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Journal ArticleDOI

O Comércio Brasil-Mercosul na década de 90: uma análise pela ótica do comércio intra-indústria

01 Jan 2003-Revista Brasileira De Economia (Fundação Getúlio Vargas)-Vol. 57, Iss: 1, pp 283-313

AbstractThe object of study of this work is to investigate the contribution of the intra-industry trade to the growth of the Brazilian intra-block trade flow, and if this flow could be relatively more significant than the extra-block to the growth of the total multilateral intra-industry trade. A conclusion is that when analysing the Brazil-MERCOSUR bilateral trade flow, an increasing significance of the intra-industry type of trade in this flow was observed.

Topics: Bilateral trade (63%)

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Journal ArticleDOI
06 Sep 2013
Abstract: O objetivo principal do presente trabalho e analisar o comercio intraindustrial (CII) entre o Brasil e os paises da OCDE, no periodo compreendido de 2000 a 2009. Especificamente, pretende-se decompor o comercio intraindustrial (CII) bilateral e analisar os seus determinantes. Os principais resultados encontrados foram: os Estados Unidos e o Mexico sao os paises da OCDE que possuem o maior volume e indice de comercio intraindustrial (CII) com o Brasil, respectivamente. Ademais, verificou-se que, em todas as relacoes bilaterais, o comercio intraindustrial vertical (CIIV) e superior ao comercio intraindustrial horizontal (CIIH), em que os produtos exportados pelo Brasil possuem qualidade inferior a dos produtos importados. Apos a decomposicao do comercio intraindustrial (CII), partimos para a analise empirica dos seus determinantes. Conforme o resultado obtido a partir do metodo de efeitos aleatorios, verificou-se que, a 10% de significância, a diferenca na dotacao de fatores (em termos da razao capital/trabalho) tem um impacto positivo sobre o comercio intraindustrial vertical bilateral, corroborando a hipotese central do modelo de Falvey e Kierzkowski (1987).

6 citations


Cites background from "O Comércio Brasil-Mercosul na décad..."

  • ...Nessa mesma linha, Vasconcelos (2003) avaliou a contribuição do comércio intra- industrial no crescimento do fluxo comercial brasileiro intra-Mercosul no período 1990 a 1998....

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Journal ArticleDOI
24 Jun 2020
Abstract: Brazilian projection towards South America has been an important issue since its re-democratization process in the 1980s. Still, Brazil’s regional behavior could not be considered as a hegemony, under the realist point of view, that is, exerted by its hard power. Nor liberal, considering the option for multiplicities initiatives and a low level of institutionalization. Therefore, we propose to apply the Gramscian concept of hegemony to analyze if Brazil could exert hegemony towards South America throughout its participation in regional integration processes. To do so, we have chosen to use a qualitative method of analysis along with a typical case-study to develop a prelaminar theory illustration, based upon a literature review of the Brazilian foreign policy (primary and secondary sources). This inquiry leads us to argue that there is a dubiety regarding Brazil’s regional action. Firstly, due to the lack of institutionalization of South American regional organizations and; secondly, because Brazilian foreign policy was not able to wield coercive power during regional crises. However, even considering that Brazil’s projection towards the region do not represent a typical case of hegemony (realist), bearing in mind the findings low rates of validity beyond this case-study, there are enough evidences that its actions in many arrangements as leader and constructor of consensus it is a way to employ hegemony (Gramscian) in regional terms.

6 citations


DissertationDOI
14 Jun 2011
Abstract: Intra-industry trade of Brazil: analysis of determinants through the gravity equation This study aimed to determine the influence of characteristics for countries and industries in intra-industry trade (IIT) of Brazilian manufactured products, considering the annual trade flows for the period 2002 to 2006 and using a gravity equation adapted to analysis this form of trade . The explanatory variables are related to market size, represented by proxy LPIBij, differences between per capita incomes of countries represented by proxy LdPIBpcij, and tariffs imposed by importing countries, represented by proxy LTarifas. These variables were used to analyze the intra-industry trade and its horizontal and vertical components. The theoretical basis to make the segmentation of intra-industry in Brazil, according to such characteristics, was derived from studies conducted by Falvey (1981), Helpman and Krugman (1985) and Greenaway et al.(1995). The measurement of the Grubel-Lloyd index and the subsequent separation of components from IIT using unit value indicates that the brazilian intra-industry trade has a strong predominance of IIT – Vertical Low quality. The results of the estimation of the gravitational equations with the use of panel data and the use of Poisson PseudoMaximum-Likelihood proved to be the most suitable for econometric estimation. The results for intra-industry “total” indicated that the market size, has a positive effect on the flow of exports of Brazilian products with intra-industry trade (0,517), however, the differences between per capita incomes (-0,183) of countries and tariffs in importing countries (-0,356) have a negative relation. The results for vertical and horizontal intraindustry trade have the same signals than intra-industry “total” but they differ in magnitude.

