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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CLNU.2021.02.038

Obesity pandemic during COVID-19 outbreak: Narrative review and future considerations.

02 Mar 2021-Clinical Nutrition (Churchill Livingstone)-Vol. 40, Iss: 4, pp 1637-1643
Abstract: The high prevalence of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities has reached pandemic proportions, particularly in Western countries. Obesity increases the risk to develop several chronic noncommunicable disease, ultimately contributing to reduced survival. Recently, obesity has been recognized as major risk factor for coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19)-related prognosis, contributing to worse outcomes in those with established COVID-19. Particularly, obesity has been associated with higher hospitalization rates in acute or intensive care and greater risk for invasive mechanical ventilation than lean people. Obesity is characterized by metabolic impairments and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation that causes a pro-inflammatory microenvironment, further aggravating the cytokine production and risk of cytokine storm response during Sars-Cov2 sepsis or other secondary infections. Moreover, the metabolic dysregulations are closely related to an impaired immune system and altered response to viral infection that can ultimately lead to a greater susceptibility to infections, longer viral shedding and greater duration of illness and severity of the disease. In individuals with obesity, maintaining a healthy diet, remaining physically active and reducing sedentary behaviors are particularly important during COVID-19-related quarantine to reduce metabolic and immune impairments. Moreover, such stategies are of utmost importance to reduce the risk for sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity, and to prevent a reduction and potentially even increase cardiorespiratory fitness, a well-known independent risk factor for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases and recently found to be a risk factor also for hospitalizations secondary to COVID-19. Such lifestyle strategies may ultimately reduce morbility and mortality in patients with infectious disease, especially in those with concomitant obesity. The aim of this review is to discuss how obesity might increase the risk of COVID-19 and potentially affect its prognosis once COVID-19 is diagnosed. We therefore advocate for implementation of strategies aimed at preventing obesity in the first place, but also to minimize the metabolic anomalies that may lead to a compromized immune response and chronic low-grade systemic inflammation, especially in patients with COVID-19.

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Topics: Sarcopenic obesity (60%), Risk factor (54%), Disease (53%) ... read more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11130-021-00907-6
Jack N. Losso1, Merry Jean N. Losso2, Marco Toc3, Joseph Inungu4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Since the outbreak of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that caused the coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19), in December 2019, the infection has spread around the globe. Some of the risk factors include social distancing, mask wearing, hand washing with soap, obesity, diabetes, hypertension, asthma, cardiovascular disease, and dysbiosis. Evidence has shown the incidence of total infection and death rates to be lower in sub-Saharan Africa when compared with North Africa, Europe and North America and many other parts of the world. The higher the metabolic syndrome rate, the higher the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Africa has a lower rate of metabolic syndrome risk than many other continents. This paradox has puzzled several in the biomedical and scientific communities. Published results of research have demonstrated the exciting correlation that the combination of young age of the population coupled with their native plant-based diet has lowered their risk factors. The plant-based diet include whole grains (millet, sorghum), legumes (black-eye peas, dry beans, soybean), vegetables, potato, sweet potato, yams, squash, banana, pumpkin seeds, and moringa leaves, and lower consumption of meat. The plant-based diet results in a different gut microbiota than of most of the rest of the world. This has a significant impact on the survival rate of other populations. The "plant-based diet" results in lower rates of obesity, diabetes and dysbiosis, which could contribute to lower and less severe infections. However, these hypotheses need to be supported by more clinical and biostatistics data.

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Topics: Pumpkin seed (56%), Obesity (53%), Population (52%) ... read more

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.26442/22217185.2021.2.200858
22 Jun 2021-
Abstract: The novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19) pandemic has become an unprecedented threat to the lives of those affected and has increased the burden on the healthcare system in most countries. The severity of COVID-19 is not always predictable. However, comorbid pathology and advanced age are risk factors for a severe course of the disease with the development of multiple organ failure. When treating COVID-19, clinicians place particular emphasis on nutritional support as part of intensive care. Correction of nutritional status is also important in the rehabilitation of patients with the syndrome after intensive care. The aim of the review was to show the need for a differentiated approach to nutritional support for patients with COVID-19 during treatment and rehabilitation. From more than 200 originally selected literature sources from various databases (Scopus, Web of science, RSCI, etc.), 49 publications were selected for analysis, mostly published over the past 5 years. Earlier articles were used if they were still relevant to clinicians. The review provides methods for assessing the nutritional status of patients with COVID-19. It is emphasized that patients with comorbid pathology and elderly patients often develop malnutrition, which progresses over the disease. The article discusses in detail the issues of correction of malnutrition, depending on the severity of the disease and the stage of treatment. The effectiveness of rehabilitation is enhanced with adequate nutritional support. Current approaches to providing COVID-19 patients with nutrients and energy include a gradation of nutritional support prescription depending on the severity of the disease. Particular attention is paid to the gradual achievement of target protein and energy levels, as well as the preferential use of the enteral method of delivery of food components. Continuity of nutritional status correction at the outpatient, inpatient and rehabilitation stages improves the quality of care for patients with COVID-19.

