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Journal ArticleDOI

Normal taste acuity and preference in female adolescents with impaired 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity.

23 Sep 2014-Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition (HEC Press)-Vol. 23, Iss: 3, pp 423-428

TL;DR: This is the first study to demonstrate that 6-n-propylthiouracil nontasters have taste sensitivity for the four basic tastes similar to that in 6- n-Propylthaviouracil tasters, at least in female adolescents, as measured by the gustatory test using a filter-paper disc method.

AbstractThis study was conducted to determine the relationship between 6-n-propylthiouracil sensitivity and taste characteristics in female students at Nara Women's University. Participants (n=135) were screened for 6-npropylthiouracil sensitivity using a taste test with 0.56 mM 6-n-propylthiouracil solution, and the sensitivity was confirmed by an assay for the bitter-taste receptor gene, TAS2R38. Based on the screening results, 33 6-npropylthiouracil tasters and 21 non-tasters were enrolled. The basic characteristics that are thought to influence taste acuity, including body mass index, saliva volume and serum micronutrient concentrations (iron, zinc and copper), were similar between the two groups. In an analysis using a filter-paper disc method, there were no differences in the acuity for four basic tastes (sweet, salty, sour and bitter) between 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters and non-tasters. In addition, the taste preference for the four basic tastes as measured by a visual analogue scale was also comparable between the two groups. This is the first study to demonstrate that 6-n-propylthiouracil nontasters have taste sensitivity for the four basic tastes similar to that in 6-n-propylthiouracil tasters, at least in female adolescents, as measured by the gustatory test using a filter-paper disc method.

Topics: TAS2R38 (62%), Taste (53%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: These are the first data showing an association between sweet taste and saliva proteome, and some differences were sex-dependent, with higher levels of α-amylase and CA-VI in low-sensitivity individuals and higher levels in sensitive ones for both sexes.
Abstract: Sweet taste plays a critical role in determining food preferences and choices. Similar to what happens for other oral sensations, individuals differ in their sensitivity for sweet taste and these inter-individual differences may be responsible for variations in food acceptance. Despite evidence that saliva plays a role in taste perception, this fluid has been mainly studied in the context of bitterness or astringency. We investigated the possible relationship between sweet taste sensitivity and salivary composition in subjects with different sucrose detection thresholds. Saliva collected from 159 young adults was evaluated for pH, total protein concentration and glucose. One- and bi-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) were performed and protein profiles compared between sweet sensitivity groups, with proteins that were differently expressed being identified by MALDI-FTICR-MS. Moreover, Western blotting was performed for salivary carbonic anhydrase VI (CA-VI) and cystatins and salivary amylase enzymatic activity was assessed in order to compare groups. Females with low sensitivity to sweet taste had higher salivary concentrations of glucose compared to those with sensitivity. For protein profiles, some differences were sex-dependent, with higher levels of α-amylase and CA-VI in low-sensitivity individuals and higher levels of cystatins in sensitive ones for both sexes. Body mass index was not observed to affect the association between salivary proteome and taste sensitivity. To our knowledge, these are the first data showing an association between sweet taste and saliva proteome.

17 citations


Cites background from "Normal taste acuity and preference ..."

  • ...However, such a relationship is questionable [13] and only a weak link between PROP taste sensitivity and sweet perception has been observed [14]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Subjective assessment of taste differs according to food composition and nationality, and it is important to consider taste preferences according to nationality when promoting oral nutritional support.
Abstract: Summary Background & aims Taste is a very important factor affecting nutritional intake and compliance. Subjective taste may differ among nationalities. In the present study we examined differences in subjective taste according to food composition and nationality. Methods Twelve Japanese and 4 Sri Lankan students took part in the study. Food samples of 3 different mixtures of chicken and rice were tasted: Food 1, 3 g chicken/10 g rice; Food 2, 6 g chicken/10 g rice; Food 3, 9 g chicken/10 g rice. The sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and astringent taste of each of the food samples, as well as their deliciousness, were scored subjectively on a scale of 0–5. Results were compared between the 3 types of food samples, as well as between nationalities. In addition, concentrations of blood micronutrients were measured. Results Across all 3 types of food, the change in subjective taste of salty, sweet, and sour differed significantly between Japanese and Sri Lankan students (P = 0.022, P = 0.008, and P = 0.025, respectively). However, bitter and astringent taste, as well as the perceived overall deliciousness of the foods, was comparable between the 2 groups. Serum zinc levels were significantly lower in Sri Lankan than Japanese students (P = 0.004). Conclusions Subjective assessment of taste differs according to food composition and nationality, and it is important to consider taste preferences according to nationality when promoting oral nutritional support.

