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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/S41598-020-79590-7

Next generation methodology for updating HA vaccines against emerging human seasonal influenza A(H3N2) viruses.

02 Mar 2021-Scientific Reports (Nature Publishing Group)-Vol. 11, Iss: 1, pp 1-14
Abstract: While vaccines remain the best tool for preventing influenza virus infections, they have demonstrated low to moderate effectiveness in recent years. Seasonal influenza vaccines typically consist of wild-type influenza A and B viruses that are limited in their ability to elicit protective immune responses against co-circulating influenza virus variant strains. Improved influenza virus vaccines need to elicit protective immune responses against multiple influenza virus drift variants within each season. Broadly reactive vaccine candidates potentially provide a solution to this problem, but their efficacy may begin to wane as influenza viruses naturally mutate through processes that mediates drift. Thus, it is necessary to develop a method that commercial vaccine manufacturers can use to update broadly reactive vaccine antigens to better protect against future and currently circulating viral variants. Building upon the COBRA technology, nine next-generation H3N2 influenza hemagglutinin (HA) vaccines were designed using a next generation algorithm and design methodology. These next-generation broadly reactive COBRA H3 HA vaccines were superior to wild-type HA vaccines at eliciting antibodies with high HAI activity against a panel of historical and co-circulating H3N2 influenza viruses isolated over the last 15 years, as well as the ability to neutralize future emerging H3N2 isolates.

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Topics: Hemagglutinin (influenza) (57%), Virus (51%)

7 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/V13060973
Quyen-Thi Nguyen1, Young-Ki Choi1Institutions (1)
24 May 2021-Viruses
Abstract: Traditional influenza vaccines generate strain-specific antibodies which cannot provide protection against divergent influenza virus strains. Further, due to frequent antigenic shifts and drift of influenza viruses, annual reformulation and revaccination are required in order to match circulating strains. Thus, the development of a universal influenza vaccine (UIV) is critical for long-term protection against all seasonal influenza virus strains, as well as to provide protection against a potential pandemic virus. One of the most important strategies in the development of UIVs is the selection of optimal targeting antigens to generate broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies or cross-reactive T cell responses against divergent influenza virus strains. However, each type of target antigen for UIVs has advantages and limitations for the generation of sufficient immune responses against divergent influenza viruses. Herein, we review current strategies and perspectives regarding the use of antigens, including hemagglutinin, neuraminidase, matrix proteins, and internal proteins, for universal influenza vaccine development.

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Topics: Influenza vaccine (73%), Neuraminidase (60%), Hemagglutinin (influenza) (59%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9070793
Ying Huang1, Monique França1, James D. Allen1, Hua Shi1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
16 Jul 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: Vaccination is the best way to prevent influenza virus infections, but the diversity of antigenically distinct isolates is a persistent challenge for vaccine development. In order to conquer the antigenic variability and improve influenza virus vaccine efficacy, our research group has developed computationally optimized broadly reactive antigens (COBRAs) in the form of recombinant hemagglutinins (rHAs) to elicit broader immune responses. However, previous COBRA H1N1 vaccines do not elicit immune responses that neutralize H1N1 virus strains in circulation during the recent years. In order to update our COBRA vaccine, two new candidate COBRA HA vaccines, Y2 and Y4, were generated using a new seasonal-based COBRA methodology derived from H1N1 isolates that circulated during 2013–2019. In this study, the effectiveness of COBRA Y2 and Y4 vaccines were evaluated in mice, and the elicited immune responses were compared to those generated by historical H1 COBRA HA and wild-type H1N1 HA vaccines. Mice vaccinated with the next generation COBRA HA vaccines effectively protected against morbidity and mortality after infection with H1N1 influenza viruses. The antibodies elicited by the COBRA HA vaccines were highly cross-reactive with influenza A (H1N1) pdm09-like viruses isolated from 2009 to 2021, especially with the most recent circulating viruses from 2019 to 2021. Furthermore, viral loads in lungs of mice vaccinated with Y2 and Y4 were dramatically reduced to low or undetectable levels, resulting in minimal lung injury compared to wild-type HA vaccines following H1N1 influenza virus infection.

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Topics: Vaccination (55%), Cobra (53%), Lung injury (52%) ... show more

