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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15321819.2020.1833917

Neuroprotective effects of probiotics bacteria on animal model of Parkinson’s disease induced by 6-hydroxydopamine: A behavioral, biochemical, and histological study

04 Mar 2021-Journal of Immunoassay & Immunochemistry (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 42, Iss: 2, pp 106-120
Abstract: Parkinson’s disease (PD) is an age-associated, progressive, and common neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra pars compacta. The...

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Topics: Substantia nigra (69%), Pars compacta (68%), Hydroxydopamine (63%) ... read more
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7 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FNINS.2021.613120
Mahmoud Salami1Institutions (1)
Abstract: The human gastrointestinal tract hosts trillions of microorganisms that is called "gut microbiota." The gut microbiota is involved in a wide variety of physiological features and functions of the body. Thus, it is not surprising that any damage to the gut microbiota is associated with disorders in different body systems. Probiotics, defined as living microorganisms with health benefits for the host, can support or restore the composition of the gut microbiota. Numerous investigations have proved a relationship between the gut microbiota with normal brain function as well as many brain diseases, in which cognitive dysfunction is a common clinical problem. On the other hand, increasing evidence suggests that the existence of a healthy gut microbiota is crucial for normal cognitive processing. In this regard, interplay of the gut microbiota and cognition has been under focus of recent researches. In the present paper, I review findings of the studies considering beneficial effects of either gut microbiota or probiotic bacteria on the brain cognitive function in the healthy and disease statuses.

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Topics: Dysbiosis (61%), Gut flora (60%)

4 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10571-021-01128-W
Hamed Mirzaei1, Saman Sedighi2, Ebrahim Kouchaki1, Erfaneh Barati1  +4 moreInstitutions (5)
Abstract: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by motor and non-motor features. Although some progress has been made in conventional PD treatments, these breakthroughs have yet to show high efficacy in treating this neurodegenerative disease. Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer health benefits on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Probiotics have putative anticancer, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects. Multiple lines of evidence show that probiotics control and improve several motor and non-motor symptoms in patients and experimental animal models of PD. Probiotic supplementation mediates these pharmacological effects by targeting a variety of cellular and molecular processes, i.e., oxidative stress, inflammatory and anti-inflammatory pathways, as well as apoptosis. Herein, we summarize the effects of probiotics on motor and non-motor symptoms as well as various cellular and molecular pathways in PD.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1155/2021/9924410
Liuting Zeng1, Ganpeng Yu, Kailin Yang2, Wensa Hao3  +1 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Aim. Probiotics are considered to be bone metabolism regulators, and their efficacy as an adjuvant treatment option for osteoporosis is still controversial. The purpose of this study is to compare the available data from randomized controlled trials (RCT) of probiotics in the treatment of osteoporosis and osteopenia. Methods. As of June 2021, databases such as Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and Central Cochrane Library have been used for English-language literature searches and CNKI and China Biomedical Database have been used for Chinese-language literature searches. RevMan 5.3 was used for bias risk assessment, heterogeneity detection, and meta-analysis. This research has been registered in PROSPERO (CRD42020085934). Results. This systematic review and meta-analysis included 10 RCTs involving 1156. Compared with the placebo, the absolute value of lumbar spine’s BMD was not statistically significant (WMD 0.04 (−0.00, 0.09), , random effect model), while the percentage of lumbar spine’s BMD was higher (SMD 1.16 (0.21, 2.12), , random effect model). Compared with the control group, the percentage of total hip’s BMD was not statistically significant (SMD 0.52 (−0.69, 1.73), , random effect model). The safety analysis showed that, compared with control group, the adverse events in the experimental group were not statistically significant (RR 1.02 (0.92, 1.12), , fixed effect model). Conclusion. Probiotics may be safety supplements to improve the lumbar spine’s BMD of patients with osteoporosis and osteopenia. More large-sample, random-controlled, high-quality RCTs are needed to further verify the effectiveness and safety of probiotics in intervening osteoporosis or osteopenia.

