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Journal ArticleDOI

Normal telomere length and chromosomal end capping in poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase–deficient mice and primary cells despite increased chromosomal instability

09 Jul 2001-Journal of Cell Biology (The Rockefeller University Press)-Vol. 154, Iss: 1, pp 49-60

TL;DR: The results presented here indicate that PARp-1 does not play a major role in regulating telomere length or in telomeric end capping, and the chromosomal instability of PARP-1−/− primary cells can be explained by the repair defect associated to PARP -1 deficiency.

AbstractPoly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1, a detector of single-strand breaks, plays a key role in the cellular response to DNA damage. PARP-1-deficient mice are hypersensitive to genotoxic agents and display genomic instability due to a DNA repair defect in the base excision repair pathway. A previous report suggested that PARP-1-deficient mice also had a severe telomeric dysfunction consisting of telomere shortening and increased end-to-end fusions (d'Adda di Fagagna, F., M.P. Hande, W.-M. Tong, P.M. Lansdorp, Z.-Q. Wang, and S.P. Jackson. 1999. NAT: Genet. 23:76-80). In contrast to that, and using a panoply of techniques, including quantitative telomeric (Q)-FISH, we did not find significant differences in telomere length between wild-type and PARP-1(-/)- littermate mice or PARP-1(-/)- primary cells. Similarly, there were no differences in the length of the G-strand overhang. Q-FISH and spectral karyotyping analyses of primary PARP-1(-/)- cells showed a frequency of 2 end-to-end fusions per 100 metaphases, much lower than that described previously (d'Adda di Fagagna et al., 1999). This low frequency of end-to-end fusions in PARP-1(-/)- primary cells is accordant with the absence of severe proliferative defects in PARP-1(-/)- mice. The results presented here indicate that PARP-1 does not play a major role in regulating telomere length or in telomeric end capping, and the chromosomal instability of PARP-1(-/)- primary cells can be explained by the repair defect associated to PARP-1 deficiency. Finally, no interaction between PARP-1 and the telomerase reverse transcriptase subunit, Tert, was found using the two-hybrid assay.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Recent experiments have revealed how shelterin represses the ATM and ATR kinase signaling pathways and hides chromosome ends from nonhomologous end joining and homology-directed repair.
Abstract: The genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles are usually circular as are most plasmids and viral genomes. In contrast, the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes are organized on linear chromosomes, which require mechanisms to protect and replicate DNA ends. Eukaryotes navigate these problems with the advent of telomeres, protective nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, and telomerase, the enzyme that maintains the DNA in these structures. Mammalian telomeres contain a specific protein complex, shelterin, that functions to protect chromosome ends from all aspects of the DNA damage response and regulates telomere maintenance by telomerase. Recent experiments, discussed here, have revealed how shelterin represses the ATM and ATR kinase signaling pathways and hides chromosome ends from nonhomologous end joining and homology-directed repair.

1,609 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The double-edged sword roles of PARP in DNA damage signaling and cell death are reviewed and the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects ofPARP inhibitors are summarized.
Abstract: Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1) is a member of the PARP enzyme family consisting of PARP-1 and several recently identified novel poly(ADP-ribosylating) enzymes. PARP-1 is an abundant nuclear protein functioning as a DNA nick-sensor enzyme. Upon binding to DNA breaks, activated PARP cleaves NAD(+) into nicotinamide and ADP-ribose and polymerizes the latter onto nuclear acceptor proteins including histones, transcription factors, and PARP itself. Poly(ADP-ribosylation) contributes to DNA repair and to the maintenance of genomic stability. On the other hand, oxidative stress-induced overactivation of PARP consumes NAD(+) and consequently ATP, culminating in cell dysfunction or necrosis. This cellular suicide mechanism has been implicated in the pathomechanism of stroke, myocardial ischemia, diabetes, diabetes-associated cardiovascular dysfunction, shock, traumatic central nervous system injury, arthritis, colitis, allergic encephalomyelitis, and various other forms of inflammation. PARP has also been shown to associate with and regulate the function of several transcription factors. Of special interest is the enhancement by PARP of nuclear factor kappa B-mediated transcription, which plays a central role in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, adhesion molecules, and inflammatory mediators. Herein we review the double-edged sword roles of PARP in DNA damage signaling and cell death and summarize the underlying mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory effects of PARP inhibitors. Moreover, we discuss the potential use of PARP inhibitors as anticancer agents, radiosensitizers, and antiviral agents.

1,364 citations


Cites background from "Normal telomere length and chromoso..."

