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Journal ArticleDOI

Noncooperative Cellular Wireless with Unlimited Numbers of Base Station Antennas

Thomas L. Marzetta1
01 Nov 2010-IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications (IEEE)-Vol. 9, Iss: 11, pp 3590-3600
TL;DR: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval and a complete multi-cellular analysis yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve.
Abstract: A cellular base station serves a multiplicity of single-antenna terminals over the same time-frequency interval. Time-division duplex operation combined with reverse-link pilots enables the base station to estimate the reciprocal forward- and reverse-link channels. The conjugate-transpose of the channel estimates are used as a linear precoder and combiner respectively on the forward and reverse links. Propagation, unknown to both terminals and base station, comprises fast fading, log-normal shadow fading, and geometric attenuation. In the limit of an infinite number of antennas a complete multi-cellular analysis, which accounts for inter-cellular interference and the overhead and errors associated with channel-state information, yields a number of mathematically exact conclusions and points to a desirable direction towards which cellular wireless could evolve. In particular the effects of uncorrelated noise and fast fading vanish, throughput and the number of terminals are independent of the size of the cells, spectral efficiency is independent of bandwidth, and the required transmitted energy per bit vanishes. The only remaining impairment is inter-cellular interference caused by re-use of the pilot sequences in other cells (pilot contamination) which does not vanish with unlimited number of antennas.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.
Abstract: What will 5G be? What it will not be is an incremental advance on 4G. The previous four generations of cellular technology have each been a major paradigm shift that has broken backward compatibility. Indeed, 5G will need to be a paradigm shift that includes very high carrier frequencies with massive bandwidths, extreme base station and device densities, and unprecedented numbers of antennas. However, unlike the previous four generations, it will also be highly integrative: tying any new 5G air interface and spectrum together with LTE and WiFi to provide universal high-rate coverage and a seamless user experience. To support this, the core network will also have to reach unprecedented levels of flexibility and intelligence, spectrum regulation will need to be rethought and improved, and energy and cost efficiencies will become even more critical considerations. This paper discusses all of these topics, identifying key challenges for future research and preliminary 5G standardization activities, while providing a comprehensive overview of the current literature, and in particular of the papers appearing in this special issue.

7,139 citations


Cites background from "Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..."

  • ...• An excellent pairing for MIMO, since OFDM allows for the spatial interference from multiantenna transmission to be dealt with at a subcarrier level, without the added complication of intersymbol interference....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios.
Abstract: Multi-user MIMO offers big advantages over conventional point-to-point MIMO: it works with cheap single-antenna terminals, a rich scattering environment is not required, and resource allocation is simplified because every active terminal utilizes all of the time-frequency bins. However, multi-user MIMO, as originally envisioned, with roughly equal numbers of service antennas and terminals and frequency-division duplex operation, is not a scalable technology. Massive MIMO (also known as large-scale antenna systems, very large MIMO, hyper MIMO, full-dimension MIMO, and ARGOS) makes a clean break with current practice through the use of a large excess of service antennas over active terminals and time-division duplex operation. Extra antennas help by focusing energy into ever smaller regions of space to bring huge improvements in throughput and radiated energy efficiency. Other benefits of massive MIMO include extensive use of inexpensive low-power components, reduced latency, simplification of the MAC layer, and robustness against intentional jamming. The anticipated throughput depends on the propagation environment providing asymptotically orthogonal channels to the terminals, but so far experiments have not disclosed any limitations in this regard. While massive MIMO renders many traditional research problems irrelevant, it uncovers entirely new problems that urgently need attention: the challenge of making many low-cost low-precision components that work effectively together, acquisition and synchronization for newly joined terminals, the exploitation of extra degrees of freedom provided by the excess of service antennas, reducing internal power consumption to achieve total energy efficiency reductions, and finding new deployment scenarios. This article presents an overview of the massive MIMO concept and contemporary research on the topic.

6,184 citations


Cites background from "Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..."

  • ...In [13], for a typical operating scenario, the maximum number of orthogonal pilot sequences in a one millisecond coherence interval is estimated to be about 200....

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  • ...Pilot contamination as a basic phenomenon is not really specific to massive MIMO, but its effect on massive MIMO appears to be much more profound than in classical MIMO [13,14]....

