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Journal ArticleDOI

New State Spaces in Canada: Metropolitanization in Montreal and Toronto Compared

01 Feb 2007-Urban Geography (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 28, Iss: 1, pp 30-53
TL;DR: The authors compared the transformation of metropolitan institutions in two Canadian city-regions (Toronto and Montreal) taking Neil Brenner's argument about new state spaces as a starting point, and discussed comparatively how governance restructuring in recently consolidated Toronto and Montreal has been part of more general changes to the architecture of governance in Canada.
Abstract: This paper compares the transformation of metropolitan institutions in two Canadian city-regions (Toronto and Montreal). Taking Neil Brenner's argument about new state spaces as a starting point, we discuss comparatively how governance restructuring in recently consolidated Toronto and Montreal has been part of more general changes to the architecture of governance in Canada. We look specifically at changes to the mediation channels between civil society and metropolitan institutions. A "nationally" scaled comparison, this project must take into account the specific differences between Francophone and Anglophone Canada, between the different civic traditions in Montreal and Toronto and different traditional significance attributed to the scale and nature of metropolitan governance structures and variously scaled agency in both cities. This makes our case in many ways more like an international comparison.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors discusses the history of comparative urban studies, drawing on contributions from across the social sciences, and highlights some of the work's limits, namely its weak theorization of place, scale and causality.
Abstract: Recent years have witnessed the beginnings of a renaissance in the field of comparative urban studies. The paper discusses this body of work’s history, drawing on contributions from across the social sciences. Following this it highlights some of the work’s limits, namely its weak theorization of place, scale and causality. The paper then offers a relational comparative approach to the study of cities as a means of attending to these limits. This acknowledges both the territorial and relational geographies behind the production of cities.

368 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Neil Brenner1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors argue for greater attention to questions of method, specifically, to the mediations linking state rescaling, and propose a new line of research within this field, which they call method-based method.
Abstract: Recent work on state rescaling has opened up productive lines of theorization and research. However, this literature contains many open theoretical, interpretive, methodological and empirical questions. By drawing attention to several of these, this article aims to promote reflection and debate on possible future lines of research within this field. I argue, in particular, for greater attention to questions of method—specifically, to the mediations linking

267 citations


Cites background from "New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..."

  • ...Thus, there is now considerable evidence suggesting that state rescaling is unfolding not only within the EU but also, for instance, within parts of Eastern Europe (Drahokoupil, 2007), the USA (Cox, this issue), Canada (Boudreau et al., 2007; Mahon, 2005), Mexico (Mills, 2006), Australia (Lawson,...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors argue that the diversity of forms and land uses employed in these mega-projects inhibits the growth of oppositional and contestational practices, and that the new mega-project also demonstrates a shift from collective benefits to a more individualized form of public benefit.
Abstract: The mega-project is experiencing revived interest as a tool for urban renewal. The current mode of large-scale urban development is, however, different from its predecessor in so far as its focus is flexible and diverse rather than singular and monolithic. However, the diversity that the new approach offers, we argue, forecloses upon a wide variety of social practices, reproducing rather than resolving urban inequality and disenfranchisement. Further, we suggest that the diversity of forms and land uses employed in these mega-projects inhibits the growth of oppositional and contestational practices. The new mega-project also demonstrates a shift from collective benefits to a more individualized form of public benefit. The article is based on Toronto's recent waterfront development proposals, which we identify as an example of a new paradigm of mega-project development within the framework of the competitive city. Its stated but paradoxical goal is to specialize in everything, allowing for the pretence that all interests are being served while simultaneously re-inscribing and reinforcing socioeconomic divisions. Our findings are centred on four areas: institutional change; the importance of mega-projects to global interurban competition; the exclusive nature of public participation processes; and the increasing commodification and circumscription of urban public space.

260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Jan Nijman1
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors introduce comparative urbanism and compare it to urban geography, and present a comparison of the two approaches in terms of the urban environment and the urban geography.
Abstract: (2007). Introduction—Comparative Urbanism. Urban Geography: Vol. 28, Comparative Urbanism, pp. 1-6.

191 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The authors examines the emergence of city-region governance as a specific state spatial selectivity in post-reform China and argues that the Chinese city region corresponds to specific logics of scale production.
Abstract: This article examines the emergence of city-region governance as a specific state spatial selectivity in post-reform China. The process has been driven by the state in response to the crisis of economic decentralization, and to vicious inter-city competition and uncoordinated development. As part of the recentralization of state power, the development of urban clusters (chengshiqun) as interconnected city-regions is now a salient feature of 'new urbanization' policy. I argue in this article that the Chinese city-region corresponds to specific logics of scale production. Economic globalization has led to the development of local economies and further created the need to foster 'regional competitiveness'. To cope with regulatory deficit at the regional level, three mechanisms have been orchestrated by the state: administrative annexation, spatial plan preparation and regional institution building, which reflect recent upscaling in post-reform governance.

