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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.631821

Neutrophils: Many Ways to Die.

04 Mar 2021-Frontiers in Immunology (Frontiers Media SA)-Vol. 12, pp 631821-631821
Abstract: Neutrophils or polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) are key participants in the innate immune response for their ability to execute different effector functions. These cells express a vast array of membrane receptors that allow them to recognize and eliminate infectious agents effectively and respond appropriately to microenvironmental stimuli that regulate neutrophil functions, such as activation, migration, generation of reactive oxygen species, formation of neutrophil extracellular traps, and mediator secretion, among others. Currently, it has been realized that activated neutrophils can accomplish their effector functions and simultaneously activate mechanisms of cell death in response to different intracellular or extracellular factors. Although several studies have revealed similarities between the mechanisms of cell death of neutrophils and other cell types, neutrophils have distinctive properties, such as a high production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS), that are important for their effector function in infections and pathologies such as cancer, autoimmune diseases, and immunodeficiencies, influencing their cell death mechanisms. The present work offers a synthesis of the conditions and molecules implicated in the regulation and activation of the processes of neutrophil death: apoptosis, autophagy, pyroptosis, necroptosis, NETosis, and necrosis. This information allows to understand the duality encountered by PMNs upon activation. The effector functions are carried out to eliminate invading pathogens, but in several instances, these functions involve activation of signaling cascades that culminate in the death of the neutrophil. This process guarantees the correct elimination of pathogenic agents, damaged or senescent cells, and the timely resolution of the inflammation that is essential for the maintenance of homeostasis in the organism. In addition, they alert the organism when the immunological system is being deregulated, promoting the activation of other cells of the immune system, such as B and T lymphocytes, which produce cytokines that potentiate the microbicide functions.

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Topics: Neutrophil extracellular traps (61%), Pyroptosis (58%), Necroptosis (57%) ... show more
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10 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CELLS10081891
26 Jul 2021-Cells
Abstract: The first formal description of the microbicidal activity of extracellular traps (ETs) containing DNA occurred in neutrophils in 2004. Since then, ETs have been identified in different populations of cells involved in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Much of the knowledge has been obtained from in vitro or ex vivo studies; however, in vivo evaluations in experimental models and human biological materials have corroborated some of the results obtained. Two types of ETs have been described-suicidal and vital ETs, with or without the death of the producer cell. The studies showed that the same cell type may have more than one ETs formation mechanism and that different cells may have similar ETs formation mechanisms. ETs can act by controlling or promoting the mechanisms involved in the development and evolution of various infectious and non-infectious diseases, such as autoimmune, cardiovascular, thrombotic, and neoplastic diseases, among others. This review discusses the presence of ETs in neutrophils, macrophages, mast cells, eosinophils, basophils, plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and recent evidence of the presence of ETs in B lymphocytes, CD4+ T lymphocytes, and CD8+ T lymphocytes. Moreover, due to recently collected information, the effect of ETs on COVID-19 is also discussed.

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Topics: Immune system (52%)

2 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S10753-021-01553-5
18 Sep 2021-Inflammation
Abstract: Apoptosis is an important cell death mechanism for the resolution of inflammation. Neutrophil spontaneous apoptosis rates were reported to be slightly different in men and women and to be modulated by female sex hormones. The aim of this study was to determine whether different nanoparticles (NPs) will alter the neutrophil and eosinophil apoptotic rates differently in men and women. Using the antiapoptotic cytokine granulocyte–macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the proapoptotic plant lectin Viscum album agglutinin-I (VAA-I) as controls, we found that these factors respectively delay and induce apoptosis in both neutrophils and eosinophils with apoptotic rates remarkably similar in both sexes. The polyamidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers of generation 0 (G0) and G3 slightly, but not significantly, accelerate neutrophil apoptosis regardless of sex. Zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), cerium dioxide (CeO2), and palladium (Pd) but not platinum (Pt) NPs were found to significantly delay neutrophil apoptosis. When results were compared between men and women, only ZnO and Pd NPs were found to significantly delay neutrophil apoptosis in men while ZnO, TiO2, CeO2, and Pt NPs inhibit apoptosis in women neutrophils. In eosinophils, G3, but not G0 NPs, significantly accelerate apoptosis in women. ZnO, Pt, and Pd NPs significantly delay eosinophil apoptosis but only in women. Unlike neutrophils, TiO2 and CeO2 NPs did not significantly delay eosinophil apoptosis. We propose that future studies aiming at determining potential effect NPs on cellular biological processes should incorporate a sex-based analysis based on the differences reported here studying the impact of NPs on human granulocyte apoptosis.

