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Journal ArticleDOI

Neutralizing antibody in nonallergic individuals.

01 Nov 1952-Journal of Allergy (Elsevier)-Vol. 23, Iss: 6, pp 504-509
TL;DR: In this paper, neutralizing antibody titrations were carried out in series of nonatopic human volunteers receiving one of the following ragweed preparations: (1) aqueous, (2) dialyzed, (3) alum precipitated, and (4) tannic acid precipitated extract.
About: This article is published in Journal of Allergy.The article was published on 1952-11-01. It has received 2 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Neutralizing antibody.
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Serological studies supported by transfusion experiments have been interpreted by us as showing the development under treatment of a peculiar blocking or inhibiting type of immune antibody that prevented the action of allergen on the sensitizing antibody and hence showed in the type of human allergy under consideration (hay fever) the coexistence of sensitization and immunity.
Abstract: Using ragweed hay fever as the representative of a certain type of allergy we have made studies to determine if possible the mechanism of the protection afforded by specific injections thus far established only by clinical observation. 1. Blood transfusions and serum injections from clinically immune, treated patients stopped the clinical reaction in untreated patients, thus indicating a transferable immunity. 2. The amount of skin sensitizing antibody in the serum was found to be practically unchanged by specific injections. 3. Injection of allergen-antibody mixtures into normal skin showed an immediate (1 hour) reaction when sites were made if serum of untreated cases (Serum A) was used but none or slight reaction if serum of treated cases (Serum P) was used. 4. When sites made with allergen-antibody mixtures were tested after 48 hours, reactions were absent with Serum A mixtures if enough allergen had been used, but were positive with mixtures of Serum P even though a much stronger allergen was contained in the mixture. 5. The primary inhibition of reactions with mixtures including Serum P was not due to antihistamine effect nor to binding of skin sensitizing antibody nor to binding or lysis of allergen. 6. The inhibiting antibody appears to be specific. 7. These serological studies supported by transfusion experiments have been interpreted by us as showing the development under treatment of a peculiar blocking or inhibiting type of immune antibody that prevented the action of allergen on the sensitizing antibody and hence showed in the type of human allergy under consideration (hay fever) the coexistence of sensitization and immunity.

372 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: It is found that two distinct pollen-combining antibodies existed in the serum of each treated hay-fever patient, whereas only one such agent was present in significant amounts in serum procured before therapy.
Abstract: Summary and Interpretation A temperature of 56°C. maintained for from 2 to 5 hours 2 was found to destroy the skin-sensitizing capacity of 23 sera obtained from 18 treated hay-fever patients, without diminishing the so-called inhibiting power of the sera. Numerous titrations, performed upon unheated and heated sera obtained from these ragweed-sensitive subjects before and after administrations of ragweed-extract, indicate that two distinct pollen-combining antibodies existed in the serum of each treated hay-fever patient, whereas only one such agent was present in significant amounts in serum procured before therapy. The following characteristics, suggested by the experiments just described and by the literature on the subject, serve to distinguish the two antibodies. The skin-sensitizing antibody ( atopic reagin ) : 1) combines with the homologous antigen to elicit a wheal type of reaction in the skin of man and of monkeys (19, 20). 2) It is commonly associated with certain allergic manifestations. 3) It is a naturally occurring factor that cannot be induced experimentally with ease in normal persons although several investigators have reported the development of reagins in man following injections of immune horse serum, insulin, and extracts of orris-root (one case), and round worm, as reviewed by Coca (21). Induced reagins were found in non-sensitive subjects who received egg-albumin parenterally (22) and in allergic persons not previously sensitive to the extract of trichina with which they were subsequently injected (23). Reagins to ragweed-antigen were in no instance induced in the serum of nonsensitive subjects who received ragweed-extract during the present investigation. A different situation obtained, however, in the case of the ragweed-sensitive hay-fever patients, for over half of the “P” sera titrated by the serum-dilution method contained more reagin than was present in the corresponding “A” sera. 4) It is destroyed by a temperature of 56°C. maintained for from 2 to 5 hours or by a temperature of 60°C. maintained for 30 to 60 minutes. 5) When reagin is mixed with dilute antigen in vitro and injected intracutaneously into passively sensitized skin, the resulting wheal is only slightly smaller than that evoked by the antigen alone. 6) Normal skin, passively sensitized with reagin-bearing serum, retains its capacity to respond to the antigen for at least four weeks. The thermostable antibody: 1) is incapable of sensitizing normal skin, no wheal being elicited by mixtures containing the thermostable antibody and its antigen. In fact, the normal response of cutaneous sites sensitized to the related antigen is curtailed when thermostable antibody is present, due to the inactivation of antigen by the thermostable antibody. 2) It was not detected in the serum of untreated allergic subjects. 3) It can be induced in normal individuals and also in pollen-sensitive persons by injections of pollen-antigen even in relatively small dosage. 4) It is destroyed by a temperature of 60°C. maintained for 24 hours, but loses no potency after being subjected to 56°C. for the same period or to 60°C. for ½ to 20 hours. 5) It rapidly inactivates its antigen even in the presence of reagin. Its potency may be estimated, therefore, by the degree to which it can: a) bind antigen and thus prevent the reaction which promptly occurs when passively or naturally sensitized skin is tested with free antigen, and b) increase the requirement of antigen for the neutralization of a passively sensitized, cutaneous site. 6) It is readily diffusible, disappearing in less than 24 hours from normal skin into which it is injected. Inasmuch as the thermostable factor, found in “P” serum and in the serum of normal individuals following inoculations of ragweed-extract, was induced by parenteral administrations of the ragweed-antigen and reacted specifically in an observable way with that antigen, this agent is an antibody according to the definition of Topley and Wilson (24).

181 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
10 Sep 1948-Science

65 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Serological changes were induced resembling those previously observed to occur in ragweed sensitive patients after treatment and were demonstrable by an inhibition of the immediate reaction and by interference with the neutralization of sensitive serum by its antigen.
Abstract: Large injections of ragweed pollen extract into normal non-sensitive volunteers did not produce a sensitization to ragweed. Group 1 volunteers in whose skin many reactions were induced by injections of ragweed extract mixed with ragweed sensitive serum failed to show any serological changes. The theory that the immune substance found in the serum of treated ragweed sensitive cases was due to the reaction or to some substance created by it and not to the ragweed per se was not upheld. On the contrary in group 2, volunteers who received larger amounts of ragweed but no sensitive serum, serological changes were induced resembling those previously observed to occur in ragweed sensitive patients after treatment. They were demonstrable by an inhibition of the immediate reaction and by interference with the neutralization of sensitive serum by its antigen. These serological changes are therefore independent of the specific reaction characteristic of this type of allergy. The inhibiting factor was found to be related to the pseudoglobulin fraction of the serum and was shown to be specific.

64 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Sera of long treated cases which did not sensitize normal skin showed little or no inhibiting effect on the neutralization of sera of untreated hay fever patients, suggesting the occurrence of qualitative, as well as quantitative, changes in the antibody.

62 citations