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Journal ArticleDOI

New Gatekeepers of Reproduction: GPR54 and Its Cognate Ligand, KiSS-1

01 Apr 2005-Endocrinology (Endocrine Society)-Vol. 146, Iss: 4, pp 1686-1688

AboutThis article is published in Endocrinology.The article was published on 2005-04-01 and is currently open access. It has received 57 citation(s) till now.

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is demonstrated that kisspeptin exerts a potent depolarizing effect on the excitability of almost all adult GnRH neurons and that the responsiveness of Gn RH neurons tokisspeptin increases over postnatal development.
Abstract: We examined the role of kisspeptin and its receptor, the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54, in governing the onset of puberty in the mouse. In the adult male and female mouse, kisspeptin (10-100 nM) evoked a remarkably potent, long-lasting depolarization of >90% of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-green fluorescent protein neurons in situ. In contrast, in juvenile [postnatal day 8 (P8) to P19] and prepubertal (P26-P33) male mice, kisspeptin activated only 27 and 44% of GnRH neurons, respectively. This developmental recruitment of GnRH neurons into a kisspeptin-responsive pool was paralleled by an increase in the ability of centrally administered kisspeptin to evoke luteinizing hormone secretion in vivo. To learn more about the mechanisms through which kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling at the GnRH neuron may change over postnatal development, we performed quantitative in situ hybridization for kisspeptin and GPR54 transcripts. Approximately 90% of GnRH neurons were found to express GPR54 mRNA in both juvenile and adult mice, without a detectable difference in the mRNA content between the age groups. In contrast, the expression of KiSS-1 mRNA increased dramatically across the transition from juvenile to adult life in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV; p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that kisspeptin exerts a potent depolarizing effect on the excitability of almost all adult GnRH neurons and that the responsiveness of GnRH neurons to kisspeptin increases over postnatal development. Together, these observations suggest that activation of GnRH neurons by kisspeptin at puberty reflects a dual process involving an increase in kisspeptin input from the AVPV and a post-transcriptional change in GPR54 signaling within the GnRH neuron.

876 citations


Cites background or result from "New Gatekeepers of Reproduction: GP..."

  • ...These findings suggest that kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling is critical for sexual maturation in humans and mice, but precisely how and where this signaling occurs and its relationship to puberty remain a mystery (Seminara and Kaiser, 2005)....

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  • ...Thus, it seems plausible that kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling within the GnRH neuronal network is critical for the pubertal activation of GnRH neurons (Popa et al., 2005; Seminara and Kaiser, 2005), and the results of recent studies support this concept....

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  • ...Hence, as a whole, these investigations have laid the foundation for the concept that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling within the GnRH neuronal network may be a “gatekeeper” for puberty onset (Seminara and Kaiser, 2005)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data are the first to provide conclusive evidence for the existence of a second KiSS gene, KiSS-2, in non-placental vertebrates, whose product is likely to play a dominant stimulatory role in the regulation of the gonadotropic axis at least in teleosts.
Abstract: Kisspeptins, the products of KiSS-1 gene, have recently emerged as fundamental regulators of reproductive function in different mammalian and, presumably, non-mammalian species. To date, a single form of KiSS-1 has been described in mammals, and recently, in several fish species and Xenopus. We report herein the cloning and characterization of two distinct KiSS-like genes, namely, KiSS-1 and KiSS-2, in the teleost sea bass. While KiSS-1 encodes a peptide identical to rodent kisspeptin-10, the predicted KiSS-2 decapeptide diverges at 4 amino acids (FNFNPFGLRF). Genome database searches showed that both genes are present in non-placental vertebrate genomes. Indeed, phylogenetic and genome mapping analyses suggest that KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 are paralogous genes that originated by duplication of an ancestral gene, although KiSS-2 is lost in placental mammals. KiSS-1 and KiSS-2 mRNAs are present in brain and gonads of sea bass, medaka and zebrafish. Comparative functional studies demonstrated that KiSS-2 decapeptide was significantly more potent than KiSS-1 peptide in inducing LH and FSH secretion in sea bass. In contrast, KiSS-2 decapeptide only weakly elicited LH secretion in rats, whereas KiSS-1 peptide was maximally effective. Our data are the first to provide conclusive evidence for the existence of a second KiSS gene, KiSS-2, in non-placental vertebrates, whose product is likely to play a dominant stimulatory role in the regulation of the gonadotropic axis at least in teleosts.

