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Journal ArticleDOI

Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aberrations and proliferation rates in cultured lymphocytes of head and neck cancer patients.

01 Feb 2014-Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention (Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention)-Vol. 15, Iss: 3, pp 1119-1123
TL;DR: The preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral lymphocytes of solid tumors could be biomarkers to predict malignancy in early stages.
Abstract: Head and neck cancers (HNC) are extremely complex disease types and it is likely that chromosomal instability is involved in the genetic mechanisms of its genesis. However, there is little information regarding the background levels of chromosome instability in these patients. In this pilot study, we examined spontaneous chromosome instability in short-term lymphocyte cultures (72 hours) from 72 study subjects - 36 newly diagnosed HNC squamous cell carcinoma patients and 36 healthy ethnic controls. We estimated chromosome instability (CIN) using chromosomal aberration (CA) analysis and nuclear level anomalies using the Cytokinesis Block Micronucleus Cytome Assay (CBMN Cyt Assay). The proliferation rates in cultures of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) were assessed by calculating the Cytokinesis Block Proliferation Index (CBPI). Our results showed a significantly higher mean level of spontaneous chromosome type aberrations (CSAs), chromatid type aberration (CTAs) dicentric chromosomes (DIC) and chromosome aneuploidy (CANEUP) in patients (CSAs, 0.0294±0.0038; CTAs, 0.0925±0.0060; DICs, 0.0213±0.0028; and CANEUPs, 0.0308±0.0035) compared to controls (CSAs, 0.0005±0.0003; CTAs, 0.0058±0.0015; DICs, 0.0005±0.0003; and CANEUPs, 0.0052±0.0013) where p<0.001. Similarly, spontaneous nuclear anomalies showed significantly higher mean level of micronuclei (MNi), nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs) and nuclear buds (NBUDs) among cases (MNi, 0.01867±0.00108; NPBs, 0.01561±0.00234; NBUDs, 0.00658±0.00068) compared with controls (MNi, 0.00027±0.00009; NPBs, 0.00002±0.00002; NBUDs, 0.00011±0.00007).The evaluation of CBPI supported genomic instability in the peripheral blood lymphocytes showing a significantly lower proliferation rate in HNC patients (1.525±0.005552) compared to healthy subjects (1.686±0.009520 ) (p<0.0001). In conclusion, our preliminary results showed that visible spontaneous genomic instability and low rate proliferation in the cultured peripheral lymphocytes of solid tumors could be biomarkers to predict malignancy in early stages
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results demonstrate that increased chromosomal instability along with higher telomere attrition or loss may initiate gross DNA damage and leads to chromosome instability, which is an important mechanism for triggering genomic instability - an important hallmark of cancer cells.
Abstract: One hundred and fifteen cases [Down Syndrome (DS) n = 75, Multiple Congenital Anomalies (MCA) n = 15 and Aplastic Anaemia (AA) n = 25], with respect to their nature of predisposition to cancer, were selected for clinical, cytogenetic and cyto-molecular studies to understand the severity of genomic instability according to the nature of the different diseases. Cytogenetic studies included chromosomal aberration (CA) assays and cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN-Cyt) assays. In DS, MCA and AA, average frequencies of nuclear anomalies (NA) were 0.015 ± 0.0006, 0.021 ± 0.00123, 0.031 ± 0.00098, respectively and CA were 0.107 ± 0.003, 0.105 ± 0.008, 0.158 ± 0.006, respectively per metaphase. The extent of genomic instability in patients analysed by CBMN-Cyt assays and CA assays was statistically significant in all groups. Comparatively decreased cytokinesis block proliferation index (CBPI) observed in AA patients of 1.59 ± 0.05, support the assumption that decreased levels of CBPI indicate increased genomic damage. Furthermore, we performed peptide nucleic acid fluorescence in situ hybridisation (PNA FISH) analysis to understand the mechanisms behind genomic instability and telomere dysfunction. PNA FISH showed increased frequencies of telomere signal free ends (0.98 ± 0.13) in individuals with higher genomic instability. Therefore, the results demonstrate that increased chromosomal instability along with higher telomere attrition or loss may initiate gross DNA damage and leads to chromosomal instability, which is an important mechanism for triggering genomic instability – an important hallmark of cancer cells.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The observed cytogenetic damage to the MIC-affected could contribute to cancer risk, especially in the EF and FOE, as compared to EM and MOE.
Abstract: The Bhopal gas tragedy involving methyl isocyanate (MIC) is one of the most horrific industrial accidents in recent decades. We investigated the genotoxic effects of MIC in long-term survivors and their offspring born after the 1984 occurrence. There are a few cytogenetic reports showing genetic damage in the MIC-exposed survivors, but there is no information about the associated cancer risk. The same is true about offspring. For the first time, we here assessed the micronucleus (MN) frequency using cytokinesis-blocked micronucleus (CBMN) assay to predict cancer risk in the MIC-affected population of Bhopal. A total of 92 healthy volunteers (46 MICaffected and 46 controls) from Bhopal and various regions of India were studied taking gender and age into consideration. Binucleated lymphocytes with micronuclei (BNMN), total number of micronuclei in lymphocytes (MNL), and nuclear division index (NDI) frequencies and their relationship to age, gender and several lifestyle variabilities (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) were investigated. Our observations showed relatively higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) in the MIC-affected than in the controls. Exposed females (EF) exhibited significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.01) than their unexposed counterparts. Similarly, female offspring of the exposed (FOE) also suffered higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.05) than in controls. A significant reduction in NDI (P<0.05) was found only in EF. The affected group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics featured a higher frequency of BNMN and MNL than the control group of non-smokers and non-alcoholics (P<0.01). Similarly, the affected group of tobacco chewers showed significantly higher BNMN and MNL (P<0.001) than the non-chewers. Amongst the affected, smoking and alcohol consumption were not associated with statistically significant differences in BNMN, MNL and NDI. Nevertheless, tobacco-chewing had a preponderant effect with respect to MNL. A reasonable correlation between MNL and lifestyle habits (smoking, alcohol consumption and tobacco-chewing) was observed only in the controls. Our results suggest that EF and FOE are more susceptible to cancer development, as compared to EM and MOE. The genotoxic outcome detected in FOE reflects their parental exposure to MIC. Briefly, the observed cytogenetic damage to the MIC-affected could contribute to cancer risk, especially in the EF and FOE.