1 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization, however, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power.
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To examine reproducibility and validity of visual analogue scales (VAS) for measurement of appetite sensations, with and without a diet standardization prior to the test days DESIGN: On two different test days the subjects recorded their appetite sensations before breakfast and every 30 min during the 45 h postprandial period under exactly the same conditions SUBJECTS: 55 healthy men (age 256±06 y, BMI 226±03 kg/m2) MEASUREMENTS: VAS were used to record hunger, satiety, fullness, prospective food consumption, desire to eat something fatty, salty, sweet or savoury, and palatability of the meals Subsequently an ad libitum lunch was served and energy intake was recorded Reproducibility was assessed by the coefficient of repeatability (CR) of fasting, mean 45 h and peak/nadir values RESULTS: CRs (range 20–61 mm) were larger for fasting and peak/nadir values compared with mean 45 h values No parameter seemed to be improved by diet standardization Using a paired design and a study power of 08, a difference of 10 mm on fasting and 5 mm on mean 45 h ratings can be detected with 18 subjects When using desires to eat specific types of food or an unpaired design, more subjects are needed due to considerable variation The best correlations of validity were found between 45 h mean VAS of the appetite parameters and subsequent energy intake (r=±050−053, P<0001) CONCLUSION: VAS scores are reliable for appetite research and do not seem to be influenced by prior diet standardization However, consideration should be given to the specific parameters being measured, their sensitivity and study power

1,734 citations


"Normal taste acuity and preference ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Tasters Non-tasters p value Reference values Number 33 21 Age (year) 21 (19-24) 20 (18-22) <0....

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Journal ArticleDOI
21 Feb 2003-Science
TL;DR: A small region on chromosome 7q that shows strong linkage disequilibrium between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and PTC taste sensitivity in unrelated subjects and a single gene that encodes a member of the TAS2R bitter taste receptor family is identified.
Abstract: The ability to taste the substance phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) has been widely used for genetic and anthropological studies, but genetic studies have produced conflicting results and demonstrated complex inheritance for this trait. We have identified a small region on chromosome 7q that shows strong linkage disequilibrium between single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers and PTC taste sensitivity in unrelated subjects. This region contains a single gene that encodes a member of the TAS2R bitter taste receptor family. We identified three coding SNPs giving rise to five haplotypes in this gene worldwide. These haplotypes completely explain the bimodal distribution of PTC taste sensitivity, thus accounting for the inheritance of the classically defined taste insensitivity and for 55 to 85% of the variance in PTC sensitivity. Distinct phenotypes were associated with specific haplotypes, which demonstrates that this gene has a direct influence on PTC taste sensitivity and that sequence variants at different sites interact with each other within the encoded gene product.