205 citations


Cites background from "New Gatekeepers of Reproduction: GP..."

  • ...Identification and characterization of the physiological roles of the so-called KiSS-1 system is a major breakthrough in modern Neuroendocrinology that has revolutionized the area of vertebrate reproduction (de Roux et al., 2003; Seminara et al., 2003; Matsui et al., 2004; Kaiser and Kuohung, 2005; Seminara, 2005; Seminara and Kaiser, 2005; Gottsch et al., 2006; Roa and Tena-Sempere, 2007; Roa et al., 2008)....

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  • ...…in modern Neuroendocrinology that has revolutionized the area of vertebrate reproduction (de Roux et al., 2003; Seminara et al., 2003; Matsui et al., 2004; Kaiser and Kuohung, 2005; Seminara, 2005; Seminara and Kaiser, 2005; Gottsch et al., 2006; Roa and Tena-Sempere, 2007; Roa et al., 2008)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present data document the ontogeny, sensitivity and intracellular signals for the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on the GnRH/LH axis in the rat and stress the essential role ofkisspeptin in normal, and eventually pathological, timing of puberty.
Abstract: Kisspeptins have recently emerged as essential regulators of gonadotropin secretion and puberty onset. These functions are primarily conducted by stimulation of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion. However, relevant aspects of KiSS-1 physiology, including the ontogeny and major signaling systems of its stimulatory action, remain to be fully elucidated. To cover these issues, the effects of kisspeptin-10 on GnRH and LH secretion were monitored at early stages of postnatal maturation, and potential changes in the sensitivity to kisspeptin were assessed along the pubertal transition in the rat. In addition, the signaling cascades involved in kisspeptin-induced GnRH secretion were explored by means of pharmacological blockade using rat hypothalamic explants. Despite sexual immaturity, kisspeptin-10 potently elicited GnRH release ex vivo and LH secretion in vivo at early stages (neonatal to juvenile) of postnatal development. Yet, LH responsiveness to low doses of kisspeptin was enhanced in peri-pubertal animals. Concerning GnRH secretion, the stimulatory action of kisspeptin-10 required activation of phospholipase-C, mobilization of intracellular Ca2+ and recruitment of ERK1/2 and p38 kinases, but was preserved after blockade of type 2 cyclo-oxygenase and prostaglandin synthesis. In summary, our present data document the ontogeny, sensitivity and intracellular signals for the stimulatory action of kisspeptin on the GnRH/LH axis in the rat. Although LH responses to low doses of kisspeptin appeared to be enhanced at puberty, kisspeptin was able to readily activate the GnRH system at early stages of postnatal maturation. These observations further stress the essential role of kisspeptin in normal, and eventually pathological, timing of puberty.

164 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: GPR54 inactivation does not impede neuroendocrine onset of puberty; rather, it delays and slows down pubertal maturation of the gonadotropic axis activation.
Abstract: Context: Loss of function of the G protein-coupled receptor of kisspeptins (GPR54) was recently described as a new cause of isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. In vivo studies performed in several species have confirmed the major role of kisspeptins in neuroendocrine regulation of the gonadotropic axis and therefore sexual maturation. Objective: The objective of this study was to specify the exact contribution of kisspeptins and GPR54 to the initiation of puberty in humans. Design: Detailed neuroendocrine descriptions were performed in five patients with isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism bearing a new GPR54-inactivating mutation. Results: A homozygous mutation (T305C) leading to a leucine substitution with proline (L102P) was found in the five affected patients. This substitution completely inhibited GPR54 signaling. Phenotypic analysis revealed variable expressivity in the same family, either partial or complete gonadotropic deficiency. LH pulsatility analysis showed peaks with normal frequency ...