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Topics: Intensive care (58%), Malnutrition (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/CANCERS13225785
18 Nov 2021-Cancers
Abstract: Background: Conceived of as the “silver lining” of the dark cloud of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, lessons taught by this catastrophe should be leveraged by medical authorities and policy makers to optimize health care globally. A major lesson is that resilient health systems should absorb sudden shocks incited by overwhelming health emergencies without compromising the continuum of care of chronic diseases, especially of cancer. Methods: The present review dissects the association between COVID-19 and thyroid cancer (TC), especially with differentiated TC (DTC), focusing on available data, knowledge gaps, current challenges, and future perspectives. Results: Obesity has been incriminated in terms of both COVID-19 severity and a rising incidence of TC, especially of DTC. The current conceptualization of the pathophysiological landscape of COVID-19–(D)TC association implicates an interplay between obesity, inflammation, immunity, and oxidative stress. Whether COVID-19 could aggravate the health burden posed by (D)TC or vice versa has yet to be clarified. Improved understanding and harnessing of the pathophysiological landscape of the COVID-19–(D)TC association will empower a mechanism-guided, safe, evidence-based, and risk-stratified management of (D)TC in the COVID-19 era and beyond. Conclusion: A multidisciplinary patient-centered decision-making will ensure high-quality (D)TC care for patients, with or without COVID-19.

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Open accessDOI: 10.1016/J.IJCRP.2021.200121
13 Nov 2021-
Abstract: Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is suspected to mainly be more deleterious in patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases (CVD). There is a strong association between hypertension and COVID-19 severity. The binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) leads to deregulation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) through down-regulation of ACE2 with subsequent increment of the harmful Ang II serum levels and reduction of the protective Ang-(1–7). Both angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) are commonly used to manage hypertension. Objective Objective was to illustrate the potential link between hypertension and COVID-19 regarding the role of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in hypertensive patients with COVID-19. Methods We carried out comprehensive databases search from late December 2019 to early January 2021 by using online engines of Web of Science, Research gate, Scopus, Google Scholar, and PubMed for published and preprinted articles. Results The present study's findings showed that hypertension is regarded as an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. Both ACEIs and ARBs are beneficial in managing hypertensive patients. Conclusion This study concluded that hypertension increases COVID-19 severity due to underlying endothelial dysfunctions and coagulopathy. COVID-19 might augment the hypertensive complications due to down-regulation of ACE2. The use of ACEIs or ARBs might be beneficial in the management of hypertensive patients with COVID-19.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/NU13103317
23 Sep 2021-Nutrients
Abstract: The body of knowledge on alcohol use and communicable diseases has been growing in recent years. Using a narrative review approach, this paper discusses alcohol's role in the acquisition of and treatment outcomes from four different communicable diseases: these include three conditions included in comparative risk assessments to date-Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB), and lower respiratory infections/pneumonia-as well as Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) because of its recent and rapid ascension as a global health concern. Alcohol-attributable TB, HIV, and pneumonia combined were responsible for approximately 360,000 deaths and 13 million disability-adjusted life years lost (DALYs) in 2016, with alcohol-attributable TB deaths and DALYs predominating. There is strong evidence that alcohol is associated with increased incidence of and poorer treatment outcomes from HIV, TB, and pneumonia, via both behavioral and biological mechanisms. Preliminary studies suggest that heavy drinkers and those with alcohol use disorders are at increased risk of COVID-19 infection and severe illness. Aside from HIV research, limited research exists that can guide interventions for addressing alcohol-attributable TB and pneumonia or COVID-19. Implementation of effective individual-level interventions and alcohol control policies as a means of reducing the burden of communicable diseases is recommended.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2002032
Wei-jie Guan1, Zhengyi Ni1, Yu Hu1, Wenhua Liang1  +33 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Background Since December 2019, when coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) emerged in Wuhan city and rapidly spread throughout China, data have been needed on the clinical characteristics of...

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16,855 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3
Fei Zhou1, Ting Yu, Ronghui Du, Guohui Fan2  +16 moreInstitutions (5)
28 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.