11 citations


Cites background from "Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aber..."

  • ...…used these days to assess the cancer risk associated to genotoxic exposures (El-Zein et al., 2011) and genomic instability of several diseases (Wu et al., 2012; Abdullah and Orta, 2012; Wang et al., 2013; Sitaraman et al., 2014; George et al., 2014; Soares et al., 2014; Main et al., 2015)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The meta-analysis indicates that the MN assay, which is easy to perform in combination with Pap-tests, may be useful for the detection/prediction of CC, but standardization and further validation are necessary before the MN test can be implemented in routine screening.
Abstract: Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most common cancer in women; the survival rates depend strongly on its early detection. The Pap test is the most frequently used diagnostic tool, but due to its limited sensitivity/specificity, additional screening tests are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the use of micronucleus (MN) assays with cervical cells for the prediction and diagnosis of CC. MN reflects structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations. A search was performed in Pubmed, Scopus, Thomson ISI and Google Scholar. Subsequently, meta-analyses were performed for different grades of abnormal findings in smears and biopsies from patients which were diagnosed with CC. Results of 21 studies in which findings of MN experiments were compared with data from Pap tests show that higher MN frequencies were found in women with abnormal cells that are indicative for increased cancer risks. MN frequency ratios increased in the order inflammation (2.1) < ASC-US and ASC-H (3.3) < LGSIL (4.4) < HGSIL (8.4). Furthermore, results are available from 17 investigations in which MN were scored in smears from patients with neoplasia. MN rates increased with the degree of neoplasia [CIN 1 (4.6) < CIN 2 (6.5) and CIN 3 (10.8)] and were significantly higher (8.8) in CC patients. Our meta-analysis indicates that the MN assay, which is easy to perform in combination with Pap tests, may be useful for the detection/prediction of CC. However, standardization (including definition of the optimal cell numbers and stains) and further validation is necessary before the MN test can be implemented in routine screening.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed on 19 studies on head and neck cancer (HNC) and 21 studies on breast cancer (BC) to evaluate the application of micronucleus (MN) assay as a predictive and prognostic test for cancer risk.
Abstract: A systematic review and a meta-analysis were performed on 19 studies on head and neck cancer (HNC) and 21 studies on breast cancer (BC) to evaluate the application of micronucleus (MN) assay as a predictive and prognostic test for cancer risk. In these studies the MN test was applied in peripheral lymphocytes and buccal cells of patients and healthy subjects with family history of cancer. The meta-analysis on MN applied in buccal cells of HNC patients was performed on two subgroups of studies. A significant increase of MN frequency in patients compared to healthy controls was observed for the subgroup on oral cancer (243 cases/370 controls, meta-MR = 4.71 95 %CI:2.75-8.06) and HNC (204 patients/163 controls metaMR=2.28 95 %CI:2.02-2.58). A metaMR = 3.27 (95 %CI:1.41-7.59) was obtained for MN applied in peripheral lymphocytes on HNC (160 cases/160 controls). For BC, the analysis of MN in peripheral lymphocytes showed significantly higher values in patients (n = 761) than in controls (n = 788) (meta-MR1.90 95 % CI:1.44-2.49). No statistically significant increase of baseline MN was detected in studies on groups of healthy subjects with BC family history (n = 224) or with BRCA1/2 mutations (n = 101) with respect to the controls. After ex-vivo challenge with ionizing radiation, the meta-analysis revealed a slightly statistically significant increase in MN only in BC patients (n = 614) compared to controls (n = 622)(meta-MR = 1.11 95 %CI:1.02-1.21); no increase was observed in healthy subjects with BC family history carrying or not BRCA1/2 mutations. Significant difference between BC patients (n = 183) and controls (n = 165) was observed by the meta-analysis of data on MN in buccal cells (MR = 3.89 95 %CI:1.54-9.78). The MN assay in buccal cells has some perspective of clinical application in HNC.

