Abstract: Aim. Probiotics are considered to be bone metabolism regulators, and their efficacy as an adjuvant treatment option for osteoporosis is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the available data from randomized controlled trials (RCT) of probiotics in the treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Methods. As of June 2021, databases such as Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Central Cochrane Library have been used for English-language literature searches and CNKI and China Biomedical Database have been used for Chinese-language literature searches. RevMan 5.3 was used for bias risk assessment, heterogeneity detection, and meta-analysis. This research has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020085934). Results. This systematic review and meta-analysis included 10 RCTs involving 1156. Compared with the placebo, the absolute value of lumbar spine’s BMD was not statistically significant (WMD 0.04 (−0.00, 0.09), , random effect model), while the percentage of lumbar spine’s BMD was higher (SMD 1.16 (0.21, 2.12), , random effect model). Compared with the control group, the percentage of total hip’s BMD was not statistically significant (SMD 0.52 (−0.69, 1.73), , random effect model). The safety analysis showed that, compared with control group, the adverse events in the experimental group were not statistically significant (RR 1.02 (0.92, 1.12), , fixed effect model). Conclusion. Probiotics may be safety supplements to improve the lumbar spine’s BMD of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia. More large-sample, random-controlled, high-quality RCTs are needed to further verify the effectiveness and safety of probiotics in intervening osteoporosis or osteopenia.
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