color are very similar, as in Fig....

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  • ...It is stated that for more specific applications such as human face database, domainknowledge can be explored to assign a weight to each pixel in computing the region colors [22]....

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References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Jun 1984
TL;DR: A dynamic index structure called an R-tree is described which meets this need, and algorithms for searching and updating it are given and it is concluded that it is useful for current database systems in spatial applications.
Abstract: In order to handle spatial data efficiently, as required in computer aided design and geo-data applications, a database system needs an index mechanism that will help it retrieve data items quickly according to their spatial locations However, traditional indexing methods are not well suited to data objects of non-zero size located m multi-dimensional spaces In this paper we describe a dynamic index structure called an R-tree which meets this need, and give algorithms for searching and updating it. We present the results of a series of tests which indicate that the structure performs well, and conclude that it is useful for current database systems in spatial applications

7,336 citations

Book
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: The author explains the design and implementation of the Levinson-Durbin Algorithm, which automates the very labor-intensive and therefore time-heavy and expensive process of designing and implementing a Quantizer.
Abstract: 1 Introduction- 11 Signals, Coding, and Compression- 12 Optimality- 13 How to Use this Book- 14 Related Reading- I Basic Tools- 2 Random Processes and Linear Systems- 21 Introduction- 22 Probability- 23 Random Variables and Vectors- 24 Random Processes- 25 Expectation- 26 Linear Systems- 27 Stationary and Ergodic Properties- 28 Useful Processes- 29 Problems- 3 Sampling- 31 Introduction- 32 Periodic Sampling- 33 Noise in Sampling- 34 Practical Sampling Schemes- 35 Sampling Jitter- 36 Multidimensional Sampling- 37 Problems- 4 Linear Prediction- 41 Introduction- 42 Elementary Estimation Theory- 43 Finite-Memory Linear Prediction- 44 Forward and Backward Prediction- 45 The Levinson-Durbin Algorithm- 46 Linear Predictor Design from Empirical Data- 47 Minimum Delay Property- 48 Predictability and Determinism- 49 Infinite Memory Linear Prediction- 410 Simulation of Random Processes- 411 Problems- II Scalar Coding- 5 Scalar Quantization I- 51 Introduction- 52 Structure of a Quantizer- 53 Measuring Quantizer Performance- 54 The Uniform Quantizer- 55 Nonuniform Quantization and Companding- 56 High Resolution: General Case- 57 Problems- 6 Scalar Quantization II- 61 Introduction- 62 Conditions for Optimality- 63 High Resolution Optimal Companding- 64 Quantizer Design Algorithms- 65 Implementation- 66 Problems- 7 Predictive Quantization- 71 Introduction- 72 Difference Quantization- 73 Closed-Loop Predictive Quantization- 74 Delta Modulation- 75 Problems- 8 Bit Allocation and Transform Coding- 81 Introduction- 82 The Problem of Bit Allocation- 83 Optimal Bit Allocation Results- 84 Integer Constrained Allocation Techniques- 85 Transform Coding- 86 Karhunen-Loeve Transform- 87 Performance Gain of Transform Coding- 88 Other Transforms- 89 Sub-band Coding- 810 Problems- 9 Entropy Coding- 91 Introduction- 92 Variable-Length Scalar Noiseless Coding- 93 Prefix Codes- 94 Huffman Coding- 95 Vector Entropy Coding- 96 Arithmetic Coding- 97 Universal and Adaptive Entropy Coding- 98 Ziv-Lempel Coding- 99 Quantization and Entropy Coding- 910 Problems- III Vector Coding- 10 Vector Quantization I- 101 Introduction- 102 Structural Properties and Characterization- 103 Measuring Vector Quantizer Performance- 104 Nearest Neighbor Quantizers- 105 Lattice Vector Quantizers- 106 High Resolution Distortion Approximations- 107 Problems- 11 Vector Quantization II- 111 Introduction- 112 Optimality Conditions for VQ- 113 Vector Quantizer Design- 114 Design Examples- 115 Problems- 12 Constrained Vector Quantization- 121 Introduction- 122 Complexity and Storage Limitations- 123 Structurally Constrained VQ- 124 Tree-Structured VQ- 125 Classified VQ- 126 Transform VQ- 127 Product Code Techniques- 128 Partitioned VQ- 129 Mean-Removed VQ- 1210 Shape-Gain VQ- 1211 Multistage VQ- 1212 Constrained Storage VQ- 1213 Hierarchical and Multiresolution VQ- 1214 Nonlinear Interpolative VQ- 1215 Lattice Codebook VQ- 1216 Fast Nearest Neighbor Encoding- 1217 Problems- 13 Predictive Vector Quantization- 131 Introduction- 132 Predictive Vector Quantization- 133 Vector Linear Prediction- 134 Predictor Design from Empirical Data- 135 Nonlinear Vector Prediction- 136 Design Examples- 137 Problems- 14 Finite-State Vector Quantization- 141 Recursive Vector Quantizers- 142 Finite-State Vector Quantizers- 143 Labeled-States and Labeled-Transitions- 144 Encoder/Decoder Design- 145 Next-State Function Design- 146 Design Examples- 147 Problems- 15 Tree and Trellis Encoding- 151 Delayed Decision Encoder- 152 Tree and Trellis Coding- 153 Decoder Design- 154 Predictive Trellis Encoders- 155 Other Design Techniques- 156 Problems- 16 Adaptive Vector Quantization- 161 Introduction- 162 Mean Adaptation- 163 Gain-Adaptive Vector Quantization- 164 Switched Codebook Adaptation- 165 Adaptive Bit Allocation- 166 Address VQ- 167 Progressive Code Vector Updating- 168 Adaptive Codebook Generation- 169 Vector Excitation Coding- 1610 Problems- 17 Variable Rate Vector Quantization- 171 Variable Rate Coding- 172 Variable Dimension VQ- 173 Alternative Approaches to Variable Rate VQ- 174 Pruned Tree-Structured VQ- 175 The Generalized BFOS Algorithm- 176 Pruned Tree-Structured VQ- 177 Entropy Coded VQ- 178 Greedy Tree Growing- 179 Design Examples- 1710 Bit Allocation Revisited- 1711 Design Algorithms- 1712 Problems

