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Journal ArticleDOI

New service development: areas for exploitation and exploration

01 Apr 2002-Journal of Operations Management (No longer published by Elsevier)-Vol. 20, Iss: 2, pp 135-157

AbstractThe management of new service development (NSD) has become an important competitive concern in many service industries. However, NSD remains among the least studied and understood topics in the service management literature. As a result, our current understanding of the critical resources and activities to develop new services is inadequate given NSD’s importance as a service competitiveness driver. Until recently, the generally accepted principle behind NSD was that “new services happen” rather than occurring through formal development processes. Recent efforts to address this debate have been inconclusive. Thus, additional research is needed to validate or discredit the belief that new services happen as a result of intuition, flair, and luck. Relying upon the general distinctions between research exploitation and exploration, this paper describes areas in NSD research that deserve further leveraging and refinement (i.e. exploitation) and identifies areas requiring discovery or new study (i.e. exploration). We discuss the critical substantive and research design issues facing NSD scholars such as defining new services, choice in focusing on the NSD process or performance (or both), and specification of unit of analysis. We also examine what can be exploited from the study of new product development to further understanding of NSD. Finally, we explore one important area for future NSD research exploration: the impact of the Internet on the design and development of services. We offer research opportunities and research challenges in the study of NSD throughout the paper.

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper considers the relation between the exploration of new possibilities and the exploitation of old certainties in organizational learning. It examines some complications in allocating resources between the two, particularly those introduced by the distribution of costs and benefits across time and space, and the effects of ecological interaction. Two general situations involving the development and use of knowledge in organizations are modeled. The first is the case of mutual learning between members of an organization and an organizational code. The second is the case of learning and competitive advantage in competition for primacy. The paper develops an argument that adaptive processes, by refining exploitation more rapidly than exploration, are likely to become effective in the short run but self-destructive in the long run. The possibility that certain common organizational practices ameliorate that tendency is assessed.

14,959 citations



Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The literature on product development continues to grow. This research is varied and vibrant, yet large and fragmented. In this article we first organize the burgeoning product-development literature into three streams of research: product development as rational plan, communication web, and disciplined problem solving. Second, we synthesize research findings into a model of factors affecting the success of product development. This model highlights the distinction between process performance and product effectiveness and the importance of agents, including team members, project leaders, senior management, customers, and suppliers, whose behavior affects these outcomes. Third, we indicate potential paths for future research based on the concepts and links that are missing or not well defined in the model.

3,730 citations


"New service development: areas for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…that a common set of factors—development process, market/environment, organizational and strategic—impact NPD performance (Schilling and Hill, 1998; Brown and Eisenhardt, 1995; Montoya-Weiss and Calantone, 1994) and NSD performance (de Brentani, 1995; Cooper et al., 1994; Cooper and de Brentani,…...

    [...]

  • ...This challenge is particularly difficult given the diverse literature reporting NPD research (see Krishnan and Ulrich, 2001; Wind and Mahajan, 1997; Brown and Eisenhardt, 1995)....

    [...]

  • ...The extant NPD research does not have all the answers to the questions of product or service development, but there is a foundation that can be drawn on (see integrative reviews by Krishnan and Ulrich, 2001; Schilling and Hill, 1998; Wind and Mahajan, 1997; Brown and Eisenhardt, 1995)....

    [...]

  • ...Underlying the empirical work addressing the antecedents of development performance is the belief that a common set of factors—development process, market/environment, organizational and strategic—impact NPD performance (Schilling and Hill, 1998; Brown and Eisenhardt, 1995; Montoya-Weiss and Calantone, 1994) and NSD performance (de Brentani, 1995; Cooper et al....

    [...]


Journal Article
Abstract: Many of the pioneers of Internet business, both dot-coms and established companies, have competed in ways that violate nearly every precept of good strategy. Rather than focus on profits, they have chased customers indiscriminately through discounting, channel incentives, and advertising. Rather than concentrate on delivering value that earns an attractive price from customers, they have pursued indirect revenues such as advertising and click-through fees. Rather than make trade-offs, they have rushed to offer every conceivable product or service. It did not have to be this way--and it does not have to be in the future. When it comes to reinforcing a distinctive strategy, Michael Porter argues, the Internet provides a better technological platform than previous generations of IT. Gaining competitive advantage does not require a radically new approach to business; it requires building on the proven principles of effective strategy. Porter argues that, contrary to recent thought, the Internet is not disruptive to most existing industries and established companies. It rarely nullifies important sources of competitive advantage in an industry; it often makes them even more valuable. And as all companies embrace Internet technology, the Internet itself will be neutralized as a source of advantage. Robust competitive advantages will arise instead from traditional strengths such as unique products, proprietary content, and distinctive physical activities. Internet technology may be able to fortify those advantages, but it is unlikely to supplant them. Porter debunks such Internet myths as first-mover advantage, the power of virtual companies, and the multiplying rewards of network effects. He disentangles the distorted signals from the marketplace, explains why the Internet complements rather than cannibalizes existing ways of doing business, and outlines strategic imperatives for dot-coms and traditional companies.

3,554 citations


"New service development: areas for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...The Internet dramatically reduces these barriers, as summarized in Table 3 ( Porter, 2001 )....

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  • ...A differentiation strategy is difficult to attain in a service environment where innovations are quickly and easily copied ( Porter, 2001 )....

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Book
01 Jan 1986
Abstract: Innovation is defined as the development and implementation of new ideas by people who over time engage in transactions with others within an institutional order. This definition focuses on four basic factors new ideas, people, transactions, and institutional context. An understanding of how these factors are related leads to four basic problems confronting most general managers: 1 a human problem of managing attention, 2 a process problem in managing new ideas into good currency, 3 a structural problem of managing part-whole relationships, and 4 a strategic problem of institutional leadership. This paper discusses these four basic problems and concludes by suggesting how they fit together into an overall framework to guide longitudinal study of the management of innovation.

3,355 citations


"New service development: areas for ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Focusing on NPD, Van de Ven (1986) notes four problems related to the management of development and innovation efforts....

    [...]

  • ...Focusing on NPD, Van de Ven (1986) notes four problems related to the management of development and innovation efforts....

    [...]