758 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Tasters (n=33) Non-tasters (n=21) p value A) Tube number Sweet 6 (1-10) 8 (2-10) 0....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The data suggest that the detection of the numerous bitter chemicals is related to the molecular receptive ranges of hTAS2Rs, and some receptors recognized only few agonists, others displayed moderate or extreme tuning broadness.
Abstract: Humans perceive thousands of compounds as bitter. In sharp contrast, only ;25 taste 2 receptors (TAS2R) bitter taste receptors have been identified, raising the question as to how the vast array of bitter compounds can be detected by such a limited number of sensors. To address this issue, we have challenged 25 human taste 2 receptors (hTAS2Rs) with 104 natural or synthetic bitter chemicals in a heterologous expression system. Thirteen cognate bitter compounds for 5 orphan receptors and 64 new compounds for previously identified receptors were discovered. Whereas some receptors recognized only few agonists, others displayed moderate or extreme tuning broadness. Thus, 3 hTAS2Rs together were able to detect ;50% of the substances used. Conversely, though 63 bitter substances activated only 1–3 receptors, 19 compounds stimulated up to 15 hTAS2Rs. Our data suggest that the detection of the numerous bitter chemicals is related to the molecular receptive ranges of hTAS2Rs.

752 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Tasters (n=33) Non-tasters (n=21) p value A) Tube number Sweet 6 (1-10) 8 (2-10) 0....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In the laboratory, scaling of PROP bitterness led to the identification of a subset of tasters (supertasters) who rate PROP as intensely bitter, and anatomical data support the sex difference; women have more fungiform papillae and more taste buds.
Abstract: Taste worlds of humans vary because of taste blindness to phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and its chemical relative, 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). We review early PTC studies and apply modern statistical analyses to show that a higher frequency of women tasted PTC crystals, and were tasters (threshold classification). In our laboratory, scaling of PROP bitterness led to the identification of a subset of tasters (supertasters) who rate PROP as intensely bitter. Supertasters also perceive stronger tastes from a variety of bitter and sweet substances, and perceive more burn from oral irritants (alcohol and capsaicin). The density of taste receptors on the anterior tongue (fungiform papillae, taste buds) correlate significantly with perceived bitterness of PROP and support the supertaster concept. Psychophysical data from studies in our laboratory also show a sex effect; women are supertasters more frequently. The anatomical data also support the sex difference; women have more fungiform papillae and more taste buds. Future investigations of PTC/PROP tasting and food behaviors should include scaling to identify supertasters and separate sex effects.

687 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Results from studies investigating the link between the sensory perception of food and human appetite regulation are reviewed, finding that increasing the food variety can increase food and energy intake and in the short to medium term alter energy balance.
Abstract: Objective: How much do the sensory properties of food influence the way people select their food and how much they eat? The objective of this paper is to review results from studies investigating the link between the sensory perception of food and human appetite regulation. Content of the review: The influence of palatability on appetite and food intake in humans has been investigated in several studies. All reviewed studies have shown increased intake as palatability increased, whereas assessments of the effect of palatability using measures of subjective appetite sensations have shown diverging results, for example, subjects either feel more hungry and less full after a palatable meal compared to a less palatable meal, or they feel the opposite, or there is no difference. Whether palatability has an effect on appetite in the period following consumption of a test meal is unclear. Several studies have investigated which sensory properties of food are involved in sensory-specific satiety. Taste, smell, texture and appearance-specific satieties have been identified, whereas studies on the role of macronutrients and the energy content of the food in sensory-specific satiety have given equivocal results. Different studies have shown that macronutrients and energy content play a role in sensory-specific satiety or that macronutrients and energy content are not a factor in sensory-specific satiety. Sensory-specific satiety may have an important influence on the amount of food eaten. Studies have shown that increasing the food variety can increase food and energy intake and in the short to medium term alter energy balance. Further knowledge about the importance of flavour in appetite regulation is needed, for example, which flavour combinations improve satiety most, the possible connection between flavour intensity and satiety, the effect of persistence of chemesthetic sensation on palatability and satiety, and to what extent genetic variation in taste sensitivity and perception influences dietary habits and weight control.

531 citations


"Normal taste acuity and preference ..." refers background in this paper

  • ...0 Serum Fe (μg/dL) 88 (28-216) 100 (23-168) 0....

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  • ...Tasters Non-tasters p value Reference values Number 33 21 Age (year) 21 (19-24) 20 (18-22) <0....

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