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Journal ArticleDOI

Nursing research ethics, guidance and application in practice

28 Jul 2016-British journal of nursing (Mark Allen Group)-Vol. 25, Iss: 14, pp 803-807
TL;DR: This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.
Abstract: Ethics is fundamental to good research practice and the protection of society. From a historical point of view, research ethics has had a chequered past and without due cognisance there is always the potential for research to do harm. Research ethics is fundamental to research practice, nurse education and the development of evidence. In conducting research, it is important to plan for and anticipate any potential or actual risks. To engage in research, researchers need to develop an understanding and knowledge of research ethics and carefully plan how to address ethics within their research. This article aims to enhance students' and novice researchers' research ethics understanding and its application to nursing research.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Nov 2017
TL;DR: This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research.
Abstract: A qualitative description design is particularly relevant where information is required directly from those experiencing the phenomenon under investigation and where time and resources are limited. Nurses and midwives often have clinical questions suitable to a qualitative approach but little time to develop an exhaustive comprehension of qualitative methodological approaches. Qualitative description research is sometimes considered a less sophisticated approach for epistemological reasons. Another challenge when considering qualitative description design is differentiating qualitative description from other qualitative approaches. This article provides a systematic and robust journey through the philosophical, ontological, and epistemological perspectives, which evidences the purpose of qualitative description research. Methods and rigor issues underpinning qualitative description research are also appraised to provide the researcher with a systematic approach to conduct research utilizing this approach. The key attributes and value of qualitative description research in the health care professions will be highlighted with the aim of extending its usage.

909 citations


Cites background from "Nursing research ethics, guidance a..."

  • ...Researchers may have to mask contextualization to some extent to protect participants’ identities, while still ensuring that what is reported is verbatim or as near to the meaning literally described by the participant (Doody & Noonan, 2016)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explore innovation strategies that managers of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) used to implement innovation in their organizations to meet performance goals, and identify the role of the top management in cultivating an innovative culture, the identification of ideas as the starting point for innovation and the recognition of customers as resources for the company.
Abstract: The purpose of this paper is to explore innovation strategies that managers of small and medium-size enterprises (SMEs) used to implement innovation in their organizations to meet performance goals.,The participants in this multiple case study research comprised randomly selected managers from SMEs operating in Dubai, United Arab Emirates with specialist expertise in successfully implementing innovation in their organizations. Individual interviews were undertaken with participants to gain both an insight and understanding regarding which innovation strategies are best suited to improve performance goal outcomes. A further analysis of workplace internal documents, policies, procedures, SMEs’ websites, review websites and press releases afforded additional insights related to the application of innovative workplace practices which supported productivity improvements in relation to performance goal outcomes.,The findings of this study identified that the role of the top management in cultivating an innovative culture, the identification of ideas as the starting point for innovation and the recognition of customers as resources for the company.,Implementing the findings from this study may support job creation, economy protection in downturns and contribution to economic growth, since thriving SMEs have a positive impact on community development through the generation of the employment. Furthermore, the results of this study can help in creating an increase in improving the productivity of Dubai SMEs in Dubai’s GDP, improvement in investment opportunities; better working conditions for employees and possibilities for expanding the operations of Dubai SMEs globally.,This study is of value because its findings may contribute to local and global economic growth. Exploring successful innovation implementation strategies in SMEs can result in useful guidelines that SME managers can use to reach the performance goals of their SMEs. Since governmental policies are critical to improving business performance, the Government of Dubai may benefit from this study by addressing key success factors for SMEs through policies and regulations. This study has particular value given the lack of studies that address the issue of innovation implementation in SMEs, especially for SMEs in emerging economies.

30 citations


Cites background from "Nursing research ethics, guidance a..."

  • ...Researchers can use quantitative methods at later stages of the study to quantify specific variables in a numerical statistical form or to test a certain hypothesis (McCusker & Gunaydin, 2015)....

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  • ...Researchers should highlight the limitations of their qualitative studies the same way they report the findings (Elo et al., 2014)....

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  • ...Researchers making case studies should have a good understanding of the subject before conducting the research, which makes them vulnerable to bias because of preconceptions (Yin, 2017)....

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  • ...Researchers use the CAQDAS to manage and analyze more data in less time using less effort....

