Numerical heat flow visualization analysis on enhanced thermal processing for various shapes of containers during thermal convection
14 Nov 2019-International Journal of Numerical Methods for Heat & Fluid Flow (Emerald Group Publishing Ltd.)-Vol. 30, Iss: 7, pp 3535-3583
TL;DR: In this article, the authors studied thermal convection in nine different containers involving the same area and identical heat input at the bottom wall (isothermal/sinusoidal heating) and solved the governing equations by using the Galerkin ﬁnite element method for various processing fluids (Pr = 0.025 and 155) and Rayleigh numbers (103 ≤ ≤ 105).
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to study thermal (natural) convection in nine different containers involving the same area (area= 1 sq. unit) and identical heat input at the bottom wall (isothermal/sinusoidal heating). Containers are categorized into three classes based on geometric conﬁgurations [Class 1 (square, tilted square and parallelogram), Class 2 (trapezoidal type 1, trapezoidal type 2 and triangle) and Class 3 (convex, concave and triangle with curved hypotenuse)].,The governing equations are solved by using the Galerkin ﬁnite element method for various processing fluids (Pr = 0.025 and 155) and Rayleigh numbers (103 ≤ Ra ≤ 105) involving nine different containers. Finite element-based heat flow visualization via heatlines has been adopted to study heat distribution at various sections. Average Nusselt number at the bottom wall ( Nub¯) and spatially average temperature (θ^) have also been calculated based on ﬁnite element basis functions.,Based on enhanced heating criteria (higher Nub¯ and higher θ^), the containers are preferred as follows, Class 1: square and parallelogram, Class 2: trapezoidal type 1 and trapezoidal type 2 and Class 3: convex (higher θ^) and concave (higher Nub¯).,The comparison of heat flow distributions and isotherms in nine containers gives a clear perspective for choosing appropriate containers at various process parameters (Pr and Ra). The results for current work may be useful to obtain enhancement of the thermal processing rate in various process industries.,Heatlines provide a complete understanding of heat flow path and heat distribution within nine containers. Various cold zones and thermal mixing zones have been highlighted and these zones are found to be altered with various shapes of containers. The importance of containers with curved walls for enhanced thermal processing rate is clearly established.
TL;DR: In this article, the authors investigated the thermal phenomena during magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection in an oblique enclosure filled with porous media saturated with Cu-Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid and heated at the left wavy wall.
Abstract: Purpose The aims of this study is to numerically investigate the thermal phenomena during magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) free convection in an oblique enclosure filled with porous media saturated with Cu–Al2O3/water hybrid nanofluid and heated at the left wavy wall. The thermophysical phenomena are explored thoroughly by varying the amplitude (λ) and undulation (n) of the wavy wall and the inclination of the enclosure (γ) along with other pertinent physical parameters. Darcy–Rayleigh number (Ram), Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (Ha) and nanoparticle volumetric fraction (ϕ). The effect of all parameters has been analyzed and represented by using heatlines, isotherms, streamlines, average Nusselt number and local Nusselt number. Design/methodology/approach The finite volume method is used to work out the transport equations coupled with velocity, pressure and temperature subjected to non-uniform staggered grid structure after grid-sensitivity analysis by an indigenous computing code and the semi-implicit method for pressure linked equations (SIMPLE) algorithm. The solution process is initiated following an iterative approach through the alternate direction implicit sweep technique and the tridiagonal matrix algorithm (TDMA) algorithm. The iterative process is continued until successive minimization of the residuals (<1e-8) for the governing equations. Findings This study reveals that the increase in the heating surface area does not always favor heat transfer. An increase in the undulation amplitude enhances the heat transfer; however, there is an optimum value of undulation of the wavy wall for this. The heat transfer enhancement because of the wall curvature is revealed at higher Ram, lower Da and Ha and lower volume fraction of nanoparticles. In general, this augmentation is optimum for four undulations of the wavy wall with an amplitude of λ = 0.3. The heat transfer enhancement can be more at the cavity inclination γ = 45°. Research limitations/implications The technique of this investigation could be used in other multiphysical areas involving partial porous layers, conducting objects, different heating conditions, wall motion, etc. Practical implications This study is to address MHD thermo-fluid phenomena of Cu–Al2O3/water-based hybrid nanofluid flow through a non-Darcian porous wavy cavity at different inclinations. The amplitude and number of undulations of the wavy wall, permeability of the porous medium, magnetic field intensity, nanoparticle volumetric fraction and inclinations of the enclosure play a significant role in the heat transfer process. This analysis and the findings of this work can be useful for the design and control of similar thermal systems/devices. Originality/value Many researchers have examined the problem of buoyancy-induced free convection in a wavy-porous cavity packed with regular fluids or nanofluids. However, the effect of magnetic fields along with the amplitude (λ) at different undulations (n) of the heated wavy wall of an inclined enclosure is not attended so far to understand the transport mechanisms. Most often, the evolutions of the thermo-fluid phenomena in such complex geometries invoking different multiphysics are very intricate. Numerical implementations for simulations and subsequent post-processing of the results are also challenging.
