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Journal ArticleDOI

Numerical study on mixed convection and entropy generation of Cu–water nanofluid in a differentially heated skewed enclosure

TL;DR: In this paper, a numerical study is made on the mixed convection of copper-water nanofluid inside a differentially heated skew enclosure, where the finite volume based SIMPLEC algorithm is used to solve the transformed equations for fluid flow and heat transfer equations in the computational domain.
Abstract: A numerical study is made on the mixed convection of copper–water nanofluid inside a differentially heated skew enclosure. Co-ordinate transformations are used to transform the physical domain to the computational domain in an orthogonal co-ordinate. The finite volume based SIMPLEC algorithm is used to solve the transformed equations for fluid flow and heat transfer equations in the computational domain. The fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics are studied for a wide range of skew angles ( 30 ° ⩽ λ ⩽ 150 ° ) , nanoparticle volume fraction ( 0.0 ⩽ ϕ ⩽ 0.2 ) and Richardson number ( 0.1 ⩽ Ri ⩽ 5 ) at a fixed value of Reynolds number. The entropy generation and Bejan number are evaluated to demonstrate the thermodynamic optimization of the mixed convection. It is shown that the heat transfer rate increases remarkably by the addition of nanoparticles. The flow field is sensible to the skew angle variation. Our results show that the heat transfer augmentation through nanoparticles with lower rate in entropy generation enhancement can be achieved in a skewed cavity.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, an analysis has been carried out for the three dimensional flow of viscous nanofluid in the presence of partial slip and thermal radiation effects, where the flow is induced by a permeable stretching surface.
Abstract: An analysis has been carried out for the three dimensional flow of viscous nanofluid in the presence of partial slip and thermal radiation effects. The flow is induced by a permeable stretching surface. Water is treated as a base fluid and alumina as a nanoparticle. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of applied magnetic field. Entire different concept of nonlinear thermal radiation is utilized in the heat transfer process. Different from the previous literature, the nonlinear system for temperature distribution is solved and analyzed. Appropriate transformations reduce the nonlinear partial differential system to ordinary differential system. Convergent series solutions are computed for the velocity and temperature. Effects of different parameters on the velocity, temperature, skin friction coefficient and Nusselt number are computed and examined. It is concluded that heat transfer rate increases when temperature and radiation parameters are increased.

196 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Few recent attempts about this topic can be mentioned by the investigations [1–10] and several references therein....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a review of the contributions on entropy generation of nanofluids and hybrid nanoparticles in different types of thermal systems for different boundary conditions and physical situations.
Abstract: This paper presents a review of the contributions on entropy generation of nanofluids and hybrid nanofluids in the different types of thermal systems for different boundary conditions and physical situations. The relevant papers are classified into three categories: entropy generation in minichannel, entropy generation macrochannel and entropy generation in cavities. The viscous dissipative, streamwise, electromagnetic effects, as well as nanoparticles concentration, the temperature and the flow regime on entropy generation, were analyzed. The reviewed literature indicates that the implementation of nanofluids/hybrid nanofluids in microchannels, minichannels, and cavities may be an important alternative to the traditional thermal systems and an interesting topic of study.

169 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a mixed convection of CuO-water nanofluid filled lid driven cavity having its upper and lower triangular domains under the influence of inclined magnetic fields is numerically investigated.
Abstract: In this study, mixed convection of CuO–water nanofluid filled lid driven cavity having its upper and lower triangular domains under the influence of inclined magnetic fields is numerically investigated. The top horizontal wall of the cavity is moving with constant speed of u w with + x direction while no-slip boundary conditions are imposed on the other walls of the cavity. The top wall of the cavity is maintained at constant cold temperature of T c while the bottom wall is at hot temperature of T h and on the other walls of the cavity are assumed to be adiabatic. The governing equations are solved by using Galerkin weighted residual finite element formulation. Entropy generation is produced by using formulation and integrated with calculated velocities and temperatures. The numerical investigation is performed for a range of parameters: Richardson number (between 0.01 and 100), Hartmann number (between 0 and 50), inclination angle of magnetic field (between 0° and 90°) and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid (between 0 and 0.05). Different combinations of Hartmann numbers and inclination angles of the magnetic fields are imposed in the upper and lower triangular domains of the square cavity. It is observed that the local and averaged heat transfer deteriorates when the Richardson number, Hartmann number of the triangular domains increase. When the Hartmann number and magnetic angle of the upper triangle are increased, more deterioration of the averaged transfer is obtained when compared to lower triangular domain. Local and averaged heat transfer increase as the solid volume fraction of the nanoparticles increases and adding nanoparticles is more effective for the local enhancement of the heat transfer when the heat transfer rate is high and convection is not damped with lowering the Hartmann number. Second law analysis of the system for different combinations of flow parameters is also performed.