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: There was a significant increase in chromosomal aberration frequency in diabetic patient groups who are exposed to smoking and alcohol than that of normal diabetic groups (T1DM and T2DM), which may contribute to an increased risk for cancer.
Abstract: Diabetes, a comprehensive genetic disease, is principally due to the deregulation of glucose levels in the blood. In addition to contemporary epidemiological studies, systematic substantiation suggests that long-term diabetes leads to cancers due to a variety of reasons. In this study, blood samples were collected with informed consent from confirmed type I diabetic (T1DM, n=25) and type II Diabetic patients (T2DM, n=25) with equal numbers of controls. Further depending on the lifestyle habits they were subdivided into smokers/non-smokers and alcoholics/non-alcoholics. Chromosomal assays were performed for these cases and it was found that there was a significant increase in chromosomal aberration frequency in diabetic patient groups who are exposed to smoking and alcohol than that of normal diabetic groups (T1DM and T2DM). On the other hand, patient groups who were non-smoking and non-alcoholics also showed higher chromosomal aberrations when compared to that of controls. While the mechanisms for these increased chromosomal aberrations in diabetic groups are not clear, they may be due to increased oxidative stress leading to oxidative damage and resulting in genomic instability, which in turn may contribute to an increased risk for cancer.

5 citations


Cites background from "Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aber..."

  • ...Also studies has shown oxidative stress correlated with DNA damage (Cinkilic et al., 2009) in T2DM and T1DM patients and an increase in genomic instability in precancerous patients (George et al., 2014)....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination, and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake.
Abstract: The global burden of cancer continues to increase largely because of the aging and growth of the world population alongside an increasing adoption of cancer-causing behaviors, particularly smoking, in economically developing countries. Based on the GLOBOCAN 2008 estimates, about 12.7 million cancer cases and 7.6 million cancer deaths are estimated to have occurred in 2008; of these, 56% of the cases and 64% of the deaths occurred in the economically developing world. Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer and the leading cause of cancer death among females, accounting for 23% of the total cancer cases and 14% of the cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cancer site in males, comprising 17% of the total new cancer cases and 23% of the total cancer deaths. Breast cancer is now also the leading cause of cancer death among females in economically developing countries, a shift from the previous decade during which the most common cause of cancer death was cervical cancer. Further, the mortality burden for lung cancer among females in developing countries is as high as the burden for cervical cancer, with each accounting for 11% of the total female cancer deaths. Although overall cancer incidence rates in the developing world are half those seen in the developed world in both sexes, the overall cancer mortality rates are generally similar. Cancer survival tends to be poorer in developing countries, most likely because of a combination of a late stage at diagnosis and limited access to timely and standard treatment. A substantial proportion of the worldwide burden of cancer could be prevented through the application of existing cancer control knowledge and by implementing programs for tobacco control, vaccination (for liver and cervical cancers), and early detection and treatment, as well as public health campaigns promoting physical activity and a healthier dietary intake. Clinicians, public health professionals, and policy makers can play an active role in accelerating the application of such interventions globally.

