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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17512549.2019.1702586

Novel construction and demolition waste (CDW) treatment and uses to maximize reuse and recycling

04 Mar 2021-Advances in Building Energy Research (Taylor and Francis Ltd.)-Vol. 15, Iss: 2, pp 253-269
Abstract: The EU Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC states that all member states should take all necessary measures in order to achieve at least 70% re-use, recycling or other recovery of non-haza...

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Topics: Waste framework directive (66%), Demolition waste (58%), Reuse (54%)

9 results found

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESCONREC.2020.105048
Abstract: Re-use of excavated rock and soil from subsurface tunnelling has become an essential legal and technical factor in underground construction projects. European Union initiatives have caused an emergence of legal documents and technical guidelines for re-using excavated material. An improving situation towards a homogeneous European legislation is missing and site-specific re-use solutions are still favoured within the framework of national legislation. In this paper, we present a detailed review of legislation and technical concepts within the scope of re-using excavated rock and soil across Europe focusing on the Alpine countries. Austria, Switzerland and France prove to be role models in re-using excavating material whereas Italy is providing a limited amount of national solutions. Excavated rock and soil are still considered waste, which hampers legislation procedures and efficient technical re-use as a potential resource. National guidelines and recommendations bear huge potential to serve as a basis for a homogenisation of European legislation. Technical limitations imply physical and chemical characterisation of excavated rock and soil as well as their positioning in relation to inert waste thresholds, which requires a sophisticated material flow analysis. We introduce a material flow analysis concept installed on a tunnel boring machine managing on-line analyses, conditioning, separation and transport to consumers of excavated material resource-efficiently within a mutual European legal framework. A dedicated European authority is suggested to undertake responsibility for the material management and governing a technical database obliged to aim for maximum, efficient re-use and public awareness.

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Topics: European union (57%), Material flow analysis (51%), Legislation (51%)

5 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/SU13063044
10 Mar 2021-Sustainability
Abstract: Nowadays, construction, maintenance, reparation, rehabilitation, retrofitting, and demolition from infrastructure and buildings generate large amounts of urban waste, which usually are inadequately disposed due to high costs and technical limitations. On the other hand, the increasing demand for natural aggregates for concrete production seriously affects mountains and rivers as they are the source of these nonrenewable goods. Consequently, the recycling of aggregates for concrete is gaining attention worldwide as an alternative to reduce the environmental impacts caused by the extraction of nonrenewable goods and disposal of construction and demolition waste (C&DW). Therefore, this article describes the effect on the mechanical properties of new concrete using recycled aggregates obtained from old paving stones. Results show that replacing 50% by weight of the fine and coarse aggregate fractions in concrete with recycled aggregate does not meaningfully affect its mechanical behavior, making the use of recycled aggregates in new precast paving stones possible. Therefore, the latter can reduce environmental impacts and costs for developing infrastructure and building projects.

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Topics: Demolition waste (56%), Properties of concrete (52%), Precast concrete (51%) ... show more

3 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/15623599.2020.1853006
Abstract: Poor project performance in Malaysian construction industry resulting from poor cost management, time overrun, and inadequate quality has encouraged scholars to investigate the feasibility, suitabi...

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Topics: Lean construction (68%), Cost accounting (53%), Quality (business) (50%)

2 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17512549.2020.1731710
Abstract: ‘A paradigm shift’ – a fundamental change in approach or underlying assumption1 or a time when the usual and accepted way of doing or thinking about something changes completely.2The primary functi...

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Topics: Paradigm shift (56%), Building design (50%)

1 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOBE.2021.102820
Abstract: The UK construction sector is facing multiple challenges associated with low productivity, unreliable project delivery, poor performance, skilled labour shortages, and resource inefficiency. To address these challenges the UK Government and the construction industry have been promoting modular construction; a method that can improve efficiency and productivity in the construction sector via the prefabrication of volumetric elements or structural components of a building off-site and their assembly on-site. In this study we highlight that while modular construction can help deliver sustainability credentials in the entire construction value chain, at present the sector's activities are concentrated on using modular construction to improve resource efficiency upstream of the construction value chain, i.e. at the design, manufacture and construction. This appears to be divorced from the need to promote resource efficiency and productivity at the stages occurring downstream (i.e., disassembly and end-of-life management) of the construction value chain. Such divergence could hamper construction industry's efforts to reduce its environmental and economic impacts in the future, and points to the need of an integrated, holistic approach to improving the sustainability of the sector. To support our argument, we provide an overview of the current state of modular construction in the UK, and outline key obstacles in rolling out modular construction's mainstream use. We posit that modular construction presents an opportunity to integrate upstream with downstream construction practices and achieve sustainability in the entire construction sector, and suggest that the development of a digitally enabled modular construction, whereby smart technologies are combined with modular construction, could be instrumental in supporting this vision. A smart, modular construction regime can operationalise the collection and storage of components' lifecycle information, and help the sector build the capabilities needed to support the maintenance, recovery and reuse of modular components, and reduction of waste. For this to take precedence it is imperative to think of the ‘end’ right at the beginning of the design stage, and foster an improved collaboration between all stakeholders involved in the construction value chain.