TL;DR: In this paper , the influence of various geometric parameters of a novel W-shaped porous cavity undergoing hybrid nanofluid-based magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection was numerically examined.
Abstract: Purpose This study aims to numerically examine the influence of various geometric parameters of a novel W-shaped porous cavity undergoing hybrid nanofluid-based magnetohydrodynamic mixed convection. The W-shaped cavity is modified from the classical trapezoidal cavity by constructing a triangular shape at its bottom. This cavity is isothermally active at the bottom, with different numbers and heights of the triangular peak (or undulation). The heated hybrid nanofluid (Cu–Al2O3–H2O) flow is cooled through the translating top wall. Inclined sidewalls are thermally insulated. To compare the impacts of change in geometric parameters, a square cavity under similar boundary conditions is also simulated. This study is carried out systematically addressing the various influences from a range of parameters like side angles (γ), number (m) and height (λ) of the bottom undulation, Reynolds number (Re), Richardson number (Ri), Darcy number (Da), Hartmann number (Ha), hybrid nanoparticles volume fraction (φ) on the overall thermal performance of the cavity. Design/methodology/approach Applying the finite volume approach, the transport equations involving multiphysical conditions like porous substance, hybrid nanofluid, magnetic field and shearing force are solved numerically by using a written FORTRAN-based code following the SIMPLE algorithm. The algebraic equations are solved over all the control volumes in an iterative process using the alternate direction implicit scheme and the tri-diagonal matrix algorithm. The converged solution of the iterative process is obtained when the relative error levels satisfy the convergence criterion of 10–8 and 10–10 for the maximum residuals and the mass defect, respectively. Findings It is revealed that an increase in the bottom undulation height always improves the thermal energy transfer despite the reduction of fluid volume. Thermal energy transfer significantly depends on the heating and cooling surface lengths, fluid volume in the cavity and the magnitude of the bottom undulation height of the W-shaped cavity. With the increase in bottom undulation height, effective heating length increases by ∼28%, which leads to a ∼15% reduction in the effective volume of the working fluid and a gain in heat transfer by ∼56.48%. In general, the overall thermal energy transport is improved by increasing Re, Ri and Da; whereas it is suppressed by increasing Ha. Research limitations/implications There are many opportunities for future research experimentally or numerically, considering different curvature effects, orientations of the geometry, working fluids, boundary conditions, etc. Furthermore, this study could be extended by considering unsteady flow or turbulent flow. Practical implications In many modern systems/processes pertaining to materials processing, continuous casting, food processing, chemical reactors, biomedical applications, etc. fine control in the transport process is a major concern. The findings of this analysis can effectively be useful for other applications for getting more control features in terms of achieving the operational objectives. The approach of the system analysis (considering geometrical size parameters to delve into the underlying transport physics) and the obtained simulated results presented in the work can usefully be applicable to similar thermal systems/devices such as materials processing, thermal mixing, chemical reactors, heat exchangers, etc. Originality/value From the well-documented and vast pool of literature survey, it is understood that there exists no such investigation on the considered geometry and study. This study contributes a lot to understanding magnetic field moderated thermofluid flow of a hybrid nanofluid in a porous medium filled W-shaped cavity, in consideration of different geometrical shape parameters (undulation peak numbers at bottom wall, peak heights, side angles and heating and cooling length). Findings brought by this study provide great insights into the design and operation under various ranges of multiphysical thermofluid-flow processing phenomena.
TL;DR: In this paper , the authors performed heat transfer and entropy generation analysis for a hybrid nanofluid flow in a quarter circular cavity considering different orientations of magnetic fields, and the results revealed that the mutual exchange of heater-cooler positions on adjacent straight edges of the quadrant cavity does not have any impact on the flow direction.