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Topics: Programmed cell death (52%), Apoptosis (50%), Granulocyte (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FCELL.2021.695351
Luke W. Thomas1, Margaret Ashcroft1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Mitochondria are key organelles in eukaryotic evolution that perform crucial roles as metabolic and cellular signaling hubs. Mitochondrial function and dysfunction are associated with a range of diseases, including cancer. Mitochondria support cancer cell proliferation through biosynthetic reactions and their role in signaling, and can also promote tumorigenesis via processes such as the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The advent of (nuclear) genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens has provided gene-level resolution of the requirement of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial genes (NEMGs) for cancer cell viability (essentiality). More recently, it has become apparent that the essentiality of NEMGs is highly dependent on the cancer cell context. In particular, key tumor microenvironmental factors such as hypoxia, and changes in nutrient (e.g., glucose) availability, significantly influence the essentiality of NEMGs. In this mini-review we will discuss recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of NEMGs to cancer from CRISPR-Cas9 deletion screens, and discuss emerging concepts surrounding the context-dependent nature of mitochondrial gene essentiality.

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Topics: Mitochondrion (50%), Carcinogenesis (50%), Mitochondrial DNA (50%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/LT.26353
Abstract: Cirrhosis-associated immune dysfunction (CAID) describes a panacea of innate and adaptive deficits that result from the sequelae of cirrhotic portal hypertension that is similar in its manifestations regardless of etiology of chronic liver injury. CAID is associated with synchronous observations of dysregulated priming of innate immune effector cells that demonstrate a proinflammatory phenotype but are functionally impaired and unable to adequately prevent invading pathogens. CAID is mainly driven by gut-barrier dysfunction and is associated with deficits of microbial compartmentalization and homeostasis that lead to tonic activation, systemic inflammation, and exhaustion of innate-immune cells. CAID leads to a high frequency of bacterial and fungal infections in patients with cirrhosis that are often associated with acute decompensation of chronic liver disease and acute-on-chronic liver failure and carry a high mortality rate. Understanding the deficits of mucosal and systemic immunity in the context of chronic liver disease is essential to improving care for patients with cirrhosis, preventing precipitants of acute decompensation of cirrhosis, and improving morbidity and survival. In this review, we summarize the detailed dynamic immunological perturbations associated with advanced chronic liver disease and highlight the importance of recognizing immune dysregulation as a sequela of cirrhosis. Furthermore, we address the role of screening, prevention, and early treatment of infections in cirrhosis in improving patient outcomes in transplant and nontransplant settings.

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Topics: Chronic liver disease (62%), Liver transplantation (57%), Immune dysregulation (57%) ... show more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1134/S0022093021050069
Abstract: Current antiepileptic strategies aim to normalize the interaction of the excitatory and inhibitory systems, which is ineffective in treating patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. Neuroinflammatory processes in the epileptic focus and its perifocal area can trigger apoptosis and also contribute to the development of drug resistance. The level of pro- and anti-apoptotic proteins (p-NF-kB, TNF-α, p53, FAS, caspase-3, caspase-9) was analyzed in intraoperative biopsies of the temporal lobe gray and white matter in the brain of patients with drug-resistant epilepsy. An increased level of pro-apoptotic proteins was revealed in the cortex and perifocal area’s white matter against the background of an imbalance of protective anti-apoptotic proteins. It appears that the activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis occurs in the perifocal area, while in the epileptic focus, there are proteins responsible for the activation of the anti-apoptotic survival pathways. Active neuroinflammation in the epileptic focus and perifocal area of the temporal lobe may contribute to the development of the resistance to antiepileptic drugs and the progression of neurodegeneration in such patients.

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Topics: Epilepsy (54%), Drug Resistant Epilepsy (53%), Temporal lobe (52%)

References
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287 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1092385
05 Mar 2004-Science
Abstract: Neutrophils engulf and kill bacteria when their antimicrobial granules fuse with the phagosome. Here, we describe that, upon activation, neutrophils release granule proteins and chromatin that together form extracellular fibers that bind Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. These neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria. NETs are abundant in vivo in experimental dysentery and spontaneous human appendicitis, two examples of acute inflammation. NETs appear to be a form of innate response that binds microorganisms, prevents them from spreading, and ensures a high local concentration of antimicrobial agents to degrade virulence factors and kill bacteria.

