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Nuclear reactor fuel elements : metallurgy and fabrication

01 Jan 1962-
About: The article was published on 1962-01-01 and is currently open access. It has received 34 citations till now. The article focuses on the topics: Nuclear reactor.
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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 1997-Talanta
TL;DR: Methods were standardized for the determination of 19 elements, viz.

59 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a variety of physical and thermal properties measurements as a function of temperature and fission density were performed on irradiated U-Mo alloy monolithic fuel samples with a Zr diffusion barrier and clad in aluminum alloy 6061.

33 citations

Book ChapterDOI
21 Oct 2011
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors describe the manufacturing technology of fuel used in research reactors that produce radioisotopes, and the most common type of research reactors is called “MTR” Materials Testing Reactor.
Abstract: This chapter describes the manufacturing technology of fuel used in research reactors that produce radioisotopes. Besides this production, the research reactors are also used for materials testing. The most common type of research reactors is called “MTR” Materials Testing Reactor. The MTR fuel elements use fuel plates, which are quite common around the world. There was a historic development in that fuel type over the years to reach the current state-of-art in this technology. The basic MTR fuel element is an assembled set of aluminum fuel plates. It consists of regularly spaced plates forming a fuel assembly. These spaces allow a stream flow of water that serves as coolant and also as moderator to nuclear reaction. The fuel plates have a meat containing the fissile material, which is entirely covered with aluminum. They are manufactured by adopting the traditional assembling technique of dispersion fuel briquette inserted in a frame covered by aluminum plates, which are welded with subsequent rolling. This technique is known internationally under the name "picture-frame technique". Powder metallurgy techniques are used in the manufacture of the fuel plate meats, making briquettes using ceramic or metallic composites. The briquette is made with powdered nuclear material and pure aluminum powder, which is the structural material matrix of the briquette. Using UF6 in the chemical plant, it is able to produce several intermediate compounds of uranium. One of these compounds is UF4, which is the main raw material to produce metallic uranium. It could be made by several routes. The production of metallic uranium uses the UF4 reduction through calcioand magnesiothermic reaction. The metallic uranium is alloyed with Al, Si or Mo. Previously, stable uranium oxides were used as MTR fuels, but they had very small densities to accomplish a good operational performance of the reactors. The fuel material candidate mostly prone to be used in nuclear research reactors is based on alloys carrying more U-density toward the fuel meat. In present state, the U-Mo alloys are good candidates, but it would not be subject of the present chapter since it on its path to be certified to future use in research reactors. Currently, the most used material is U3Si2 LEU, which is low enriched uranium enriched up to 20% of 235U isotope, which is the nuclear fissile material.

20 citations

Book ChapterDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, various bubble-growth mechanisms such as growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries, dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or "punchout", and bubble growth by creep are analyzed to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling.
Abstract: Under steady state conditions, irradiation resorption of fission gas from bubbles limits the swelling rates of metallic fast-reactor fuels to relatively small values. During transient thermal excursions, however, resorption effects diminish relative to thermal kinetics. Various bubble-growth mechanisms then become important components of the swelling These mechanisms include growth by diffusion, for bubbles within grains and on grain boundaries; dislocation nucleation at the bubble surface, or "punchout"; and bubble growth by creep. Analyses of these mechanisms are presented and applied to provide information on the conditions and the relative time scales for which the various processes should dominate fuel swelling. The results are compared to a series of experiments in which the swelling of irradiated metal fuel was determined after annealing at various temperatures and pressures. The diffusive growth of bubbles on grain boundaries is concluded to be dominant in these experiments.

11 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the influence of distributed xenon gas bubbles on the effective thermal conductivity of irradiated U-10Mo fuel using a two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) is estimated by solving the heat equation on a twodimensional domain and estimating the mean temperature and heat flux.

10 citations