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Book ChapterDOI

Nuclear Material Accounting and Control

22 May 2023-pp C27S1-C27N50
TL;DR: In this article , the authors describe the key elements of an NMAC system, with a focus on the application of NMAC to nuclear facilities, highlighting the benefits of an integrated system.
Abstract: Abstract International safeguards, implemented by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), represent the major mechanism for reducing the risk of state-level nuclear weapons proliferation. Nuclear material accounting and control (NMAC) is one of the primary components of international safeguards. NMAC encompasses all activities undertaken by states and the IAEA to ensure accurate accounting and control of nuclear materials at civilian nuclear facilities and to reduce the risk of weapons-usable fissile material being diverted by states from civil nuclear facilities to weapons programmes. However, NMAC systems can also be used to enhance nuclear security, helping prevent the theft of nuclear material by non-state actors. The chapter describes the key elements of an NMAC system, with a focus on the application of NMAC to nuclear facilities. The chapter also explores the synergies of NMAC when applied to both nuclear security and safeguards, highlighting the benefits of an integrated system.