173 citations


Cites background or result from "New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..."

  • ...Similar to what Boudreau et al. (2007) found in the process of metropolitanization as ‘state rescaling strategy’ in Canadian cities, Chinese metropolitanization is a regulatory exercise that uses the metropolitan region as a scale to manage economic development....

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  • ...Within Western economies, diversity still exists: for example, in their work on Canadian cities, Boudreau et al. (2007) compare the consolidated Toronto and Montreal city-regions and examine the relationship between civil society and metropolitan institutions under different Francophone and…...

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References
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Book
01 Jan 1995
TL;DR: In this paper, state agencies, local entrepreneurs, and transnational corporations shaped the emergence of computer industries in Brazil, India, and Korea during the seventies and eighties, and the success and failures of state involvement in the process of industrialization have been analyzed.
Abstract: From the Publisher: In recent years, debate on the state's economic role has too often devolved into diatribes against intervention. Peter Evans questions such simplistic views, offering a new vision of why state involvement works in some cases and produces disasters in others. To illustrate, he looks at how state agencies, local entrepreneurs, and transnational corporations shaped the emergence of computer industries in Brazil, India, and Korea during the seventies and eighties. Evans starts with the idea that states vary in the way they are organized and tied to society. In some nations, like Zaire, the state is predatory, ruthlessly extracting and providing nothing of value in return. In others, like Korea, it is developmental, promoting industrial transformation. In still others, like Brazil and India, it is in-between, sometimes helping, sometimes hindering. Evans's years of comparative research on the successes and failures of state involvement in the process of industrialization have here been crafted into a persuasive and entertaining work, which demonstrates that successful state action requires an understanding of its own limits, a realistic relationship to the global economy, and the combination of coherent internal organization and close links to society that Evans calls "embedded autonomy."

3,803 citations


"New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…pointed out “the scholar is faced with the challenge of striking the right balance between reducing complexity and uncovering the causal mechanisms on one hand, and allowing for contextual richness—what Evans calls the ‘overall gestalt’ of the case—on the other” (Pierre, 2005, p. 456; Evans, 1995)....

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  • ...In addition, as Pierre pointed out “the scholar is faced with the challenge of striking the right balance between reducing complexity and uncovering the causal mechanisms on one hand, and allowing for contextual richness—what Evans calls the ‘overall gestalt’ of the case—on the other” (Pierre, 2005, p. 456; Evans, 1995)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jul 2002-Antipode
TL;DR: In this article, a critical geographical perspective on neoliberalism is presented, emphasizing the path-dependent character of neoliberal reform projects and the strategic role of cities in the contemporary remaking of political-economic space.
Abstract: This essay elaborates a critical geographical perspective on neoliberalism that emphasizes (a) the path–dependent character of neoliberal reform projects and (b) the strategic role of cities in the contemporary remaking of political–economic space. We begin by presenting the methodological foundations for an approach to the geographies of what we term “actually existing neoliberalism.” In contrast to neoliberal ideology, in which market forces are assumed to operate according to immutable laws no matter where they are “unleashed,” we emphasize the contextual embeddedness of neoliberal restructuring projects insofar as they have been produced within national, regional, and local contexts defined by the legacies of inherited institutional frameworks, policy regimes, regulatory practices, and political struggles. An adequate understanding of actually existing neoliberalism must therefore explore the path–dependent, contextually specific interactions between inherited regulatory landscapes and emergent neoliberal, market–oriented restructuring projects at a broad range of geographical scales. These considerations lead to a conceptualization of contemporary neoliberalization processes as catalysts and expressions of an ongoing creative destruction of political–economic space at multiple geographical scales. While the neoliberal restructuring projects of the last two decades have not established a coherent basis for sustainable capitalist growth, it can be argued that they have nonetheless profoundly reworked the institutional infrastructures upon which Fordist–Keynesian capitalism was grounded. The concept of creative destruction is presented as a useful means for describing the geographically uneven, socially regressive, and politically volatile trajectories of institutional/spatial change that have been crystallizing under these conditions. The essay concludes by discussing the role of urban spaces within the contradictory and chronically unstable geographies of actually existing neoliberalism. Throughout the advanced capitalist world, we suggest, cities have become strategically crucial geographical arenas in which a variety of neoliberal initiatives—along with closely intertwined strategies of crisis displacement and crisis management—have been articulated.

2,818 citations


"New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...…neoliberalization: “While the processes of institutional creative destruction associated with actually existing neoliberalism are clearly transpiring at all spatial scales, it can be argued that they are occurring with particular intensity at the urban scale” (Brenner and Theodore, 2002, p. 367)....