5 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Este artigo investiga os impactos da abertura comercial e do comercio intra-industria sobre as desigualdades salariais entre trabalhadores qualificados emenos qualificados na industria de transformacao brasileira por meio de um modelo de comercio intra-industria. Sao examinados 22 generos da industria de transformacao brasileira no periodo 1992-2001, ao nivel de dois e tres digitos da Classificacao Nacional de Atividades Economicas. A principal conclusao foi que a ampliacao das desigualdades de renda entre trabalhadores qualificados e menos qualificados foi fortemente influenciada pela intensificacao do comercio intra-industrial e que a separacao do comercio intra-industria do comercio interindustria e fundamental para omelhor entendimento dos efeitos do comercio internacional sobre os rendimentos relativos dos trabalhadores qualificados na industria de transformacao brasileira.

5 citations


Journal Article
Abstract: Resumen es: El presente articulo tiene como objetivo calcular el indice de comercio intraindustria de Brasil con el MERCOSUR en los productos cuya relevancia en la p...

4 citations


References
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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The paper presents a generalization of the Heckscher-Ohlin theory by admitting the existence of sectors in which there is monopolistic competition. The structure of preferences is based on Lancaster's work. It is shown without requiring homotheticity in the production of differentiated products that the intersectoral pattern of trade can be predicted from factor endowments but not from pre-trade commodity prices or factor rewards, except under special circumstances. It is also shown how the share of intra-industry trade is related to differences in income per capita and how the volume of trade depends on differences in income per capita and relative country-size Other empirical implications are also discussed.

1,080 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Several recent empirical studies of trade suggest that interindustry specialization and trade, which reflect the conventional forces of comparative advantage, are also accompanied by intraindustry specialization, which reflects scale economies and consumers' taste for a diversity of products. This paper develops a simple model which illustrates this argument. Two main results are developed. First, the nature of trade depends on how similar countries are in their factor endowments. As countries become more similar, the trade between them will increasingly become intraindustry in character. Second, the effects of opening trade depend on its type. If intraindustry trade is sufficiently dominant, the advantages of extending the market will outweigh the distributional effects, and the owners of scarce as well as of abundant factors will be better off.

948 citations


"O Comércio Brasil-Mercosul na décad..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Helpman (1981) e Krugman (1981), entre outros, desenvolvem modelos teóricos sobre a existência do comércio intra-indústria atribúındo importância à economia de escala e imperfeição de mercado....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Theoretical rationales for the robust empirical relationships between the share of intraindustry trade between two countries and the average levels of, and inequalities between, their GDPs, per capita GDPs, and tariffs have either varied or not been demonstrated formally within a unified analytical framework. This study motivates theoretically the relationships between these six determinants, as well as the average level of, and inequality between, two countries' capital-labor endowment ratios and their share of intraindustry trade. Regression analysis supports, among other results, the presence of both demand and supply roles for per capita income influencing intraindustry trade. Copyright 1990 by Royal Economic Society.

662 citations


"O Comércio Brasil-Mercosul na décad..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Balassa (1986), Bergstrand (1983), Bergstrand (1990), Havrylyshyn e Civan (1983) e Gavelin e Lundberg (1983), além da economia de escala e imperfeição de mercado, consideram na explicação do comércio intra-indústria as caracteŕısticas dos páıses, como igualdade de renda, ńıvel de…...

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: A large theoretical literature has emerged directed at explaining the presence of intra-industry trade (IIT). One of the distinctions which comes out of these models is that between horizontal IIT (where goods are differentiated by attributes) and vertical IIT (where goods are differentiated by quality). In this paper horizontal and vertical IIT in U.K. trade are disentangled using a unit value dispersion criterion and a range of industry characteristics. The paper not only points up the relative importance of vertical and horizontal IIT in the United Kingdom, it also demonstrates how a failure to separate them out can impact on the interpretation of empirical results. Copyright 1995 by Royal Economic Society.

531 citations