159 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors investigated the effect of different shaped obstacles (circular, square and diamond) installed under the influence of a uniform magnetic field and uniform heat generation was numerically investigated.
Abstract: In this study, natural convection in a nano-fluid filled cavity having different shaped obstacles (circular, square and diamond) installed under the influence of a uniform magnetic field and uniform heat generation was numerically investigated. The cavity was heated from below and cooled from the vertical sides while the top wall was assumed to be adiabatic. The temperatures of the side walls vary linearly. The governing equations were solved by using Galerkin weighted residual finite element formulation. The numerical investigation was performed for a range of parameters: external Rayleigh number (104 ≤ RaE ≤ 106), internal Rayleigh number (104 ≤ RaI ≤ 106), Hartmann number (0 ≤ Ha ≤ 50), and solid volume fraction of the nanofluid (0 ≤ ϕ ≤ 0.05). It is observed that the presence of the obstacles deteriorates the heat transfer process and this is more pronounced with higher values of Re E . Averaged heat transfer reduces by 21.35%, 32.85% and 34.64% for the cavity with circular, diamond and squared shaped obstacles compared to cavity without obstacles at RaI = 106. The effect of heat transfer reduction with square and diamond shaped obstacles compared to case without obstacle is less effective with increasing values of Hartmann number. Second law analysis was also performed by using different measures for the normalized total entropy generation.

136 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the entropy generation in natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity using a single-phase model was analyzed using the finite difference method of the second-order accuracy.
Abstract: Purpose The main purpose of this numerical study is to study on entropy generation in natural convection of nanofluid in a wavy cavity using a single-phase nanofluid model. Design/methodology/approach The cavity is heated non-uniformly from the wavy wall and cooled from the right side while it is insulated from the horizontal walls. The physical domain of the problem is transformed into a rectangular geometry in the computational domain using an algebraic coordinate transformation by introducing new independent variables ξ and η. The governing dimensionless partial differential equations with corresponding initially and boundary conditions were numerically solved by the finite difference method of the second-order accuracy. The governing parameters are Rayleigh number (Ra = 1000-100000), Prandtl number (Pr = 6.82), solid volume fraction parameter of nanoparticles (φ = 0.0-0.05), aspect ratio parameter (A = 1), undulation number (κ = 1-3), wavy contraction ratio (b = 0.1-0.3) and dimensionless time (τ = 0-0.27). Findings It is found that the average Bejan number is an increasing function of nanoparticle volume fraction and a decreasing function of the Rayleigh number, undulation number and wavy contraction ratio. Also, an insertion of nanoparticles leads to an attenuation of convective flow and enhancement of heat transfer. Originality The originality of this work is to analyze the entropy generation in natural convection within a wavy nanofluid cavity using single-phase nanofluid model. The results would benefit scientists and engineers to become familiar with the flow behaviour of such nanofluids, and will be a way to predict the properties of this flow for the possibility of using nanofluids in advanced nuclear systems, in industrial sectors including transportation, power generation, chemical sectors, ventilation, air-conditioning, etc.