163 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work evaluated maximal LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin-10, as well as changes in sensitivity and hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes, in different physiological and experimental models in the adult female rat to document for the first time the changes in leptin expression and the gonadotropic effects in different functional states of the female reproductive axis.
Abstract: Kisspeptins, products of the KiSS-1 gene with ability to bind G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54), have been recently identified as major gatekeepers of reproductive function with ability to potently activate the GnRH/LH axis. Yet, despite the diversity of functional states of the female gonadotropic axis, pharmacological characterization of this effect has been mostly conducted in pubertal animals or adult male rodents, whereas similar studies have not been thoroughly conducted in the adult female. In this work, we evaluated maximal LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin-10, as well as changes in sensitivity and hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 and GPR54 genes, in different physiological and experimental models in the adult female rat. Kisspeptin-10 (1 nmol, intracerebroventricular) was able to elicit robust LH bursts at all phases of the estrous cycle, with maximal responses at estrus; yet, in diestrus LH, responses to kisspeptin were detected at doses as low as 0.1 pmol. In contrast, high doses of kisspeptin only stimulated FSH secretion at diestrus. Removal of ovarian sex steroids did not blunt the ability of kisspeptin to further elicit stimulated LH and FSH secretion, but restoration of maximal responses required replacement with estradiol and progesterone. Finally, despite suppressed basal levels, LH and FSH secretory responses to kisspeptin were preserved in pregnant and lactating females, although the magnitude of LH bursts and the sensitivity to kisspeptin were much higher in pregnant dams. Interestingly, hypothalamic KiSS-1 gene expression significantly increased during pregnancy, whereas GPR54 mRNA levels remained unaltered. In summary, our current data document for the first time the changes in hypothalamic expression of KiSS-1 system and the gonadotropic effects (maximal responses and sensitivity) of kisspeptin in different functional states of the female reproductive axis. The present data may pose interesting implications in light of the potential therapeutic use of kisspeptin analogs in the pharmacological manipulation of the gonadotropic axis in the female.

162 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Puberty is initiated when gonadotropin-releasing hormone begins to be secreted by the hypothalamus, and complementary genetic approaches in humans and mice identified genetic factors that determine the onset of puberty.
Abstract: Background Puberty, a complex biologic process involving sexual development, accelerated linear growth, and adrenal maturation, is initiated when gonadotropin-releasing hormone begins to be secreted by the hypothalamus. We conducted studies in humans and mice to identify the genetic factors that determine the onset of puberty. Methods We used complementary genetic approaches in humans and in mice. A consanguineous family with members who lacked pubertal development (idiopathic hypogonadotropic hypogonadism) was examined for mutations in a candidate gene, GPR54, which encodes a G protein–coupled receptor. Functional differences between wild-type and mutant GPR54 were examined in vitro. In parallel, a Gpr54-deficient mouse model was created and phenotyped. Responsiveness to exogenous gonadotropin-releasing hormone was assessed in both the humans and the mice. Results Affected patients in the index pedigree were homozygous for an L148S mutation in GPR54, and an unrelated proband with idiopathic hypogonadotro...

2,092 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The present study shows that loss of function of GPR54 is a cause of IHH, and it identifies GPR 54 and possibly KiSS1 protein-derived peptide as playing a major and previously unsuspected role in the physiology of the gonadotropic axis.
Abstract: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is defined as a deficiency of the pituitary secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which results in the impairment of pubertal maturation and of reproductive function. In the absence of pituitary or hypothalamic anatomical lesions and of anosmia (Kallmann syndrome), hypogonadotropic hypogonadism is referred to as isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (IHH). A limited number of IHH cases are due to loss-of-function mutations of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor. To identify additional gene defects leading to IHH, a large consanguineous family with five affected siblings and with a normal gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor coding sequence was studied. Homozygosity whole-genome mapping allowed the localization of a new locus within the short arm of chromosome 19 (19p13). Sequencing of several genes localized within this region showed that all affected siblings of the family carried a homozygous deletion of 155 nucleotides in the GPR54 gene. This deletion encompassed the splicing acceptor site of intron 4-exon 5 junction and part of exon 5. The deletion was absent or present on only one allele in unaffected family members. GPR54 has been initially identified as an orphan G protein-coupled receptor with 40% homology to galanin receptors. Recently, a 54-aa peptide derived from the KiSS1 protein was identified as a ligand of GPR54. The present study shows that loss of function of GPR54 is a cause of IHH, and it identifies GPR54 and possibly KiSS1 protein-derived peptide as playing a major and previously unsuspected role in the physiology of the gonadotropic axis.