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Topics: Integrated project delivery (61%), Modular design (55%), Prefabrication (52%) ... show more

1 Citations


16 results found

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(02)00965-1
Abstract: Influencing factors on thermal conductivity of concrete are quantitatively investigated by QTM-D3—that is, a conductivity tester developed in Japan—and a prediction equation of thermal conductivity of concrete is suggested from the regression analysis of test results. To consider the interacted factors influencing thermal conductivity of concrete, mortar, and cement paste, seven testing variables such as age, water–cement (W/C) ratio, types of admixtures, aggregate volume fraction, fine aggregate faction, temperature, and humidity condition of specimen were adopted in this test. According to experimental results, aggregate volume fraction and moisture condition of specimen are revealed as mainly affecting factors on the conductivity of concrete. Meanwhile, the conductivities of mortar and cement paste are strongly affected by the W/C ratio and types of admixtures. However, age hardly changes the conductivity except for very early age. Finally, the conductivity of concrete is represented in terms of the aggregate volume fraction, fine aggregate fraction, W/C ratio, temperature, and humidity condition of specimen.

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Topics: Water–cement ratio (61%), Aggregate (composite) (57%), Volume fraction (53%) ... show more

407 Citations

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CONBUILDMAT.2013.01.031
L. Reig1, Mauro Mitsuuchi Tashima2, M.V. Borrachero2, José Monzó2  +2 moreInstitutions (3)
Abstract: Sintered red clay ceramic is used to produce hollow bricks which are manufactured in enormous quantities in Spain. They also constitute a major fraction of construction and demolition waste. The aim of this research was to investigate the properties and microstructure of alkali-activated cement pastes and mortars produced using red clay brick waste. The work shows that the type and concentration of alkali activator can be optimised to produce mortar samples with compressive strengths up to 50 MPa after curing for 7 days at 65 °C. This demonstrates a new potential added value reuse application for this important waste material.

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Topics: Demolition waste (54%), Cement (52%), Mortar (51%)

170 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2009.03.026
01 Aug 2009-Waste Management
Abstract: The aim of this study is to investigate the use of waste brick as a partial replacement for cement in the production of cement mortar. Clinker was replaced by waste brick in different proportions (0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20%) by weight for cement. The physico-chemical properties of cement at anhydrous state and the hydrated state, thus the mechanical strengths (flexural and compressive strengths after 7, 28 and 90 days) for the mortar were studied. The microstructure of the mortar was investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the mineralogical composition (mineral phases) of the artificial pozzolan was investigated by the X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the particle size distributions was obtained from laser granulometry (LG) of cements powders used in this study. The results obtained show that the addition of artificial pozzolan improves the grinding time and setting times of the cement, thus the mechanical characteristics of mortar. A substitution of cement by 10% of waste brick increased mechanical strengths of mortar. The results of the investigation confirmed the potential use of this waste material to produce pozzolanic cement.

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Topics: Cement (65%), Mortar (62%), Clinker (cement) (61%) ... show more

148 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.APT.2014.11.012
Abstract: In the present study, the geopolymerization potential of construction and demolition wastes (CDW) as well as the effects of the molarity of the alkaline activating solution, the curing temperature, the ageing period and the particle size of the raw materials on the compressive strength of the final products have been studied. For the synthesis of geopolymers, concrete, bricks and tiles collected from various demolished buildings were mixed with the activating solution (NaOH and Na 2 SiO 3 ). Various synthesis conditions (curing at 60–90 °C, 8–14 M NaOH molarity, particle size) have been considered. Results have shown that tiles and bricks are well geopolymerized, reaching a compressive strength of 49.5 and 57.8 MPa, respectively, while concrete shows limited geopolymerization potential since it reaches a compressive strength of only 13 MPa. The effects on the compressive strength of the specimens were also assessed by considering various molar ratios of the oxides present in the initial paste including SiO 2 /Al 2 O 3 and H 2 O/(Na 2 O + K 2 O). CDW geopolymers synthesized under the optimum conditions were also subjected to high temperature heating for one hour, freeze–thaw cycles and immersed in distilled water for one and two months to assess changes in their structural integrity. Analytical techniques, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) were used for the identification of the morphology and structure of the final products.

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Topics: Compressive strength (59%), Geopolymer (54%)

127 Citations

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.COMPOSITESB.2012.09.012
Abstract: In this study, the influence of waste PET as lightweight aggregate (WPLA) replacement with conventional aggregate, on thermal conductivity, unit weight and compressive strength properties of concrete composite was investigated. For this purpose, five different mixtures were prepared (the control mixtures and four WPLA mixtures including 30%, 40%, 50%, and 60% waste PET aggregate by volume). Thermal conductivity (TC) coefficients of the specimens were measured with guarded hot plate apparatus according to TS ISO 8302 [1]. The thermal conductivity coefficient, unit weight and compressive strength of specimens decreased as the amount of WPLA increased in concrete. The minimum thermal conductivity value was 0.3924 W/m K, observed at 60% WPLA replacement. From this result, it was concluded that waste PET aggregates replacement with conventional aggregate in the mixture showed better insulation properties (i.e. lower thermal coefficient). Due to the low unit weight and thermal conductivity values of WPLA composites, there is a potential of using WPLA composites in construction applications.

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94 Citations

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