  • ...Genetic ablation of PARP-1 has been shown to result in telomere shortening (d’Adda di Fagagna et al., 1999) but others found no difference in telomere length of PARP-proficient and -deficient cells (Samper et al., 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The details of telomerase and its regulation by the telomere are discussed, including single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (POT1 in humans and Cdc13 in budding yeast), which have been proposed to contribute to the recruitment of telomersase and may also regulate the extent or frequency of elongation.
Abstract: ▪ Abstract Telomeres are essential for genome stability in all eukaryotes. Changes in telomere functions and the associated chromosomal abnormalities have been implicated in human aging and cancer. Telomeres are composed of repetitive sequences that can be maintained by telomerase, a complex containing a reverse transcriptase (hTERT in humans and Est2 in budding yeast), a template RNA (hTERC in humans and Tlc1 in yeast), and accessory factors (the Est1 proteins and dyskerin in humans and Est1, Est3, and Sm proteins in budding yeast). Telomerase is regulated in cis by proteins that bind to telomeric DNA. This regulation can take place at the telomere terminus, involving single-stranded DNA-binding proteins (POT1 in humans and Cdc13 in budding yeast), which have been proposed to contribute to the recruitment of telomerase and may also regulate the extent or frequency of elongation. In addition, proteins that bind along the length of the telomere (TRF1/TIN2/tankyrase in humans and Rap1/Rif1/Rif2 in budding y...

805 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 Jan 2016-Cell
TL;DR: The initial functional analysis of a poorly characterized human lncRNA that is induced after DNA damage is described, introducing a mechanism that regulates the activity of a deeply conserved and highly dosage-sensitive family of RNA binding proteins and reveal unanticipated roles for a lnc RNA and PUMILIO proteins in the maintenance of genomic stability.
Abstract: Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as regulators of diverse biological processes. Here, we describe the initial functional analysis of a poorly characterized human lncRNA (LINC00657) that is induced after DNA damage, which we termed "noncoding RNA activated by DNA damage", or NORAD. NORAD is highly conserved and abundant, with expression levels of approximately 500-1,000 copies per cell. Remarkably, inactivation of NORAD triggers dramatic aneuploidy in previously karyotypically stable cell lines. NORAD maintains genomic stability by sequestering PUMILIO proteins, which repress the stability and translation of mRNAs to which they bind. In the absence of NORAD, PUMILIO proteins drive chromosomal instability by hyperactively repressing mitotic, DNA repair, and DNA replication factors. These findings introduce a mechanism that regulates the activity of a deeply conserved and highly dosage-sensitive family of RNA binding proteins and reveal unanticipated roles for a lncRNA and PUMILIO proteins in the maintenance of genomic stability.

481 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Telomeres and telomerase may be proposed as attractive targets for the discovery of new anticancer agents because of their specialised structures when it comes to replicating the DNA.
Abstract: The extremities of eukaryotic chromosomes are called telomeres. They have a structure unlike the bulk of the chromosome, which allows the cell DNA repair machinery to distinguish them from 'broken' DNA ends. But these specialised structures present a problem when it comes to replicating the DNA. Indeed, telomeric DNA progressively erodes with each round of cell division in cells that do not express telomerase, a specialised reverse transcriptase necessary to fully duplicate the telomeric DNA. Telomerase is expressed in tumour cells but not in most somatic cells and thus telomeres and telomerase may be proposed as attractive targets for the discovery of new anticancer agents.

333 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
16 Dec 1993-Nature
TL;DR: P16 seems to act in a regulatory feedback circuit with CDK4, D-type cyclins and retinoblastoma protein, and inhibits the catalytic activity of theCDK4/cyclin D enzymes.
Abstract: The division cycle of eukaryotic cells is regulated by a family of protein kinases known as the cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs). The sequential activation of individual members of this family and their consequent phosphorylation of critical substrates promotes orderly progression through the cell cycle. The complexes formed by CDK4 and the D-type cyclins have been strongly implicated in the control of cell proliferation during the G1 phase. CDK4 exists, in part, as a multi-protein complex with a D-type cyclin, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and a protein, p21 (refs 7-9). CDK4 associates separately with a protein of M(r) 16K, particularly in cells lacking a functional retinoblastoma protein. Here we report the isolation of a human p16 complementary DNA and demonstrate that p16 binds to CDK4 and inhibits the catalytic activity of the CDK4/cyclin D enzymes. p16 seems to act in a regulatory feedback circuit with CDK4, D-type cyclins and retinoblastoma protein.

