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Journal ArticleDOI

Observations on the african hawk-eagle

01 Mar 1975-Ostrich (Taylor & Francis Group)-Vol. 46, Iss: 1, pp 87-105
TL;DR: Observations extending over 12 years were made on two pairs of African Hawk-Eagles Hieraaetus spilogaster at Essexvale, Rhodesia, showing a progressive decline although both adults still perched in the nest tree a great deal.
Abstract: Summary Steyn, P. 1975. Observations on the African Hawk-Eagle. Ostrich 46:87-105. Observations extending over 12 years were made on two pairs of African Hawk-Eagles Hieraaetus spilogaster at Essexvale, Rhodesia. Details on various aspects of adult behaviour are given, particularly on hunting methods and calls. Nest repair usually took about 4–5 weeks. and limited observations indicated that the male does most of the work. Incubation is done mostly by the female, the male relieving her when he brings prey. The incubation period is 43 ± 1 day. Details are given of parental behaviour during the fedging period; time on the nest showed a progressive decline although both adults still perched in the. nest tree a great deal. The male provided most of the prey. The growth and behaviour of the eaglet Is described; usually the eaglet becomes a “brancher” before its first flight which, in four cases, occurred between 61–71 days. Post-of edping attachment to the nest lasted about three weeks in one case. Frief menti...
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This investigation revealed the presence of three species of Acanthocephala (Neoechinorhynchus pseudemydis, N. emyditoides, and N. chrysemydis) in Louisiana turtles and confirms Fisher’s (1960) work.
Abstract: Prior to the work of Cable and Hopp (J. Parasit. 40(6): 674.680, 1954) Neoechinorhynchus emydis (L e i d y, 1851) was the only recognized species of Acanthocephala in North American turtles. To date, a total of five species have been described. Of these, two species (Neoechinorbynchus pseudemydis Cable and Hopp, 1954, and N. emyditoides Fisher, 1960) were recovered from six of 12 Louisiana turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans (Wied)) examined by Fisher (J. Parasit. 46(2): 257-266, 1960). He (1960) also found N. chrysemydis Cable and Hopp, 1954 in Pseudemys scripta subsp. The data pt .sented are results of studies conducted between the spring of 1965 and the summer of 1966. Seventynine turtles (48 female and 31 males) encompassing seven species (47 Pseudemys scripta elegans (Wied), three P. floridana hoyi (Holbrook), eight Chelydra serpentina serpentina (L.), eight Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis Gray, seven Terrapene carolina carolina (L.), five T. c. triunguis (Agassiz) and one Trionyx muticus (LeSueur) collected from Baton Rouge and vicinity were examined. This investigation revealed the presence of three species of Acanthocephala (Neoechinorhynchus pseudemydis, N. emyditoides, and N. chrysemydis) in Louisiana turtles and confirms Fisher’s (1960) work. Of the seven species of turtles examined, only P. s. e!egans (25 16 females and 9 males) and P. floridana hoyi (2 females) were positive with infection. Three of the 25 P. s. e!egans had mixed infection comprising three species of Neoechinorhynchus while seven had two species respectively. P. f!oridana hoyi represents a host record for N. chrysemydis;

790 citations

Book
01 Jan 1997
TL;DR: In this paper, a major work covering the breeding and non-breeding birds of the Southern African sub-region is presented, which sets new standards in its scope and in its methods, for setting a measured baseline against which to judge environmental trends across the great range of southern Africa.
Abstract: This is a major work covering the breeding and non-breeding birds of the Southern African sub-region. Published in two volumes, Volume One includes introductory chapters describing methodology and the 'avi'-geography of the region, with habitat photos, and coverage of the non-passerines, whilst Volume Two covers the passerines. Some 900 species are covered in total, including 200 vagrants, with detailed species accounts, maps and statistics for at least 500 species. Conservation issues are discussed for most species. '...sets new standards in its scope and in its methods...it will come to be valued ever more as years go by, for setting a measured baseline against which to judge environmental trends across the great range of southern Africa.' - Colin Bibby, "BirdLife International".

347 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The first assemblage-level global examination of 'Bergmann's rule' within an entire animal class suggests that global patterns of body size in avian assemblages are driven by interactions between the physiological demands of the environment, resource availability, species richness and taxonomic turnover among lineages.
Abstract: In 1847, Karl Bergmann proposed that temperature gradients are the key to understanding geographic variation in the body sizes of warm-blooded animals. Yet both the geographic patterns of body-size variation and their underlying mechanisms remain controversial. Here, we conduct the first assemblage-level global examination of 'Bergmann's rule' within an entire animal class. We generate global maps of avian body size and demonstrate a general pattern of larger body sizes at high latitudes, conforming to Bergmann's rule. We also show, however, that median body size within assemblages is systematically large on islands and small in species-rich areas. Similarly, while spatial models show that temperature is the single strongest environmental correlate of body size, there are secondary correlations with resource availability and a strong pattern of decreasing body size with increasing species richness. Finally, our results suggest that geographic patterns of body size are caused both by adaptation within lineages, as invoked by Bergmann, and by taxonomic turnover among lineages. Taken together, these results indicate that while Bergmann's prediction based on physiological scaling is remarkably accurate, it is far from the full picture. Global patterns of body size in avian assemblages are driven by interactions between the physiological demands of the environment, resource availability, species richness and taxonomic turnover among lineages.