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Topics: Osteopenia (56%), Randomized controlled trial (54%), Cochrane Library (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.BBI.2021.07.026
Valentina Leta1, Valentina Leta2, K. Ray Chaudhuri1, Oliver Milner1  +4 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: There is increasing evidence highlighting the potential role of the gut-brain axis in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and on the use of probiotics as a therapeutic strategy for this neurodegenerative disorder. While several studies have been published on the topic in recent years, there is still a lack of a comprehensive understanding of the effects of probiotics in PD and their possible underlying mechanisms. Through this systematic review, we collected a total of 17 articles, consisting of preclinical and clinical models of PD investigating the effect of probiotics on (1) energy metabolism, (2) inflammation and oxidative stress, (3) neurodegeneration, as well as (4) motor and (5) non-motor function. Articles were obtained from PubMed/Medline, Scopus, Web of Science and Embase databases. Findings from preclinical studies suggest that treatment with probiotics increases glucose metabolism (increased secretion of glucagon-like peptide-1), reduces peripheral and central inflammation (reduced interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)), reduces peripheral and central oxidative stress (reduced peripheral superoxide anion levels and increased central antioxidant glutathione levels), decreases neurodegeneration (increased numbers of tyrosine hydroxylase dopaminergic neurons and levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor), increases motor function (increased motor agility) and non-motor function (decreased memory deficits). Similarly, findings from clinical studies suggest that probiotics increase glucose metabolism (reduced insulin resistance), reduce peripheral inflammation (reduced peripheral TNF-α expression and C-reactive protein levels), and increase motor and non-motor function (decreased overall PD symptomatology and constipation); however, findings on oxidative stress were inconclusive across studies. Overall, this review is the first one to systematically report evidence for the putative beneficial effects of probiotics on molecular and cellular mechanisms, as well as behavioural phenotypes, in either preclinical or clinical studies in PD. However, additional and more robust studies are still needed to confirm these outcomes, and should aim to focus more on bench-to-bedside approaches, in order to address the existing gaps between preclinical and clinical findings in this field.

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1 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/10408398.2021.1920884
Abstract: Psychobiotics-live microorganisms with potential mental health benefits, which can modulate the microbiota-gut-brain-axis via immune, humoral, neural, and metabolic pathways-are emerging as novel therapeutic options for the effective treatment of psychiatric disorders Recently, microbiome studies have identified numerous putative psychobiotic strains, of which short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) producing bacteria have attracted special attention from neurobiologists. Recent studies have highlighted that SCFAs-producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Clostridium have a very specific function in various psychiatric disorders, suggesting that these bacteria can be potential novel psychobiotics. SCFAs, potential mediators of microbiota-gut-brain axis, might modulate function of neurological processes. While the specific roles and mechanisms of SCFAs-producing bacteria of microbiota-targeted interventions on neuropsychiatric disease are largely unknown. This Review summarizes existing knowledge on the neuroprotective effects of the SCFAs-producing bacteria in neurological disorders via modulating microbiota-gut-brain axis and illustrate their possible mechanisms by which SCFAs-producing bacteria may act on these disorders, which will shed light on the SCFAs-producing bacteria as a promising novel source of psychobiotics.

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1 Citations


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40 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRN3346
John F. Cryan1, Timothy G. Dinan1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the rise of the gut microbiota as a major topic of research interest in biology. Studies are revealing how variations and changes in the composition of the gut microbiota influence normal physiology and contribute to diseases ranging from inflammation to obesity. Accumulating data now indicate that the gut microbiota also communicates with the CNS — possibly through neural, endocrine and immune pathways — and thereby influences brain function and behaviour. Studies in germ-free animals and in animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotic bacteria or antibiotic drugs suggest a role for the gut microbiota in the regulation of anxiety, mood, cognition and pain. Thus, the emerging concept of a microbiota-gut-brain axis suggests that modulation of the gut microbiota may be a tractable strategy for developing novel therapeutics for complex CNS disorders.

