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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.7203/SJP.20.1.20542

Nuevos restos terciarios de Spheniscidae (Aves, Sphenisciformes) procedentes de la costa del Perú

02 Mar 2021-Vol. 20, Iss: 1, pp 1-5
Abstract: Se estudian dos nuevos restos de Spheniscidae procedentes de la costa peruana. Uno de ellos, un tarsometatarso, proveniente de la Localidad de Zamaca, Departamento de Ica, fue exhumado de sedimentos de la Formacion Chilcatay (Mioceno Medio temprano) y es asignado a Palaeospheniscus sp. Este nuevo hallazgo constituye la primera cita para la Formacion Chilcatay, constituyendo el registro mas septentrional conocido para la Subfamilia Palaeospheniscinae. Esto permite ampliar su rango de distribucion extendiendolo al Mioceno Medio de la costa del Peru. El segundo, correspondiente a un tibiotarso, de la Localidad de Bajada del Diablo, Departamento de Ica, fue colectado en la Formacion Otuma (Eoceno Tardio - Oligoceno Temprano) y es asignado a un Spheniscidae indet., siendo posible agregar que pertenece a un taxon distinto a aquel del tarsometatarso.

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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1206/653.1
Daniel T. Ksepka1, Julia A. Clarke2Institutions (2)
Abstract: We present the first detailed description of Perudyptes devriesi, a basal penguin from the middle Eocene (~42 Ma) Paracas Formation of Peru, and a new analysis of all published extinct penguin species as well as controversial fragmentary specimens. The Perudyptes devriesi holotype includes key regions of the skull and significant postcranial material, thus helping to fill a major phylogenetic and stratigraphic (~20 million year) gap between the earliest fossil penguins (Waimanu manneringi and Waimanu tuatahi, ~58–61.6 Ma) and the next oldest partial skeletons. Perudyptes devriesi is diagnosable by five autapomorphies: (1) an anteroventrally directed postorbital process, (2) marked anterior expansion of the parasphenoid rostrum, (3) posterior trochlear ridge of the humerus projecting distal to the middle trochlear ridge and conformed as a large, broadly curved surface, (4) convex articular surface for the antitrochanter of the femur, and (5) extremely weak anterior projection of the lateral condyl...

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Topics: Perudyptes (65%), Waimanu (53%), Parasphenoid (51%) ... read more

72 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/17445647.2015.1048315
Giovanni Bianucci1, Claudio Di Celma2, Walter Landini1, Klaas Post  +11 moreInstitutions (6)
26 May 2016-Journal of Maps
Abstract: Hundreds of fossil marine vertebrates cropping out at Cerro Colorado (Pisco Basin, Peru) are identified and reported on a 1:6500 scale geological map and in a joined stratigraphic section. All the fossils are from the lower strata of the Pisco Formation, dated in this area to the late middle or early late Miocene. They are particularly concentrated (88%) in the stratigraphic interval from 40 to 75 m above the unconformity with the underlying Chilcatay Formation. The impressive fossil assemblage includes more than 300 specimens preserved as bone elements belonging mostly to cetaceans (81%), represented by mysticetes (cetotheriids and balaenopteroids) and odontocetes (kentriodontid-like delphinidans, pontoporiids, ziphiids, and physeteroids, including the giant raptorial sperm whale Livyatan melvillei). Seals, crocodiles, sea turtles, seabirds, bony fish, and sharks are also reported. Isolated large teeth of Carcharocles and Cosmopolitodus are common throughout the investigated stratigraphical interval, whe...

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Topics: Pisco Formation (70%), Late Miocene (53%), Sperm whale (52%)

69 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Ursula B. Göhlich1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Described here is a partial postcranial skeleton and additional disarticulated but associated bones of the new fossil pen− guin Spheniscus muizoni sp. nov. from the latest middle/earliest late Miocene (11-13 Ma) locality of Cerro la Bruja in the Pisco Formation, Peru. This fossil species can be attributed to the extant genus Spheniscus by postcranial morphology and is the oldest known record of this genus. Spheniscus muizoni sp. nov. is about the size of the extant Jackass and Magellanic penguins (Spheniscus demersus and Spheniscus magellanicus). Beside Spheniscus urbinai and Spheniscus megaramphus it is the third species of Spheniscus represented in the Pisco Formation. This study contains morphological comparisons with Tertiary penguins of South America and with most of the extant penguin species.

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42 Citations


Open accessJournal Article
Piotr Jadwiszczak1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Penguins (Aves: Sphenisciformes) hold much interest for many people, includ− ing (but not limited to) scientists. According to results of molecular studies, penguin his− tory began in the Cretaceous, but the oldest bones assigned to these birds are Paleocene in age. The first fossil representative of Sphenisciformes formally described was Palae− eudyptes antarcticus, and this event took place 150 years ago. Since that time, several dozens of species have been erected, though not all of them have stood a test of time. The 21st century entered new dynamics into the paleontology of penguins, and (importantly) it concerned both the new material, and new theories. This paper summarizes what we currently know about extinct penguins and indirectly suggests the most promising areas for further research. Key wor ds: Southern Hemisphere, Aves, Sphenisciformes, evolution, fossil record.