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  • ...The National Research Council of Italy, Research Institute on Sustainable Economic Growth (CNR-IRCRES) (2018) reported that SMEs employ a large portion of employees in most countries....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explored strategies that managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use to effectively integrate knowledge management (KM) into business practices.
Abstract: The purpose of this multiple case study was to explore strategies that managers of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use to effectively integrate knowledge management (KM) into business practices. The study population comprised of five managers from two SMEs operating in Uganda. The eligibility criteria were that participants had to be managers from Ugandan SMEs with a knowledge-intensive environment, with some responsibility of KM in the organization, and experienced with at least 1 year of successful KM practices. The conceptual framework for this study was theory z. Data were collected through face-to-face, semi-structured interviews, and reviews of company documents. Member checking was completed to strengthen credibility and trustworthiness

18 citations

References
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Book ChapterDOI
01 Jan 1991
TL;DR: The main aim of the conference, as expressed in its title, is to improve drug safety through the joint efforts of all those who are partners in this very complicated but crucial task of ensuring progress in medicine.
Abstract: It is an honor and a great pleasure for me to welcome you, on behalf of the Council for International Organizations of Medical Sciences (CIOMS), to this international dialogue conference organized in the framework of the RAD-AR initiative. The main aim of the conference, as expressed in its title, is to improve drug safety through the joint efforts of all those who are partners in this very complicated but crucial task of ensuring progress in medicine. I am particularly pleased by the presence of all major constituencies responsible for drug safety, namely, representatives of the national drug regulatory authorities, drug manufacturers, and health professions, as well as scientists, journalists, and representatives of consumer organizations.

1,458 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article offers a conceptual frame for addressing questions of power distribution in qualitative research through a developmental analysis of power relations across the different stages of the research process.
Abstract: This article focuses on the tensions between the commitment to power redistribution of the qualitative paradigm and the ethical and methodological complexity inherent in clinical research. Qualitative inquiry, in general, though there are significant variations between its different paradigms and traditions, proposes to reduce power differences and encourages disclosure and authenticity between researchers and participants. It clearly departs from the traditional conception of quantitative research, whereby the researcher is the ultimate source of authority and promotes the participants' equal participation in the research process. But it is precisely this admirable desire to democratize the research process, and the tendency to question traditional role boundaries, that raises multiple ethical dilemmas and serious methodological challenges. In this article, we offer a conceptual frame for addressing questions of power distribution in qualitative research through a developmental analysis of power relations across the different stages of the research process. We discuss ethical and methodological issues.

603 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
07 Dec 1996-BMJ
TL;DR: New research indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century, which shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged.
Abstract: The issue of ethics with respect to medical experimentation in Germany during the 1930s and 1940s was crucial at the Nuremberg trials and related trials of doctors and public health officials. Those involved in horrible crimes attempted to excuse themselves by arguing that there were no explicit rules governing medical research on human beings in Germany during the period and that research practices in Germany were not different from those in allied countries. In this context the Nuremberg code of 1947 is generally regarded as the first document to set out ethical regulations in human experimentation based on informed consent. New research, however, indicates that ethical issues of informed consent in guidelines for human experimentation were recognised as early as the nineteenth century. These guidelines shed light on the still contentious issue of when the concepts of autonomy, informed consent, and therapeutic and non-therapeutic research first emerged. This issue assumes renewed importance in the context of current attempts to assess liability and responsibility for the abuse of people in various experiments conducted since the second world war in the United States, Canada, Russia, and other nations.

392 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: It is suggested that empirical research is desirable in order to quantify the actual risks to participants in qualitative studies, and to offer a framework within which health services researchers can consider these issues.
Abstract: Background An increasing volume of qualitative research and articles about qualitative methods has been published recently in medical journals. However, compared with the extensive debate in social sciences literature, there has been little consideration in medical journals of the ethical issues surrounding qualitative research. A possible explanation for this lack of discussion is that it is assumed commonly that qualitative research is unlikely to cause significant harm to participants. There are no agreed guidelines for judging the ethics of qualitative research proposals and there is some evidence that medical research ethics committees have difficulty making these judgements. Objectives Our aim was to consider the ethical issues which arise when planning and carrying out qualitative research into health and health care, and to offer a framework within which health services researchers can consider these issues. Results Four potential risks to research participants are discussed: anxiety and distress; exploitation; misrepresentation; and identification of the participant in published papers, by themselves or others. Recommended strategies for reducing the risk of harm include ensuring scientific soundness, organizing follow-up care where appropriate, considering obtaining consent as a process, ensuring confidentiality and taking a reflexive stance towards analysis. Conclusions While recognizing the reservations held about strict ethical guidelines for qualitative research, we argue for further debate of these issues so that the health services research community can move towards the adoption of agreed standards of good practice. In addition, we suggest that empirical research is desirable in order to quantify the actual risks to participants in qualitative studies.

369 citations