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Topics: Gut flora (59%), Gut–brain axis (57%)

2,446 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1073/PNAS.1102999108
Abstract: There is increasing, but largely indirect, evidence pointing to an effect of commensal gut microbiota on the central nervous system (CNS). However, it is unknown whether lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus rhamnosus could have a direct effect on neurotransmitter receptors in the CNS in normal, healthy animals. GABA is the main CNS inhibitory neurotransmitter and is significantly involved in regulating many physiological and psychological processes. Alterations in central GABA receptor expression are implicated in the pathogenesis of anxiety and depression, which are highly comorbid with functional bowel disorders. In this work, we show that chronic treatment with L. rhamnosus (JB-1) induced region-dependent alterations in GABAB1b mRNA in the brain with increases in cortical regions (cingulate and prelimbic) and concomitant reductions in expression in the hippocampus, amygdala, and locus coeruleus, in comparison with control-fed mice. In addition, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced GABAAα2 mRNA expression in the prefrontal cortex and amygdala, but increased GABAAα2 in the hippocampus. Importantly, L. rhamnosus (JB-1) reduced stress-induced corticosterone and anxiety- and depression-related behavior. Moreover, the neurochemical and behavioral effects were not found in vagotomized mice, identifying the vagus as a major modulatory constitutive communication pathway between the bacteria exposed to the gut and the brain. Together, these findings highlight the important role of bacteria in the bidirectional communication of the gut–brain axis and suggest that certain organisms may prove to be useful therapeutic adjuncts in stress-related disorders such as anxiety and depression.

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Topics: Gut–brain axis (59%), Lactobacillus rhamnosus (57%), Neurotransmitter receptor (55%) ... read more

2,083 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.NEURON.2005.05.002
John E. Lisman1, Anthony A. Grace2Institutions (2)
02 Jun 2005-Neuron
Abstract: In this article we develop the concept that the hippocampus and the midbrain dopaminergic neurons of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) form a functional loop. Activation of the loop begins when the hippocampus detects newly arrived information that is not already stored in its long-term memory. The resulting novelty signal is conveyed through the subiculum, accumbens, and ventral pallidum to the VTA where it contributes (along with salience and goal information) to the novelty-dependent firing of these cells. In the upward arm of the loop, dopamine (DA) is released within the hippocampus; this produces an enhancement of LTP and learning. These findings support a model whereby the hippocampal-VTA loop regulates the entry of information into long-term memory.

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Topics: Ventral tegmental area (59%), Ventral pallidum (56%), Long-term memory (54%) ... read more

1,561 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJM2003RA020003
Abstract: Although most cases of Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease are sporadic, some cases are clearly familial. This review, part of the Genomic Medicine series, examines the genetics of these familial forms. Although the inherited forms are rare, the knowledge derived from investigating their pathobiology has improved our understanding of the pathobiology of the more common, sporadic forms of the diseases.

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1,109 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NRNEUROL.2017.27
Dag Aarsland1, Byron Creese2, Byron Creese1, Marios Politis1  +7 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Dementia is a frequent problem encountered in advanced stages of Parkinson disease (PD). In recent years, research has focused on the pre-dementia stages of cognitive impairment in PD, including mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Several longitudinal studies have shown that MCI is a harbinger of dementia in PD, although the course is variable, and stabilization of cognition - or even reversal to normal cognition - is not uncommon. In addition to limbic and cortical spread of Lewy pathology, several other mechanisms are likely to contribute to cognitive decline in PD, and a variety of biomarker studies, some using novel structural and functional imaging techniques, have documented in vivo brain changes associated with cognitive impairment. The evidence consistently suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid levels of amyloid-β42, a marker of comorbid Alzheimer disease (AD), predict future cognitive decline and dementia in PD. Emerging genetic evidence indicates that in addition to the APOE*e4 allele (an established risk factor for AD), GBA mutations and SCNA mutations and triplications are associated with cognitive decline in PD, whereas the findings are mixed for MAPT polymorphisms. Cognitive enhancing medications have some effect in PD dementia, but no convincing evidence that progression from MCI to dementia can be delayed or prevented is available, although cognitive training has shown promising results.

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Topics: Cognitive decline (67%), Dementia (64%), Alzheimer's disease (59%) ... read more

460 Citations