128 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid and concluded that only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids.
Abstract: Nanofluids are engineered colloids made of a base fluid and nanoparticles (1-100 nm) Nanofluids have higher thermal conductivity' and single-phase heat transfer coefficients than their base fluids In particular the heat transfer coefficient increases appear to go beyond the mere thermal-conductivity effect, and cannot be predicted by traditional pure-fluid correlations such as Dittus-Boelter's In the nanofluid literature this behavior is generally attributed to thermal dispersion and intensified turbulence, brought about by nanoparticle motion To test the validity of this assumption, we have considered seven slip mechanisms that can produce a relative velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid These are inertia, Brownian diffusion, thermophoresis, diffusioplwresis, Magnus effect, fluid drainage, and gravity We concluded that, of these seven, only Brownian diffusion and thermophoresis are important slip mechanisms in nanofluids Based on this finding, we developed a two-component four-equation nonhomogeneous equilibrium model for mass, momentum, and heat transport in nanofluids A nondimensional analysis of the equations suggests that energy transfer by nanoparticle dispersion is negligible, and thus cannot explain the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases Furthermore, a comparison of the nanoparticle and turbulent eddy time and length scales clearly indicates that the nanoparticles move homogeneously with the fluid in the presence of turbulent eddies so an effect on turbulence intensity is also doubtful Thus, we propose an alternative explanation for the abnormal heat transfer coefficient increases: the nanofluid properties may vary significantly within the boundary layer because of the effect of the temperature gradient and thermophoresis For a heated fluid, these effects can result in a significant decrease of viscosity within the boundary layer, thus leading to heat transfer enhancement A correlation structure that captures these effects is proposed

5,329 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered by suspending metallic nanoparticles in conventional heat-transfer fluids, which are expected to exhibit high thermal conductivities compared to those of currently used heat transfer fluid, and they represent the best hope for enhancing heat transfer.
Abstract: Low thermal conductivity is a primary limitation in the development of energy-efficient heat transfer fluids that are required in many industrial applications. In this paper we propose that an innovative new class of heat transfer fluids can be engineered by suspending metallic nanoparticles in conventional heat transfer fluids. The resulting {open_quotes}nanofluids{close_quotes} are expected to exhibit high thermal conductivities compared to those of currently used heat transfer fluids, and they represent the best hope for enhancement of heat transfer. The results of a theoretical study of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids with copper nanophase materials are presented, the potential benefits of the fluids are estimated, and it is shown that one of the benefits of nanofluids will be dramatic reductions in heat exchanger pumping power.

4,634 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The performances of SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and SIMPLEC are compared for two recirculating flow problems and several modifications to the method are shown which both simplify its implementation and reduce solution costs.
Abstract: Variations of the SIMPLE method of Patankar and Spalding have been widely used over the past decade to obtain numerical solutions to problems involving incompressible flows. The present paper shows several modifications to the method which both simplify its implementation and reduce solution costs. The performances of SIMPLE, SIMPLER, and SIMPLEC (the present method) are compared for two recirculating flow problems. The paper is addressed to readers who already have experience with SIMPLE or its variants.

3,276 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, a model is developed to analyze heat transfer performance of nanofluids inside an enclosure taking into account the solid particle dispersion, where the transport equations are solved numerically using the finite-volume approach along with the alternating direct implicit procedure.
Abstract: Heat transfer enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure utilizing nanofluids is investigated for various pertinent parameters. A model is developed to analyze heat transfer performance of nanofluids inside an enclosure taking into account the solid particle dispersion. The transport equations are solved numerically using the finite-volume approach along with the alternating direct implicit procedure. Comparisons with previously published work on the basis of special cases are performed and found to be in excellent agreement. The effect of suspended ultrafine metallic nanoparticles on the fluid flow and heat transfer processes within the enclosure is analyzed and effective thermal conductivity enhancement maps are developed for various controlling parameters. In addition, an analysis of variants based on the thermophysical properties of nanofluid is developed and presented. It is shown that the variances within different models have substantial effects on the results. Finally, a heat transfer correlation of the average Nusselt number for various Grashof numbers and volume fractions is presented.

2,560 citations