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Topics: Neutrophil extracellular traps (64%), Extracellular Traps (57%), Gram-negative bacteria (53%) ... show more

6,166 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0
Puja Mehta1, Daniel F. McAuley2, Michael Brown3, Emilie Sanchez3  +3 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: www.thelancet.com Published online March 13, 2020 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30628-0 1 Submissions should be made via our electronic submission system at http://ees.elsevier.com/ thelancet/ However, in hyperinflammation, immunosuppression is likely to be beneficial. Re-analysis of data from a phase 3 randomised controlled trial of IL-1 blockade (anakinra) in sepsis, showed significant survival benefit in patients with hyperinflammation, without increased adverse events. A multicentre, randomised con trolled trial of tocilizumab (IL-6 receptor blockade, licensed for cytokine release syndrome), has been approved in patients with COVID-19: consider cytokine storm syndromes and immunosuppression

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5,489 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)00116-1
Roger J. Davis1Institutions (1)
13 Oct 2000-Cell
Abstract: MAP kinases are evolutionarily conserved proteins that are activated by a protein kinase cascade, including a MAP kinase kinase kinase, which phosphorylates a MAP kinase kinase, which in turn activates the MAP kinase by phosphorylation on Thr and Tyr residues. The primary sequence surrounding these phosphorylation sites serves to distinguish three major groups of mammalian MAP kinases. These include the Ras-activated ERK MAP kinases, which are characterized by the sequence TEY and the two stress-activated MAP kinases: p38 with the sequence TGY, and the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases (JNK) with the sequence TPY. This review will focus on the JNK group of MAP kinases.

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4,036 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.BIOCHEM.68.1.383
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Apoptosis is a genetically programmed, morphologically distinct form of cell death that can be triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological stimuli. Studies performed over the past 10 years have demonstrated that proteases play critical roles in initiation and execution of this process. The caspases, a family of cysteine-dependent aspartate-directed proteases, are prominent among the death proteases. Caspases are synthesized as relatively inactive zymogens that become activated by scaffold-mediated transactivation or by cleavage via upstream proteases in an intracellular cascade. Regulation of caspase activation and activity occurs at several different levels: (a) Zymogen gene transcription is regulated; (b) antiapoptotic members of the Bcl-2 family and other cellular polypeptides block proximity-induced activation of certain procaspases; and (c) certain cellular inhibitor of apoptosis proteins (cIAPs) can bind to and inhibit active caspases. Once activated, caspases cleave a variet...

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Topics: Intrinsic apoptosis (70%), Inhibitor of apoptosis (63%), Caspase (63%) ... show more

2,577 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1152/PHYSREV.00029.2002
Darrell E Goll1, Valery F. Thompson1, Hongqi Li1, Wei Wei1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The calpain system originally comprised three molecules: two Ca2+-dependent proteases, mu-calpain and m-calpain, and a third polypeptide, calpastatin, whose only known function is to inhibit the two calpains. Both mu- and m-calpain are heterodimers containing an identical 28-kDa subunit and an 80-kDa subunit that shares 55-65% sequence homology between the two proteases. The crystallographic structure of m-calpain reveals six "domains" in the 80-kDa subunit: 1). a 19-amino acid NH2-terminal sequence; 2). and 3). two domains that constitute the active site, IIa and IIb; 4). domain III; 5). an 18-amino acid extended sequence linking domain III to domain IV; and 6). domain IV, which resembles the penta EF-hand family of polypeptides. The single calpastatin gene can produce eight or more calpastatin polypeptides ranging from 17 to 85 kDa by use of different promoters and alternative splicing events. The physiological significance of these different calpastatins is unclear, although all bind to three different places on the calpain molecule; binding to at least two of the sites is Ca2+ dependent. Since 1989, cDNA cloning has identified 12 additional mRNAs in mammals that encode polypeptides homologous to domains IIa and IIb of the 80-kDa subunit of mu- and m-calpain, and calpain-like mRNAs have been identified in other organisms. The molecules encoded by these mRNAs have not been isolated, so little is known about their properties. How calpain activity is regulated in cells is still unclear, but the calpains ostensibly participate in a variety of cellular processes including remodeling of cytoskeletal/membrane attachments, different signal transduction pathways, and apoptosis. Deregulated calpain activity following loss of Ca2+ homeostasis results in tissue damage in response to events such as myocardial infarcts, stroke, and brain trauma.

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Topics: Calpain small subunit 1 (75%), Calpain (62%), Calpastatin (59%) ... show more

2,577 Citations


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