1,971 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Stimulation of oxytocin secretion after kisspeptin administration to rats confirmed this hypothesis that human GPR54 was highly expressed in placenta, pituitary, pancreas, and spinal cord, suggesting a role in the regulation of endocrine function.
Abstract: Natural peptides displaying agonist activity on the orphan G protein-coupled receptor GPR54 were isolated from human placenta. These 54-, 14,- and 13-amino acid peptides, with a common RF-amide C terminus, derive from the product of KiSS-1, a metastasis suppressor gene for melanoma cells, and were therefore designated kisspeptins. They bound with low nanomolar affinities to rat and human GPR54 expressed in Chinese hamster ovary K1 cells and stimulated PIP2 hydrolysis, Ca2+ mobilization, arachidonic acid release, ERK1/2 and p38 MAP kinase phosphorylation, and stress fiber formation but inhibited cell proliferation. Human GPR54 was highly expressed in placenta, pituitary, pancreas, and spinal cord, suggesting a role in the regulation of endocrine function. Stimulation of oxytocin secretion after kisspeptin administration to rats confirmed this hypothesis.

1,311 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
31 May 2001-Nature
TL;DR: It is shown that KiSS-1 encodes a carboxy-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino-acid residues, which is isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) and named ‘metastin’.
Abstract: Metastasis is a major cause of death in cancer patients and involves a multistep process including detachment of cancer cells from a primary cancer, invasion of surrounding tissue, spread through circulation, re-invasion and proliferation in distant organs. KiSS-1 is a human metastasis suppressor gene1, that suppresses metastases of human melanomas2 and breast carcinomas3 without affecting tumorigenicity. However, its gene product and functional mechanisms have not been elucidated. Here we show that KiSS-1 (refs 1, 4) encodes a carboxy-terminally amidated peptide with 54 amino-acid residues, which we have isolated from human placenta as the endogenous ligand of an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor (hOT7T175) and have named ‘metastin’. Metastin inhibits chemotaxis and invasion of hOT7T175-transfected CHO cells in vitro and attenuates pulmonary metastasis of hOT7T175-transfected B16-BL6 melanomas in vivo. The results suggest possible mechanisms of action for KiSS-1 and a potential new therapeutic approach.

1,255 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Kisspeptins are products of the KiSS-1 gene, which bind to a G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54, and it is concluded that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling may be part of the hypothalamus circuitry that governs the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH.
Abstract: Kisspeptins are products of the KiSS-1 gene, which bind to a G protein-coupled receptor known as GPR54. Mutations or targeted disruptions in the GPR54 gene cause hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in humans and mice, suggesting that kisspeptin signaling may be important for the regulation of gonadotropin secretion. To examine the effects of kisspeptin-54 (metastin) and kisspeptin-10 (the biologically active C-terminal decapeptide) on gonadotropin secretion in the mouse, we administered the kisspeptins directly into the lateral cerebral ventricle of the brain and demonstrated that both peptides stimulate LH secretion. Further characterization of kisspeptin-54 demonstrated that it stimulated both LH and FSH secretion, at doses as low as 1 fmol; moreover, this effect was shown to be blocked by pretreatment with acyline, a potent GnRH antagonist. To learn more about the functional anatomy of kisspeptins, we mapped the distribution of KiSS-1 mRNA in the hypothalamus. We observed that KiSS-1 mRNA is expressed in areas of the hypothalamus implicated in the neuroendocrine regulation of gonadotropin secretion, including the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, the periventricular nucleus, and the arcuate nucleus. We conclude that kisspeptin-GPR54 signaling may be part of the hypothalamic circuitry that governs the hypothalamic secretion of GnRH.

1,015 citations


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