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  • ...This directed interference grows with the number of service-antennas at the same rate as the desired signal [13]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The gains in multiuser systems are even more impressive, because such systems offer the possibility to transmit simultaneously to several users and the flexibility to select what users to schedule for reception at any given point in time.
Abstract: Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) technology is maturing and is being incorporated into emerging wireless broadband standards like long-term evolution (LTE) [1]. For example, the LTE standard allows for up to eight antenna ports at the base station. Basically, the more antennas the transmitter/receiver is equipped with, and the more degrees of freedom that the propagation channel can provide, the better the performance in terms of data rate or link reliability. More precisely, on a quasi static channel where a code word spans across only one time and frequency coherence interval, the reliability of a point-to-point MIMO link scales according to Prob(link outage) ` SNR-ntnr where nt and nr are the numbers of transmit and receive antennas, respectively, and signal-to-noise ratio is denoted by SNR. On a channel that varies rapidly as a function of time and frequency, and where circumstances permit coding across many channel coherence intervals, the achievable rate scales as min(nt, nr) log(1 + SNR). The gains in multiuser systems are even more impressive, because such systems offer the possibility to transmit simultaneously to several users and the flexibility to select what users to schedule for reception at any given point in time [2].

5,158 citations


Cites background from "Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..."

  • ...Our emphasis on TDD rather than FDD is driven by the need to acquire channel state-information between extreme numbers of service antennas and much smaller numbers of terminals....

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  • ...For example, 11 directive antennas pointing in distinct directions tend toexperience a lower correlation than nondirective antennas, since each of these directive antennas“see” signals arriving from a distinct angular sector....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications.
Abstract: New research directions will lead to fundamental changes in the design of future fifth generation (5G) cellular networks. This article describes five technologies that could lead to both architectural and component disruptive design changes: device-centric architectures, millimeter wave, massive MIMO, smarter devices, and native support for machine-to-machine communications. The key ideas for each technology are described, along with their potential impact on 5G and the research challenges that remain.

3,711 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the tradeoff between the energy efficiency and spectral efficiency of a single-antenna system is quantified for a channel model that includes small-scale fading but not large scale fading, and it is shown that the use of moderately large antenna arrays can improve the spectral and energy efficiency with orders of magnitude compared to a single antenna system.
Abstract: A multiplicity of autonomous terminals simultaneously transmits data streams to a compact array of antennas. The array uses imperfect channel-state information derived from transmitted pilots to extract the individual data streams. The power radiated by the terminals can be made inversely proportional to the square-root of the number of base station antennas with no reduction in performance. In contrast if perfect channel-state information were available the power could be made inversely proportional to the number of antennas. Lower capacity bounds for maximum-ratio combining (MRC), zero-forcing (ZF) and minimum mean-square error (MMSE) detection are derived. An MRC receiver normally performs worse than ZF and MMSE. However as power levels are reduced, the cross-talk introduced by the inferior maximum-ratio receiver eventually falls below the noise level and this simple receiver becomes a viable option. The tradeoff between the energy efficiency (as measured in bits/J) and spectral efficiency (as measured in bits/channel use/terminal) is quantified for a channel model that includes small-scale fading but not large-scale fading. It is shown that the use of moderately large antenna arrays can improve the spectral and energy efficiency with orders of magnitude compared to a single-antenna system.

2,770 citations

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
Gerard J. Foschini1
TL;DR: This paper addresses digital communication in a Rayleigh fading environment when the channel characteristic is unknown at the transmitter but is known (tracked) at the receiver with the aim of leveraging the already highly developed 1-D codec technology.
Abstract: This paper addresses digital communication in a Rayleigh fading environment when the channel characteristic is unknown at the transmitter but is known (tracked) at the receiver. Inventing a codec architecture that can realize a significant portion of the great capacity promised by information theory is essential to a standout long-term position in highly competitive arenas like fixed and indoor wireless. Use (n T , n R ) to express the number of antenna elements at the transmitter and receiver. An (n, n) analysis shows that despite the n received waves interfering randomly, capacity grows linearly with n and is enormous. With n = 8 at 1% outage and 21-dB average SNR at each receiving element, 42 b/s/Hz is achieved. The capacity is more than 40 times that of a (1, 1) system at the same total radiated transmitter power and bandwidth. Moreover, in some applications, n could be much larger than 8. In striving for significant fractions of such huge capacities, the question arises: Can one construct an (n, n) system whose capacity scales linearly with n, using as building blocks n separately coded one-dimensional (1-D) subsystems of equal capacity? With the aim of leveraging the already highly developed 1-D codec technology, this paper reports just such an invention. In this new architecture, signals are layered in space and time as suggested by a tight capacity bound.