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38 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1111/J.1469-7580.2008.00927.X
01 Aug 2008-Journal of Anatomy
Abstract: We present the first detailed description of the giant Eocene penguin Icadyptes salasi . The species is characterized by a narrow skull with a hyper-elongate spear-like beak, a robust cervical column and a powerful flipper. The bony beak tip of Icadyptes is formed by fusion of several elements and is unique among penguins, differing markedly from previously described giant penguin beaks. Vascular canal patterning similar to that of boobies, frigatebirds and albatrosses suggests I. salasi may have had a thin, sheet-like rhamphotheca unlike the thick rugose rhamphotheca of modern penguins. Together, these features suggest a novel ecology for I. salasi , most likely involving the capture of larger prey items via spearing. As the first described giant penguin specimen to preserve a complete wing skeleton, the I. salasi holotype yields significant insight into the shape, proportions and orientation of the wing in giant penguins. In articulation, the forelimb of I. salasi is straighter, permitting less manus and antibrachium flexion, than previous depictions of giant penguin wings. Cross-sections of the humerus and ulna reveal a level of osteosclerosis equalling or surpassing that of extant penguins. Based on ontogenetic data from extant penguins and the morphology of the carpometacarpus of I. salasi , we infer the retention of a free alular phalanx in basal penguins. Previously, the status of this element in penguins was disputed. Differences in the proportions of the manual phalanges contribute to a more abruptly tapering wingtip in I. salasi compared with crown penguins. Fossils from Peru, including the I. salasi holotype specimen, document that penguins expanded to nearly the whole of their extant latitudinal range early in their evolutionary history and during one of the warmest intervals in the Cenozoic.

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Topics: Icadyptes (54%), Flipper (54%), Carpometacarpus (50%) ... read more

33 Citations


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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/BF01821211
Abstract: Paleontologic, stratigraphic and geochronologic (K-Ar) evidence demonstrate the presence of both late Miocene and Pliocene marine deposits in the Pisco Formation in the area of Sacaco, Peru. Tuffaceous sandstone, siltstone, and shelly sandstone comprise the greater part of the ca. 350 meters sequence. The fine grained sediments have accumulated in large coastal lagoons, while coarser sediments were deposited in semiprotected littoral and nearshore environments. A rich marine vertebrate fauna from the Sacaco basin includes fossil selachians, teleost fishes, marine birds, cetaceans, marine carnivores, and a single edentate species. A diverse invertebrate fauna consists principally of venerid and muricid molluscs. Five vertebrate levels have been correlated with five provisionally defined molluscan zones. The vertebrate fauna has some affinity with faunas of the Miocene Yorktown Formation at the Lee Creek Mine of North Carolina (USA). Distinctive Miocene and Pliocene molluscan assemblages of the Pisco Formation and Pleistocene molluscan assemblages from overlying terrace deposits become progressively more similar to Chilean assemblages of equivalent age and less similar to Tethyan faunas of the Panamic and Caribbean regions.

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Topics: Pisco Formation (64%), Late Miocene (56%), Yorktown Formation (56%) ... read more

209 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 1999-

166 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0895-9811(98)00014-5
T.J. DeVries1Institutions (1)
Abstract: A newly identified early Oligocene marine transgression across the Pisco Basin of southern Peru resulted in the deposition of at least 150 m of fossiliferous sandstones and siltstones, informally designated the Otuma formation. Basal sandstones can usually be recognized in the field by the presence of the gastropod, Turritella woodsi Lisson 1925 . New stratigraphic data demonstrate that Cenozoic marine sediments were deposited in the Pisco Basin between about 41-34 Ma, 31-28 Ma, 25-16 Ma, 15-11 Ma, 10-5 Ma, and 4-2 Ma. Most sequence boundaries in the Pisco Basin coincide with compressional tectonic events and/or eustatic low stands of sea level.

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Topics: Pisco Formation (68%), Turritella (54%), Cenozoic (52%) ... read more

91 Citations


Stig A. Walsh1, Julian P. Hume1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Most of South America's diverse avian fossil record is derived from terrestrial deposits. A Late Miocene to Early Pliocene marine avian assemblage is reported here from the Bahia Iglesa Formation of north-central Chile. Sulidae, Phalacrocoracidae, Pelagomithidae, Diomedeidae, and Spheniscidae reported here are the earliest occurrences in Chile. The presence of the Chilean spheniscid penguin may prove significant in the taxonomy and radiation of the genus Spheniscus.

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Topics: Spheniscidae (53%), Neogene (52%), Late Miocene (51%) ... read more

75 Citations