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TL;DR: Recognition of the widespread applicability of these concepts will increasingly affect the development of new means to treat human cancer.

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"Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aber..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Once the cell starts defective proliferative mechanisms due to genomic instability caused, the cell becomes cancerous and makes clones uncontrollably (Hanahan and Weinberg, 2011)....

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01 Jan 1986
TL;DR: Molecular cell biology, Molecular cell biology , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اصاع رسانی, کδاوρزی
Abstract: Molecular cell biology , Molecular cell biology , مرکز فناوری اطلاعات و اطلاع رسانی کشاورزی

6,754 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity and is being applied successfully for biomonitoring of in vivo genotoxin exposure, in vitro genotoxicity testing and in diverse research fields such as nutrigenomics and pharmacogenomics as a predictor of normal tissue and tumor radiation sensitivity and cancer risk.
Abstract: The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay is a comprehensive system for measuring DNA damage, cytostasis and cytotoxicity. DNA damage events are scored specifically in once-divided binucleated (BN) cells and include (a) micronuclei (MNi), a biomarker of chromosome breakage and/or whole chromosome loss, (b) nucleoplasmic bridges (NPBs), a biomarker of DNA misrepair and/or telomere end-fusions, and (c) nuclear buds (NBUDs), a biomarker of elimination of amplified DNA and/or DNA repair complexes. Cytostatic effects are measured via the proportion of mono-, bi- and multinucleated cells and cytotoxicity via necrotic and/or apoptotic cell ratios. Further information regarding mechanisms leading to MNi, NPBs and NBUDs formation is obtained using centromere and/or telomere probes. The assay is being applied successfully for biomonitoring of in vivo genotoxin exposure, in vitro genotoxicity testing and in diverse research fields such as nutrigenomics and pharmacogenomics as well as a predictor of normal tissue and tumor radiation sensitivity and cancer risk. The procedure can take up to 5 days to complete.

1,698 citations


"Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aber..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...The Cytokinesis block micronucleus cytome (CBMN Cyt) assay is known to be an effective and comprehensive tool to measure cytogenetic damage (Fenech, 2007)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: Criteria for scoring micron nuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for isolated human lymphocyte cultures are described in detail and will assist in the development of a procedure for calibrating scorers and laboratories so that results from different laboratories may be more comparable in the future.
Abstract: Criteria for scoring micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells in the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay for isolated human lymphocyte cultures are described in detail. Morphological characteristics of mononucleated cells, binucleated cells, and multinucleated cells as well as necrotic and apoptotic cells and nuclear buds are also described. These criteria are illustrated by a series of schematic diagrams as well as a comprehensive set of colour photographs that are of practical assistance during the scoring of slides. These scoring criteria, diagrams and photographs have been used in a HUman MicronNucleus (HUMN) project inter-laboratory slide-scoring exercise to evaluate the extent of variability that can be attributable to individual scorers and individual laboratories when measuring the frequency of micronuclei and nucleoplasmic bridges in binucleated cells as well as the nuclear division index. The results of the latter study are described in an accompanying paper. It is expected that these scoring criteria will assist in the development of a procedure for calibrating scorers and laboratories so that results from different laboratories for the cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay may be more comparable in the future.

1,231 citations


"Nuclear anomalies, chromosomal aber..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...For each sample, 1000 binucleated cells were scored for abnormalities following the criteria specified by (Fenech et al., 2003; 2007)....

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