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Journal ArticleDOI

Nonresonant third-order susceptibility measurements in the nematic liquid crystal K18

01 Mar 1993-Optical and Quantum Electronics (Kluwer Academic Publishers)-Vol. 25, Iss: 3, pp 157-162

AbstractWe have observed a large nonresonant third-order nonlinear susceptibility, X(3) (-ω; ω, 0, 0) in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal 4′-n-hexyl-4-cyanobiphenyl (K18). The highest value of X(3) obtained at 632.8 nm is 1.16274×10-18 m2V-2 corresponding to a temperature 29.3°C. The observed second-order pretransitional temperature T* from our measurements is 1.2°C below the first-order nematic to isotropic transition temperature. The dependence of the Kerr constant on (T-T*)-1 is found to be in good agreement with the predictions of the Landau-de Gennes model.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Liquid crystals are nowadays widely used in all types of display applications. However their unique electro-optic properties also make them a suitable material for nondisplay applications. We will focus on the use of liquid crystals in different photonic components: optical filters and switches, beam-steering devices, spatial light modulators, integrated devices based on optical waveguiding, lasers, and optical nonlinear components. Both the basic operating principles as well as the recent state-of-the art are discussed.

189 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A new tolane-base liquid crystal, 4'-heptyl-3-fluoro-4-isothiocyanatotolane (7TOLF), and a biphenyl-base nematogen, 4'-heptyl-3-fluoro-4-isothiocyanatobiphenyl (7BF), have been investigated for the first time to determine their electro-optical behaviour and third order non-linearity using the static Kerr effect method. Both the nematic compounds have a fluorine atom attached to the phenyl-NCS moiety. They possess the same polar head group (-NCS) and alkyl tail (-C7H15). So the effect of the tolane group of nematogen on the electro-optical behaviour was investigated and compared. The temperature dependence of the electric Kerr constant in the isotropic phase and the pre-transitional behaviour has been investigated for these high birefringence compounds in the isotropic phase. Both the compounds have a positive and large Kerr constant which increases with decrease in temperature. The Landau–de Gennes model was obeyed for these compounds. For 7TOLF, the observed value of susceptibility, χ3 is about 228 times higher than that of CS2. The experimental Kerr effect data were also compared with those of the well-studied nematic liquid crystals.

21 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Low-power phase conjugation of azobenzene-compound-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films was studied and it was shown that this kind of polymer has appreciable third-order optical nonlinearity.
Abstract: Push–pull azobenzene compounds were synthesized by the diazocoupling reaction, and low-power phase conjugation of azobenzene-compound-doped poly(methyl methacrylate) films was studied with a He–Ne laser at 632.8 nm. It is shown that this kind of polymer has appreciable third-order optical nonlinearity, with a χ(3) of approximately 10−4 esu in the tail of absorption.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Liquid crystals of azomethine derivatives were synthesised and their molecular structures were confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Mesomorphic studies using differential scanning calorimetry, X-ray diffraction and polarising optical microscope revealed that all of these compounds exhibit thermotropic mesophases over a temperature range. The nonlinear optical properties of these liquid crystals were studied using a Z-scan technique with 7 ns pulse duration at 532 nm. The nonlinear refractive index, and the third order nonlinear susceptibility, were measured to be of the order of and respectively. Reverse saturable absorption was identified as the main mechanism responsible for optical limiting.

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
D. A. Kleinman1
Abstract: The physical mechanisms which can produce second-order dielectric polarization are discussed on the basis of a simple extension of the theory of dispersion in ionic crystals. Four distinct mechanisms are described, three of which are related to the anharmonicity, second-order moment, and Raman scattering of the lattice. These mechanisms are strongly frequency dependent, since they involve ionic motions with resonant frequencies lower than the light frequency. The other mechanism is related to electronic processes of higher frequency than the light, and, therefore, is essentially flat in the range of the frequencies of optical masers. Since this range lies an order of magnitude higher than the ionic resonances, the fourth mechanism may be the dominant one. On the other hand, a consideration of the linear electro-optic effect shows that the lattice is strongly involved in this effect, and, therefore, may be very much less linear than the electrons. It is shown that the question of the mechanism involved in the second harmonic generation of light from strong laser beams may be settled by experiments which test the symmetry of the effect. The electronic mechanism is subject to further symmetry requirements beyond those for piezoelectric coefficients. In many cases, this would greatly reduce the number of independent constants describing the effect. In particular, for quartz and KDP there would be a single constant.

1,829 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: This paper presents the results of a series of experiments in which a giant pulsed ruby laser is used to study several different nonlinear optical effects arising from an induced optical polarization third order in the electric field strength. The various phenomena studied are special cases of either frequency mixing or intensity-dependent changes in the complex refractive index, including Raman laser action at a focus. A wide range of crystalline and isotropic materials was studied. The theory for these effects is extended to cover resonant interactions. The experimental results are interpreted in terms of simplified models, and quantitative values for the nonlinear polarizability coefficients are given. The rather large experimental uncertainties in these coefficients are discussed.

1,118 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We assume that (1) the local state of order in the isotropic phase is a symmetric traceless tensor Qαβ, proportional to the anisotropic part of a tensor property such as the magnetic susceptibility; (2) the free energy may be expanded in powers of Qαβ and of its gradients. This allows a unified description covering the anomalous magnetic birefringence, the intensity of light scattering, and the properties of the nematic/isotropic interface. For a cholesteric, although the optical rotation is huge in the ordered phase, we predict that it should not be anomalous just above the transition point Tc. We also investigate the dynamics of fluctuations of Qαβ, and discuss the flow birefringence, the frequency width of the Rayleigh scattering, and the attenuation of ultrasonic shear waves, in terms of 3 viscosity coefficients.

741 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: We have observed a divergence of the magnetic birefringence, and a critical increase and slowing of the fluctuations in order in the isotropic phase of a nematic liquid crystal. Our results are quantitatively described by a mean-field model except for a critical region close to the ordering temperature where the fluctuations are so large that the meanfield approximation fails.

281 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A detailed survey is given of the present-day knowledge of optical compensators. The compensators discussed are those of Babinet, Soleil, Rayleigh, De Forest Palmer, Brace, Szivessy, Senarmont, and Richartz. Each instrument is described, the theory developed, the method of use for the measurement of small phase differences given, and reference made to the sensitivity and accuracy.

156 citations