Abstract: Purpose The study aims to assess the heater and cooler positional impacts systematically using four different quadrantal cavities filled with hybrid nanofluid, keeping the curved surface adiabatic under the orientated magnetic fields. Both heat transfer and entropy generation analyses are performed for a hybrid nanofluid flow in a quarter circular cavity considering different orientations of magnetic fields. The investigation is focused to assess the heater and cooler positional impacts systematically using four different quadrantal cavities (first to fourth quadrantal cavities), keeping the curved surface always adiabatic. The impacts of pertinent variables like Rayleigh number, Hartmann number and volumetric concentration of hybrid nanofluid on heat transfer characteristics are in consideration with the second law of thermodynamics. The analysis includes the thermal, viscous and magnetic aspects of entropy generation. Design/methodology/approach After validating against the experimental results, the present work explores numerically following the Galerkin weighted finite element technique. The solution is obtained through an iterative process satisfying the convergence limit of 10−8 and 10−10 for the maximum residuals and the mass defect, respectively. Findings It revealed that the mutual exchange of heater-cooler positions on the adjacent straight edges of the quadrant cavity does not have any impact on the flow direction. Although the magnitude of flow velocity enhances, the sidewall plays a decision-making role in the formation of a single circulation vortex. It also shows that thermal entropy production is the main cause behind thermodynamic irreversibility. The second or third quadrantal arrangement could have been opted as the best configuration of the heater-cooler position for achieving superior heat transfer. The Lorentz force plays a great role to moderate the heat transfer process. The maximum entropy generation is located, as expected, at the heating-cooling junction point. Research limitations/implications There are plenty of prospects for extension of the present research concept numerically or experimentally, adopting three-dimensional analysis, working fluids, boundary conditions, etc. In fact, the study could be carried out for unsteady or turbulent fluid flow. Practical implications As the position of the heated source and cold sink on the enclosure geometry can significantly alter the thermo-fluid phenomena, this kind of analysis is of utmost relevance for the further development of efficient heating/cooling arrangements and proper management of the devices subjected to magnetic field applications. This original contribution could be a potentially valuable source for future research and exploration pertaining to a thermal system or device, like heat exchangers, solar collectors, thermal storage, electronic cooling, food and drying technologies and others. Originality/value In the literature, an inadequate number of works have focused on a quadrantal cavity, mostly considering the first quadrant of the circle. However, during practical applications, it is possible that the cavity can take the shape of the other three quadrants too, and the corresponding knowledge on relative performance is still missing. Furthermore, the present investigation includes the existence of magnetic fields at various orientations. The impact analysis of this field-induced Lorentz force on the nanofluid thermal performance is another major contribution from the present work that would enrich the domain knowledge and could be useful for thermal system engineers.
TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical investigation of free convection heat transfer in an attic-shaped enclosure with differentially heated two inclined walls and filled with air is performed, where a heat source placed on the right side of the bottom surface is kept as adiabatic.
Abstract: Numerical investigation of free convection heat transfer in an attic shaped enclosure with differentially heated two inclined walls and filled with air is performed in this study. The left inclined surface is uniformly heated whereas the right inclined surface is uniformly cooled. There is a heat source placed on the right side of the bottom surface. Rest of the bottom surface is kept as adiabatic. Finite volume based commercial software ANSYS 15 (Fluent) is used to solve the governing equations. Dependency of various flow parameters of fluid flow and heat transfer is analyzed including Rayleigh number, Ra ranging from 103 to 106, heater size from 0.2 to 0.6, heater position from 0.3 to 0.7 and aspect ratio from 0.2 to 1.0 with a fixed Prandtl number of 0.72. Outcomes have been reported in terms of temperature and stream function contours and local Nusselt number for various Ra, heater size, heater position, and aspect ratio. Grid sensitivity analysis is performed and numerically obtained results have been compared with those results available in the literature and found good agreement.
TL;DR: In this paper, the complex nature of the natural convection phenomena in enclosures is discussed and the boundary value problem is formulated, assuming that the motion is 2D and steady, the fluid is incompressible and frictional heating is negligible, and the difference between the hot wall and cold wall temperatures is small relative to the absolute temperatures of the cold wall.
