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Proceedings ArticleDOI

Non-destructive evaluation of GFRP-wood sandwich structure composite using terahertz imaging

23 Feb 2018-Vol. 10531

AbstractEngineering of novel structures with high strength to weight ratio for applications in aerospace, renewable energy and naval industries has resulted in an increased popularity of sandwich structured composites. A sandwich-structured composite is fabricated by bonding a thick lightweight core between two stiff, thin skins such as Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP). Balsawood is a type of homogeneous core which is widely used for renewable energy structures, such as wind turbine blades. In this paper, a GFRP-balsawood sandwich structure is evaluated non-destructively for internal defects such as holes, using a CW Terahertz system in transmission mode. Internal defects will give rise to differential THz transmission and hence can be identified using THz imaging. The imaging studies are carried out with a central frequency of 0.35 THz and the sample is raster scanned using 2-D translational stages controlled by high precision stepper motors in x-y directions to obtain the THz image. The image acquired using CW THz system clearly identifies the defects in the GFRP-balsawood composite structure with good contrast demonstrating the potential of THz imaging for non-destructive testing of sandwich composite structures.

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Citations
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 2018

3 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
02 Mar 2020
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) imaging is an attractive alternate to ultrasonic based Non-destructive Evaluation (NDE) especially for Fiber Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) such as Glass FRP (GFRP) composites as the latter demands proximity and additional coupling medium for the best performance. Typically, THz imaging system uses a single emitter-detector configuration employing raster scan method for image acquisition. The image acquisition speed is greatly limited by the speed of the mechanical stages and hence its usage in real-time industrial NDT applications such as in-line quality control has been limited. Alternatively, having an array of detectors will significantly increase the system cost. As an optimal compromise for speed and cost, line scanners are highly desirable. In this work, rapid imaging performance of a THz line scanner has been studied by imaging closely spaced defects in GFRP composites using a 100 GHz source. The total acquisition time for imaging the GFRP sample of dimensions 55× 35 mm2 is 10 s, which is >100 times faster compared to a conventional raster scanning technique. In addition, image deconvolution techniques such as Lucy Richardson and Weiner deconvolution have been adopted to improve the quality of the acquired THz images. The results show that the THz line scanners can successfully be employed for rapid defect detection in GFRP composites.

1 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Mar 2019
Abstract: Terahertz (THz) technology is a competent non-destructive evaluation (NDE) technique, particularly for advanced materials such as Fibre Reinforced Polymer (FRP) composites due to its ability to penetrate most non-metallic and nonpolar substances. Typically, THz NDE studies are carried out using expensive and broadband pulsed THz systems limiting their widespread use in practical applications. In contrast, Continuous wave (CW) THz systems can potentially be a narrowband, cost-effective and scalable solution for NDE applications. However, conventional CW THz systems employ a coherent detection scheme which results in large acquisition time per pixel thus limiting their real-time applicability. In this paper, a CW THz system with incoherent detection scheme using Schottky receiver along with spatial adaptive sampling technique is employed to achieve rapid THz imaging of Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) composite with artificial defects. Here, an initial coarse scan of 2 mm step size has been done, and gradient based thresholding criterion is used for identifying the regions of interest to progressively scan the sample with finer resolution down to a step size of 0.5 mm. Results demonstrate a total reduction in the image acquisition time by a factor of 50 compared to the coherent CW THz imaging. Further, the THz image acquired through adaptive sampling shows excellent correlation with that of the traditional uniformly sampled THz image with 0.5 mm step size.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Glass fiber-reinforced composite laminates in polyetherimide resin have been studied via terahertz imaging and ultrasonic C-scans. The forced delamination is created by inserting Teflon film between various layers inside the samples prior to consolidating the laminates. Using reflective pulsed terahertz imaging, we find high-resolution, low-artifact terahertz C-scan and B-scan images locating and sizing the delamination in three dimensions. Furthermore, terahertz imaging enables us to determine the thicknesses of the delamination and of the layers constituting the laminate. Ultrasonic C-scan images are also successfully obtained; however, in our samples with small thickness-to-wavelength ratio, detailed ultrasonic B-scan images providing quantitative information in depth cannot be obtained by 5 MHz or 10 MHz focused transducers. Comparative analysis between terahertz imaging and ultrasonic C-scans with regard to spatial resolution is carried out demonstrating that terahertz imaging provides higher spatial resolution for imaging, and can be regarded as an alternative or complementary modality to ultrasonic C-scans for this class of glass fiber-reinforced composites.

93 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The usability of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation for the inspection of composite materials from the aeronautics industry is investigated, with the goal of developing a mobile time-domain spectroscopy system that operates in reflection geometry. A wide range of samples based on glass and carbon fiber reinforced plastics with various types of defects is examined using an imaging system; the results are evaluated both in time and frequency domain. The conductivity of carbon fibers prevents penetration of the respective samples but also allows analysis of coatings from the reflected THz pulses. Glass fiber composites are, in principle, transparent for THz radiation, but commonly with significant absorption for wavelengths >1 THz . Depending on depth, matrix material, and size, defects like foreign material inserts, delaminations, or moisture contamination can be visualized. If a defect is not too deep in the sample, its location can be correctly identified from the delay between partial reflections at the surface and the defect itself.

92 citations