3,608 citations


"Normal telomere length and chromoso..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...As control for the two-hybrid assay we show interaction between the cell cycle proteins CDK4 and p16 as described previously (Table VI; Serrano et al., 1993)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
18 Apr 1991-Nature
TL;DR: The DNA of telomeres—the terminal DNA-protein complexes of chromosomes—differs notably from other DNA sequences in both structure and function, and has been shown to be essential for telomere maintenance and long-term viability.
Abstract: The DNA of telomeres--the terminal DNA-protein complexes of chromosomes--differs notably from other DNA sequences in both structure and function. Recent work has highlighted its remarkable mode of synthesis by the ribonucleoprotein reverse transcriptase, telomerase, as well as its ability to form unusual structures in vitro. Moreover, telomere synthesis by telomerase has been shown to be essential for telomere maintenance and long-term viability.

2,995 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
14 May 1999-Cell
TL;DR: Electron microscopy reported here demonstrated that TRF2 can remodel linear telomeric DNA into large duplex loops (t loops) in vitro, which may provide a general mechanism for the protection and replication of telomeres.
Abstract: Mammalian telomeres contain a duplex array of telomeric repeats bound to the telomeric repeat–binding factors TRF1 and TRF2. Inhibition of TRF2 results in immediate deprotection of chromosome ends, manifested by loss of the telomeric 3′ overhang, activation of p53, and end-to-end chromosome fusions. Electron microscopy reported here demonstrated that TRF2 can remodel linear telomeric DNA into large duplex loops (t loops) in vitro. Electron microscopy analysis of psoralen cross-linked telomeric DNA purified from human and mouse cells revealed abundant large t loops with a size distribution consistent with their telomeric origin. Binding of TRF1 and single strand binding protein suggested that t loops are formed by invasion of the 3′ telomeric overhang into the duplex telomeric repeat array. T loops may provide a general mechanism for the protection and replication of telomeres.

2,319 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
03 Oct 1997-Cell
TL;DR: Results indicate that telomerase is essential for telomere length maintenance but is not required for establishment of cell lines, oncogenic transformation, or tumor formation in mice.
Abstract: To examine the role of telomerase in normal and neoplastic growth, the telomerase RNA component (mTR) was deleted from the mouse germline. mTR-/- mice lacked detectable telomerase activity yet were viable for the six generations analyzed. Telomerase-deficient cells could be immortalized in culture, transformed by viral oncogenes, and generated tumors in nude mice following transformation. Telomeres were shown to shorten at a rate of 4.8+/-2.4 kb per mTR-/- generation. Cells from the fourth mTR-/- generation onward possessed chromosome ends lacking detectable telomere repeats, aneuploidy, and chromosomal abnormalities, including end-to-end fusions. These results indicate that telomerase is essential for telomere length maintenance but is not required for establishment of cell lines, oncogenic transformation, or tumor formation in mice.

2,003 citations


"Normal telomere length and chromoso..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...These Robertsonian fusions are different from those found in late generation telomerase-deficient mice that have critically short telomeres (Blasco et al., 1997)....

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  • ...5 embryos derived from heterozygous crosses as described (Blasco et al., 1997)....

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  • ...Telomeres have an essential role in chromosome stability and are proposed to be biological determinants in the processes of tumorigenesis and aging (for reviews see Blackburn, 1991; Autexier and Greider, 1996; Greider, 1996; Blasco et al., 1997; Lee et al., 1998)....

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  • ...Then the plugs were digested with MboI overnight and run in a pulse field gel electrophoresis as described (Blasco et al., 1997)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The history and present situation of Spanish language, culture, literature, cuisine, tourism, and more are explored in more detail in this booklet.
Abstract: TELOMERES DEFINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 579 TELOMERE FUNCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 580 SEQUENCE AND STRUCTURE OF TELOMERES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 581 SOLUTIONS FOR REPLICATION OF DNA TERMINI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 586 STRUCTURE OF SUBTELOMERIC REGIONS.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 589 FORMA TION OF TELOMERES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . .. 591 PROTEINS THAT INTERACT WITH TELOMERES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 594 ARE TELOMERES REALLY ESSENTIAL? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 597 FUTURE PROSPECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 598

1,885 citations


"Normal telomere length and chromoso..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Vertebrate telomeres consist of tandem repeats of the sequence TTAGGG (for review see Blackburn, 1991)....

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  • ...Telomeres have an essential role in chromosome stability and are proposed to be biological determinants in the processes of tumorigenesis and aging (for reviews see Blackburn, 1991; Autexier and Greider, 1996; Greider, 1996; Blasco et al., 1997; Lee et al., 1998)....

    [...]