6,812 citations


"Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...A point-to-point MIMO system [2] requires expensive multiple-antenna terminals....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Under certain mild conditions, this scheme is found to be throughput-wise asymptotically optimal for both high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and some numerical results are provided for the ergodic throughput of the simplified zero-forcing scheme in independent Rayleigh fading.
Abstract: A Gaussian broadcast channel (GBC) with r single-antenna receivers and t antennas at the transmitter is considered. Both transmitter and receivers have perfect knowledge of the channel. Despite its apparent simplicity, this model is, in general, a nondegraded broadcast channel (BC), for which the capacity region is not fully known. For the two-user case, we find a special case of Marton's (1979) region that achieves optimal sum-rate (throughput). In brief, the transmitter decomposes the channel into two interference channels, where interference is caused by the other user signal. Users are successively encoded, such that encoding of the second user is based on the noncausal knowledge of the interference caused by the first user. The crosstalk parameters are optimized such that the overall throughput is maximum and, surprisingly, this is shown to be optimal over all possible strategies (not only with respect to Marton's achievable region). For the case of r>2 users, we find a somewhat simpler choice of Marton's region based on ordering and successively encoding the users. For each user i in the given ordering, the interference caused by users j>i is eliminated by zero forcing at the transmitter, while interference caused by users j

2,616 citations


"Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...An alternative to a point-to-point MIMO system is a multiuser MIMO system [3], [4], [5], [6] in which an antenna array simultaneously serves a multiplicity of autonomous terminals....

    [...]

Book
28 Jun 2004
TL;DR: A tutorial on random matrices is provided which provides an overview of the theory and brings together in one source the most significant results recently obtained.
Abstract: Random matrix theory has found many applications in physics, statistics and engineering since its inception. Although early developments were motivated by practical experimental problems, random matrices are now used in fields as diverse as Riemann hypothesis, stochastic differential equations, condensed matter physics, statistical physics, chaotic systems, numerical linear algebra, neural networks, multivariate statistics, information theory, signal processing and small-world networks. This article provides a tutorial on random matrices which provides an overview of the theory and brings together in one source the most significant results recently obtained. Furthermore, the application of random matrix theory to the fundamental limits of wireless communication channels is described in depth.

2,308 citations


"Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...It can be shown that the vector φkjΦ ∗ l has exactly the same probability distribution as does any row vector of Φl [15], [16]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is shown that the dirty paper achievable region achieves the sum-rate capacity of the MIMO BC by establishing that the maximum sum rate of this region equals an upper bound on the sum rate.
Abstract: We consider a multiuser multiple-input multiple- output (MIMO) Gaussian broadcast channel (BC), where the transmitter and receivers have multiple antennas. Since the MIMO BC is in general a nondegraded BC, its capacity region remains an unsolved problem. We establish a duality between what is termed the "dirty paper" achievable region (the Caire-Shamai (see Proc. IEEE Int. Symp. Information Theory, Washington, DC, June 2001, p.322) achievable region) for the MIMO BC and the capacity region of the MIMO multiple-access channel (MAC), which is easy to compute. Using this duality, we greatly reduce the computational complexity required for obtaining the dirty paper achievable region for the MIMO BC. We also show that the dirty paper achievable region achieves the sum-rate capacity of the MIMO BC by establishing that the maximum sum rate of this region equals an upper bound on the sum rate of the MIMO BC.

1,802 citations


"Noncooperative Cellular Wireless wi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...An alternative to a point-to-point MIMO system is a multiuser MIMO system [3], [4], [5], [6] in which an antenna array simultaneously serves a multiplicity of autonomous terminals....

    [...]