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MonographDOI
09 Sep 2004

1,730 citations


"New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(Brenner, 2004, p. 180) This double tendency clearly also exists in Canada, where generally increased urbanization has bifurcated into a pattern of globalized, successful, growing, dynamic city regions (e.g., Calgary-Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, and, with reservations, Winnipeg)…...

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  • ...We are taking as the starting point for this paper the recent book by Neil Brenner (2004), New State Spaces, which provides a far-reaching and encyclopedic overview of the rescaling of urban governance in Europe in the last half-century....

    [...]

  • ...(Brenner, 2004, p. 2) It is clear that, while it has taken about two decades for Canada to fall in line with other nations where urban governance has played a more important role earlier, it has now arrived with a vengeance, epitomized by the New Deal for Cities.5 This delay is surprising because,…...

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  • ...…Warren Magnusson (1996) for Canada: acknowledging the existence of central state strategies at work in the past century, Brenner notes that these “are today being widely superseded as a more polycentric, multiscalar, and non-isomorphic configuration of statehood is created” (Brenner, 2004, p. 4)....

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  • ...We have used as a lens three important insights from Neil Brenner’s work on state rescaling and metropolitanization in Europe, which we transposed to the Canadian context....

    [...]

Book
18 Nov 2004
TL;DR: The State Spatial Process under Capitalism: A Framework for Analysis as discussed by the authors ) is a state spatial process under capitalism framework for analysis, focusing on cities, states, and the explosion of spaces.
Abstract: Preface 1 Introduction: Cities, States, and the 'Explosion of Spaces' 2 The Globalization Debates: Opening up to New Spaces? 3 The State Spatial Process under Capitalism: A Framework for Analysis 4 Urban Governance and the Nationalization of State Space: Political Geographies of Spatial Keynesianism 5 Interlocality Competition as a State Project: Urban Locational Policy and the Rescaling of State Space 6 Alternative Rescaling Strategies and the Future of New State Spaces Bibliography Index

1,459 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Crampton argues that the political parallel between mapping and sexual practices is tenuous at best, or may not even exist, and argues that those with power and privilege may well indulge themselves to meet their own idiosyncratic psychological needs for the sake of pleasures.
Abstract: His ethical framework needs more fine-tuning for at least two reasons. First, this ethical framework seems to be disconnected from the issues discussed in the book. Instead of showing how the ethical framework can guide us to better cope with issues such as authenticity, privacy, surveillance, and digital divide, the author indulges in a rather abstract philosophical discussion for its own sake in the final chapter. And second, although the pleasure of mapping cannot be denied, it is a stretch to elevate ‘‘pleasure’’ to be a guiding ethical principle directing our mapping practices in the real world. In weaving his argument about the pleasure principle applied to mapping, Crampton draws heavily on McWhorter’s (1999) work on societal pressure for sexual normalization. The political parallel between mapping versus sexual practices is tenuous at best, or may not even exist. If our future mapping effort is indeed guided by the pleasure principle, those with power and privilege may well indulge themselves to meet their own idiosyncratic psychological needs for the sake of pleasures, which will result in the perpetuation of inequity and divide what the framework aims to eradicate. Therefore, the proposed ethical framework has perhaps created a new set of problematics (if I can borrow from the Foucauldian vocabulary). However, we are reminded by Crampton that ‘‘as long as cyberspace is a problem, we will always have something to do’’ (p. 15), which is indeed a comforting thought for all of us in academia.

926 citations


"New State Spaces in Canada: Metropo..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(Brenner, 2004, p. 180) This double tendency clearly also exists in Canada, where generally increased urbanization has bifurcated into a pattern of globalized, successful, growing, dynamic city regions (e.g., Calgary-Edmonton, Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Vancouver, and, with reservations, Winnipeg)…...

    [...]

  • ...We are taking as the starting point for this paper the recent book by Neil Brenner (2004), New State Spaces, which provides a far-reaching and encyclopedic overview of the rescaling of urban governance in Europe in the last half-century....

    [...]

  • ...(Brenner, 2004, p. 2) It is clear that, while it has taken about two decades for Canada to fall in line with other nations where urban governance has played a more important role earlier, it has now arrived with a vengeance, epitomized by the New Deal for Cities.5 This delay is surprising because,…...

    [...]

  • ...…Warren Magnusson (1996) for Canada: acknowledging the existence of central state strategies at work in the past century, Brenner notes that these “are today being widely superseded as a more polycentric, multiscalar, and non-isomorphic configuration of statehood is created” (Brenner, 2004, p. 4)....

    [...]

  • ...We have used as a lens three important insights from Neil Brenner’s work on state rescaling and metropolitanization in Europe, which we transposed to the Canadian context....

    [...]