Abstract: Publisher Summary This chapter discusses the complex nature of the natural convection phenomena in enclosures It discusses the two basic configurations of natural convection— that is, a rectangular cavity and a horizontal circular cylinder In rectangular cavities, consideration is given to the two-dimensional convective motion generated by the buoyancy force on the fluid in a rectangle and to the associated heat transfer The two long sides are vertical boundaries held at different temperatures and the short sides can either be heat conducting or insulated Particular attention is given to the different flow regimes that can occur and the heat transfer across the fluid space between the two plane parallel vertical boundaries Although heat transfer by radiation may not be negligible it is independent of the other types of heat transfer and can be fairly accurately calculated separately To formulate the boundary value problem that describes this phenomena it is assumed that: (a) the motion is two-dimensional and steady, (b) the fluid is incompressible and frictional heating is negligible, and (c) the difference between the hot wall and cold wall temperatures is small relative to the absolute temperatures of the cold wall In horizontal circular cylinder, consideration is given to the large Rayleigh number flow with the Prandtl number large and the Grashof number of unit order of the magnitude
TL;DR: Proposition d'une nouvelle methode de visualisation du transfert de chaleur dans un ecoulement de fluide. Application a la convection naturelle dans une enceinte carree chauffee lateralement
Abstract: Proposition d'une nouvelle methode de visualisation du transfert de chaleur dans un ecoulement de fluide. Application a la convection naturelle dans une enceinte carree chauffee lateralement
TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical study to investigate the steady laminar natural convection flow in a square cavity with uniformly and non-uniformly heated bottom wall, and adiabatic top wall maintaining constant temperature of cold vertical walls has been performed.
Abstract: A numerical study to investigate the steady laminar natural convection flow in a square cavity with uniformly and non-uniformly heated bottom wall, and adiabatic top wall maintaining constant temperature of cold vertical walls has been performed. A penalty finite element method with bi-quadratic rectangular elements has been used to solve the governing mass, momentum and energy equations. The numerical procedure adopted in the present study yields consistent performance over a wide range of parameters (Rayleigh number Ra, 103 ⩽ Ra ⩽ 105 and Prandtl number Pr, 0.7 ⩽ Pr ⩽ 10) with respect to continuous and discontinuous Dirichlet boundary conditions. Non-uniform heating of the bottom wall produces greater heat transfer rates at the center of the bottom wall than the uniform heating case for all Rayleigh numbers; however, average Nusselt numbers show overall lower heat transfer rates for the non-uniform heating case. Critical Rayleigh numbers for conduction dominant heat transfer cases have been obtained and for convection dominated regimes, power law correlations between average Nusselt number and Rayleigh numbers are presented.
TL;DR: In this paper, an entropy generation analysis for the Cu-water nanofluid flow through a wavy channel over heat exchanger plat is investigated, which is expressed as a function of velocity and temperature.
Abstract: An entropy generation analysis for the Cu-water nanofluid flow through a wavy channel over heat exchanger plat is investigated. Entropy generation is expressed as a function of velocity and temperature. Governing equations, containing mass conservation, momentum and energy equations, are solved by a finite volume technique. All simulations are performed with Ansys-Fluent. The effects of physical parameters such as Reynolds number, dimensionless amplitude, nanoparticles volume fraction and wave number on the total, thermal, and viscous entropy generation rates and Bejan number are examined. The obtained results indicate that the thermal entropy generation is main term in most part of the channel, including near the wavy walls. Moreover, the rise in viscous entropy generation with Reynolds number increases with increasing dimensionless amplitude.
TL;DR: In this paper, a review of the studies on natural convection heat transfer in triangular, trapezoidal, parallelogrammic enclosures and enclosures with curved and wavy walls filled with fluid or porous media is presented.
Abstract: Natural convection in an enclosure (internal convection) is an important problem due to its significant practical applications. In energy related applications, natural convection plays a dominant role in transport of energy for the proper design of enclosures in order to achieve higher heat transfer rates. This review summarizes the studies on natural convection heat transfer in triangular, trapezoidal, parallelogrammic enclosures and enclosures with curved and wavy walls filled with fluid or porous media. In addition, this review also summarizes the natural convection studies in the nanofluid filled enclosures. Studies have been performed for the enclosures subjected to different thermal boundary conditions. A number of the studies demonstrated that the variation of the aspect ratio and base angle of the triangular and rhombic/parallelogrammic enclosures had a wide influence on the flow distribution pattern. In the trapezoidal enclosure, the aspect ratio of the cavity as well as the presence of the baffles along the walls played a significant role in the temperature and flow distribution. The flow patterns within the complex enclosures were found to be largely dependent on the amplitude-wavelength ratio and number of undulations of the wavy walls. In addition, the researchers have also studied the effect of the various parameters such as the Rayleigh numbers, Prandtl numbers, Darcy numbers, Darcy–Rayleigh number, irreversibility distribution ratios, volume fraction of the nanoparticles, etc. Overall, the current review paper presents an useful insight into the potential strategies for enhancing the convection heat transfer performance.