7,015 citations


"NeTra: a toolbox for navigating lar..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The GLA basically contains the following steps....

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  • ...From a training dataset of image samples, the codebook is constructed using the generalized Lloyd Algorithm (GLA) [8] to vector quantize colors in the RGB color space....

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  • ...Vector quantization techniques [8] are used to cluster each of the features to create a visual thesaurus [14]....

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  • ...In order to represent the color within each homogeneous region, we again use the GLA to cluster the local colors....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models, and they can differentiate among a large number of objects.
Abstract: Computer vision is moving into a new era in which the aim is to develop visual skills for robots that allow them to interact with a dynamic, unconstrained environment. To achieve this aim, new kinds of vision algorithms need to be developed which run in real time and subserve the robot's goals. Two fundamental goals are determining the identity of an object with a known location, and determining the location of a known object. Color can be successfully used for both tasks. This dissertation demonstrates that color histograms of multicolored objects provide a robust, efficient cue for indexing into a large database of models. It shows that color histograms are stable object representations in the presence of occlusion and over change in view, and that they can differentiate among a large number of objects. For solving the identification problem, it introduces a technique called Histogram Intersection, which matches model and image histograms and a fast incremental version of Histogram Intersection which allows real-time indexing into a large database of stored models. It demonstrates techniques for dealing with crowded scenes and with models with similar color signatures. For solving the location problem it introduces an algorithm called Histogram Backprojection which performs this task efficiently in crowded scenes.

5,672 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Comparisons with other multiresolution texture features using the Brodatz texture database indicate that the Gabor features provide the best pattern retrieval accuracy.
Abstract: Image content based retrieval is emerging as an important research area with application to digital libraries and multimedia databases. The focus of this paper is on the image processing aspects and in particular using texture information for browsing and retrieval of large image data. We propose the use of Gabor wavelet features for texture analysis and provide a comprehensive experimental evaluation. Comparisons with other multiresolution texture features using the Brodatz texture database indicate that the Gabor features provide the best pattern retrieval accuracy. An application to browsing large air photos is illustrated.

4,017 citations


"NeTra: a toolbox for navigating lar..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...In [17], we presented a texture feature representation scheme based on a Gabor decomposition....

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  • ...For more details on this representation, we refer the reader to [17]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: L'accentuation est mise sur la representation de donnees dans les applications de traitement d'images, d'infographie, les systemes d'informations geographiques and the robotique.
Abstract: Apercu sur les quadarbres et les structures de donnees hierarchiques. Elles sont basees sur le principe de decomposition recursive. L'accentuation est mise sur la representation de donnees dans les applications de traitement d'images, d'infographie, les systemes d'informations geographiques et la robotique. On examine en detail un certain nombre d'operations dans lesquelles de telles structures de donnees trouvent leur utilisation

2,273 citations


"NeTra: a toolbox for navigating lar..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The quad-tree [24] has been widely used to provide a fast access to 2D data points and, therefore, can be employed to index the region centroids....

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