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Topics: Cohort study (56%), Retrospective cohort study (56%), Odds ratio (53%) ... read more

15,279 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30460-8
14 Mar 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: The December, 2019 coronavirus disease outbreak has seen many countries ask people who have potentially come into contact with the infection to isolate themselves at home or in a dedicated quarantine facility. Decisions on how to apply quarantine should be based on the best available evidence. We did a Review of the psychological impact of quarantine using three electronic databases. Of 3166 papers found, 24 are included in this Review. Most reviewed studies reported negative psychological effects including post-traumatic stress symptoms, confusion, and anger. Stressors included longer quarantine duration, infection fears, frustration, boredom, inadequate supplies, inadequate information, financial loss, and stigma. Some researchers have suggested long-lasting effects. In situations where quarantine is deemed necessary, officials should quarantine individuals for no longer than required, provide clear rationale for quarantine and information about protocols, and ensure sufficient supplies are provided. Appeals to altruism by reminding the public about the benefits of quarantine to wider society can be favourable.

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Topics: Quarantine (52%)

6,092 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.6775
26 May 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Importance There is limited information describing the presenting characteristics and outcomes of US patients requiring hospitalization for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Objective To describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in a US health care system. Design, Setting, and Participants Case series of patients with COVID-19 admitted to 12 hospitals in New York City, Long Island, and Westchester County, New York, within the Northwell Health system. The study included all sequentially hospitalized patients between March 1, 2020, and April 4, 2020, inclusive of these dates. Exposures Confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by positive result on polymerase chain reaction testing of a nasopharyngeal sample among patients requiring admission. Main Outcomes and Measures Clinical outcomes during hospitalization, such as invasive mechanical ventilation, kidney replacement therapy, and death. Demographics, baseline comorbidities, presenting vital signs, and test results were also collected. Results A total of 5700 patients were included (median age, 63 years [interquartile range {IQR}, 52-75; range, 0-107 years]; 39.7% female). The most common comorbidities were hypertension (3026; 56.6%), obesity (1737; 41.7%), and diabetes (1808; 33.8%). At triage, 30.7% of patients were febrile, 17.3% had a respiratory rate greater than 24 breaths/min, and 27.8% received supplemental oxygen. The rate of respiratory virus co-infection was 2.1%. Outcomes were assessed for 2634 patients who were discharged or had died at the study end point. During hospitalization, 373 patients (14.2%) (median age, 68 years [IQR, 56-78]; 33.5% female) were treated in the intensive care unit care, 320 (12.2%) received invasive mechanical ventilation, 81 (3.2%) were treated with kidney replacement therapy, and 553 (21%) died. As of April 4, 2020, for patients requiring mechanical ventilation (n = 1151, 20.2%), 38 (3.3%) were discharged alive, 282 (24.5%) died, and 831 (72.2%) remained in hospital. The median postdischarge follow-up time was 4.4 days (IQR, 2.2-9.3). A total of 45 patients (2.2%) were readmitted during the study period. The median time to readmission was 3 days (IQR, 1.0-4.5) for readmitted patients. Among the 3066 patients who remained hospitalized at the final study follow-up date (median age, 65 years [IQR, 54-75]), the median follow-up at time of censoring was 4.5 days (IQR, 2.4-8.1). Conclusions and Relevance This case series provides characteristics and early outcomes of sequentially hospitalized patients with confirmed COVID-19 in the New York City area.

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Topics: Interquartile range (55%), Respiratory virus (51%)

5,140 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1001/JAMA.2020.4683
23 Mar 2020-JAMA
Abstract: Only 3 cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) were identified in Italy in the first half of February 2020 and all involved people who had recently traveled to China. On February 20, 2020, a severe case of pneumonia due to SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2) was diagnosed in northern Italy’s Lombardy region in a man in his 30s who had no history of possible exposure abroad. Within 14 days, many other cases of COVID-19 in the surrounding area were diagnosed, including a substantial number of critically ill patients.1 On the basis of the number of cases and of the advanced stage of the disease it was hypothesized that the virus had been circulating within the population since January. Another cluster of patients with COVID-19 was simultaneously identified in Veneto, which borders Lombardy. Since then, the number of cases identified in Italy has rapidly increased, mainly in northern Italy, but all regions of the country have reported having patients with COVID-19. After China, Italy now has the second largest number of COVID-19 cases2 and also has a very high case-fatality rate.3 This Viewpoint reviews the Italian experience with COVID-19 with an emphasis on fatalities.

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Topics: Case fatality rate (70%)

2,682 Citations


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