1 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/PATHOGENS10111352
Ivette A. Nuñez1, Ying Huang1, Ted M. Ross1Institutions (1)
20 Oct 2021-Pathogenetics
Abstract: H5N1 COBRA hemagglutinin (HA) sequences, termed human COBRA-2 HA, were constructed through layering of HA sequences from viruses isolated from humans collected between 2004-2007 using only clade 2 strains. These COBRA HA proteins, when expressed on the surface of virus-like particles (VLP), elicited protective immune responses in mice, ferrets, and non-human primates. However, these vaccines were not as effective at inducing neutralizing antibodies against newly circulating viruses. Therefore, COBRA HA-based vaccines were updated in order to elicit protective antibodies against the current circulating clades of H5Nx viruses. Next-generation COBRA HA vaccines were designed to encompass the newly emerging viruses circulating in wild avian populations. HA amino acid sequences from avian and human H5 influenza viruses isolated between 2011-2017 were downloaded from the GISAID (Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data). Mice were vaccinated with H5 COBRA rHA that elicited antibodies with hemagglutinin inhibition (HAI) activity against H5Nx viruses from five clades. The H5 COBRA rHA vaccine, termed IAN8, elicited protective immune responses against mice challenged with A/Sichuan/26621/2014 and A/Vietnam/1203/2004. This vaccine elicited antibodies with HAI activity against viruses from clades 2.2,,, 2.2.1 and 2.2.2. Lungs from vaccinated mice had decreased viral titers and the levels of cellular infiltration in mice vaccinated with IAN-8 rHA were similar to mice vaccinated with wild-type HA comparator vaccines or mock vaccinated controls. Overall, these next-generation H5 COBRA HA vaccines elicited protective antibodies against both historical H5Nx influenza viruses, as well as currently circulating clades of H5N1, H5N6, and H5N8 influenza viruses.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3389/FIMMU.2021.707339
James D. Allen1, Ted M. Ross1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Each person has a unique immune history to past influenza virus infections. Exposure to influenza viruses early in life establishes memory B cell populations that influence future immune responses to influenza vaccination. Current influenza vaccines elicit antibodies that are typically strain specific and do not offer broad protection against antigenically drifted influenza strains in all age groups of people. This is particularly true for vaccine antigens of the A(H3N2) influenza virus subtype, where continual antigenic drift necessitates frequent vaccine reformulation. Broadly-reactive influenza virus vaccine antigens offer a solution to combat antigenic drift, but they also need to be equally effective in all populations, regardless of prior influenza virus exposure history. This study examined the role that pre-existing immunity plays on influenza virus vaccination. Ferrets were infected with historical A(H3N2) influenza viruses isolated from either the 1970's, 1980's, or 1990's and then vaccinated with computationally optimized broadly reactive antigens (COBRA) or wild-type (WT) influenza virus like particles (VLPs) expressing hemagglutinin (HA) vaccine antigens to examine the expansion of immune breadth. Vaccines with the H3 COBRA HA antigens had more cross-reactive antibodies following a single vaccination in all three pre-immune regimens than vaccines with WT H3 HA antigens against historical, contemporary, and future drifted A(H3N2) influenza viruses. The H3 COBRA HA vaccines also induced antibodies capable of neutralizing live virus infections against modern drifted A(H3N2) strains at higher titers than the WT H3 HA vaccine comparators.

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Topics: Antigenic drift (70%), Vaccination (59%), Hemagglutinin (influenza) (58%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/VACCINES9070787
14 Jul 2021-Vaccine
Abstract: Animal models have been an important tool for the development of influenza virus vaccines since the 1940s. Over the past 80 years, influenza virus vaccines have evolved into more complex formulations, including trivalent and quadrivalent inactivated vaccines, live-attenuated vaccines, and subunit vaccines. However, annual effectiveness data shows that current vaccines have varying levels of protection that range between 40–60% and must be reformulated every few years to combat antigenic drift. To address these issues, novel influenza virus vaccines are currently in development. These vaccines rely heavily on animal models to determine efficacy and immunogenicity. In this review, we describe seasonal and novel influenza virus vaccines and highlight important animal models used to develop them.

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Topics: Antigenic drift (56%)


56 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/NAR/GKN180
Abstract: Phylogenetic analyses are central to many research areas in biology and typically involve the identification of homologous sequences, their multiple alignment, the phylogenetic reconstruction and the graphical representation of the inferred tree. The platform transparently chains programs to automatically perform these tasks. It is primarily designed for biologists with no experience in phylogeny, but can also meet the needs of specialists; the first ones will find up-to-date tools chained in a phylogeny pipeline to analyze their data in a simple and robust way, while the specialists will be able to easily build and run sophisticated analyses. offers three main modes. The ‘One Click’ mode targets non-specialists and provides a ready-to-use pipeline chaining programs with recognized accuracy and speed: MUSCLE for multiple alignment, PhyML for tree building, and TreeDyn for tree rendering. All parameters are set up to suit most studies, and users only have to provide their input sequences to obtain a ready-to-print tree. The ‘Advanced’ mode uses the same pipeline but allows the parameters of each program to be customized by users. The ‘A la Carte’ mode offers more flexibility and sophistication, as users can build their own pipeline by selecting and setting up the required steps from a large choice of tools to suit their specific needs. Prior to phylogenetic analysis, users can also collect neighbors of a query sequence by running BLAST on general or specialized databases. A guide tree then helps to select neighbor sequences to be used as input for the phylogeny pipeline. is available at:

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3,930 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)33293-2
13 Dec 2017-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Estimates of influenza-associated mortality are important for national and international decision making on public health priorities. Previous estimates of 250 000–500 000 annual influenza deaths are outdated. We updated the estimated number of global annual influenza-associated respiratory deaths using country-specific influenza-associated excess respiratory mortality estimates from 1999–2015. Methods We estimated country-specific influenza-associated respiratory excess mortality rates (EMR) for 33 countries using time series log-linear regression models with vital death records and influenza surveillance data. To extrapolate estimates to countries without data, we divided countries into three analytic divisions for three age groups ( Findings EMR-contributing countries represented 57% of the global population. The estimated mean annual influenza-associated respiratory EMR ranged from 0·1 to 6·4 per 100 000 individuals for people younger than 65 years, 2·9 to 44·0 per 100 000 individuals for people aged between 65 and 74 years, and 17·9 to 223·5 per 100 000 for people older than 75 years. We estimated that 291 243–645 832 seasonal influenza-associated respiratory deaths (4·0–8·8 per 100 000 individuals) occur annually. The highest mortality rates were estimated in sub-Saharan Africa (2·8–16·5 per 100 000 individuals), southeast Asia (3·5–9·2 per 100 000 individuals), and among people aged 75 years or older (51·3–99·4 per 100 000 individuals). For 92 countries, we estimated that among children younger than 5 years, 9243–105 690 influenza-associated respiratory deaths occur annually. Interpretation These global influenza-associated respiratory mortality estimates are higher than previously reported, suggesting that previous estimates might have underestimated disease burden. The contribution of non-respiratory causes of death to global influenza-associated mortality should be investigated. Funding None.

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Topics: Mortality rate (62%), Disease burden (54%)

1,079 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1146/ANNUREV.IY.08.040190.003513
Ian A. Wilson1, Nancy J. CoxInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Article de synthese sur la structure et la fonction de l'hemagglutinine (HA), la variation naturelle de l'HA, les reponses des cellules B et T a l'HA, la neutralisation du virus, et l'immunite apportee par les vaccins

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Topics: Orthomyxoviridae (50%)

549 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/S12929-019-0592-Z
Ruei-Min Lu1, Yu-Chyi Hwang1, I-Ju Liu1, Chi-Chiu Lee1  +3 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: It has been more than three decades since the first monoclonal antibody was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration (US FDA) in 1986, and during this time, antibody engineering has dramatically evolved. Current antibody drugs have increasingly fewer adverse effects due to their high specificity. As a result, therapeutic antibodies have become the predominant class of new drugs developed in recent years. Over the past five years, antibodies have become the best-selling drugs in the pharmaceutical market, and in 2018, eight of the top ten bestselling drugs worldwide were biologics. The global therapeutic monoclonal antibody market was valued at approximately US$115.2 billion in 2018 and is expected to generate revenue of $150 billion by the end of 2019 and $300 billion by 2025. Thus, the market for therapeutic antibody drugs has experienced explosive growth as new drugs have been approved for treating various human diseases, including many cancers, autoimmune, metabolic and infectious diseases. As of December 2019, 79 therapeutic mAbs have been approved by the US FDA, but there is still significant growth potential. This review summarizes the latest market trends and outlines the preeminent antibody engineering technologies used in the development of therapeutic antibody drugs, such as humanization of monoclonal antibodies, phage display, the human antibody mouse, single B cell antibody technology, and affinity maturation. Finally, future applications and perspectives are also discussed.

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Topics: Humanized antibody (53%)

423 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-3-63
31 Aug 2006-Virology Journal
Abstract: Plaque assays in cell culture monolayers under solid or semisolid overlay media are commonly used for quantification of viruses and antiviral substances. To overcome the pitfalls of known overlays, we tested suspensions of microcrystalline cellulose Avicel RC/CL™ as overlay media in the plaque and plaque-inhibition assay of influenza viruses. Significantly larger plaques were formed under Avicel-containing media, as compared to agar and methylcellulose (MC) overlay media. The plaque size increased with decreasing Avicel concentration, but even very diluted Avicel overlays (0.3%) ensured formation of localized plaques. Due to their low viscosity, Avicel overlays were easier to use than methylcellulose overlays, especially in the 96-well culture plates. Furthermore, Avicel overlay could be applied without prior removal of the virus inoculum thus facilitating the assay and reducing chances of cross-contamination. Using neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir carboxylate, we demonstrated applicability of the Avicel-based plaque reduction assay for testing of antiviral substances. Plaque assay under Avicel-containing overlay media is easier, faster and more sensitive than assays under agar- and methylcellulose overlays. The assay can be readily performed in a 96-well plate format and seems particularly suitable for high-throughput virus titrations, serological studies and experiments on viral drug sensitivity. It may also facilitate work with highly pathogenic agents performed under hampered conditions of bio-safety labs.

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Topics: Viral Plaque Assay (56%)

409 Citations

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