260 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Apr 2008-Ibis
TL;DR: Aproximate mechanism is proposed linking population saturation with the incidence of cainism, based on demonstrable population characteristics found in several long-lived species.
Abstract: Obligate siblicide, known as ‘cainism’ in large raptors, is a taxonomically widespread avian phenomenon that remains inexplicable as a simple consequence of food stress: two young can be raised to independence in experimentally manipulated nests, and food supplements do not decrease sibling aggression. A review of the Falconiformes identified 23 species in which obligate and facultative cainism is regular. All species have small clutches and deferred acquisition of adult plumage. Obligate cainists in particular are large, long-lived species characterized by extreme subadult mortality and intense competition for breeding sites. Hence, it can be suggested that early sibling conflict, in the absence of food stress, is the end result of selection for quality (survival) and competitive ability. Cain's domination or killing of Abel insures (1) an increase in Cain's chances of survival through the high-risk, pre-breeding period via improved nestling weight gain, and/or (2) domination of surviving sibs, enhancing Cain/s competitive abilities and thereby increasing the probability of achieving breeding status. Only among long-lived species can the benefits of enhanced survival and competitive ability outweigh the major costs of sibling loss. Facultative cainists. which in more than 10% of cases raise more than one young (despite aggression and sibling hierarchies), not only lay larger, more variable clutches, but on average attain adult plumage earlier than obligate cainists. Their shorter lives and higher population turnovers are consistent with their less extreme siblicidal tendencies. Similar life-history traits and cainistic habits in other avian orders parallel those in the Falconiformes, indicating several independent evolutionary pathways to cainism. Retention of the second egg by obligate cainists, usually explained as insurance against failure, may instead allow parents adaptively to track population stability. Thus when breeding places are numerous (habitat saturation and competition low), parents laying two eggs and rearing two young may achieve greater fitness than single-young parents. When populations become saturated (competition high), selection should favour high-quality, competitive young and levels of siblicide should increase. Aproximate mechanism is proposed linking population saturation with the incidence of cainism, based on demonstrable population characteristics found in several long-lived species.

95 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1981-Ostrich
TL;DR: The lack of quantitative information on these feeding associations limits the conclusions that can be drawn, although their significance for the obligate ectoparasite gleaners, Buphagus species,...
Abstract: Summary Dean, W. R. J. & MacDonald, I. A. W. 1981. A review of African birds feeding in association with mammals. Ostrich 52:135–155. Feeding associations between African birds and mammals are defined. 96 species of birds show, or possibly show, some form of feeding associations with mammals. Five major categories of feeding association are identified, which differ in relative importance in the various habitat types of Africa. In the most widespread and common feeding association the bird obtains cryptic prey items flushed by the mammal, The opportunistic nature of most bird/mammal feeding associations is stressed. Hypothetical courses In the evolution of the more complex feeding associations are discussed. The possible significance of bird/mammal feeding associations in their biology and conservation is outlined. The lack of quantitative information on these feeding associations limits the conclusions that can be drawn, although their significance for the obligate ectoparasite gleaners, Buphagus species,...

68 citations

References
More filters
Book
01 Jan 1965

804 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This investigation revealed the presence of three species of Acanthocephala (Neoechinorhynchus pseudemydis, N. emyditoides, and N. chrysemydis) in Louisiana turtles and confirms Fisher’s (1960) work.
Abstract: Prior to the work of Cable and Hopp (J. Parasit. 40(6): 674.680, 1954) Neoechinorhynchus emydis (L e i d y, 1851) was the only recognized species of Acanthocephala in North American turtles. To date, a total of five species have been described. Of these, two species (Neoechinorbynchus pseudemydis Cable and Hopp, 1954, and N. emyditoides Fisher, 1960) were recovered from six of 12 Louisiana turtles (Pseudemys scripta elegans (Wied)) examined by Fisher (J. Parasit. 46(2): 257-266, 1960). He (1960) also found N. chrysemydis Cable and Hopp, 1954 in Pseudemys scripta subsp. The data pt .sented are results of studies conducted between the spring of 1965 and the summer of 1966. Seventynine turtles (48 female and 31 males) encompassing seven species (47 Pseudemys scripta elegans (Wied), three P. floridana hoyi (Holbrook), eight Chelydra serpentina serpentina (L.), eight Kinosternon subrubrum hippocrepis Gray, seven Terrapene carolina carolina (L.), five T. c. triunguis (Agassiz) and one Trionyx muticus (LeSueur) collected from Baton Rouge and vicinity were examined. This investigation revealed the presence of three species of Acanthocephala (Neoechinorhynchus pseudemydis, N. emyditoides, and N. chrysemydis) in Louisiana turtles and confirms Fisher’s (1960) work. Of the seven species of turtles examined, only P. s. e!egans (25 16 females and 9 males) and P. floridana hoyi (2 females) were positive with infection. Three of the 25 P. s. e!egans had mixed infection comprising three species of Neoechinorhynchus while seven had two species respectively. P. f!oridana hoyi represents a host record for N. chrysemydis;

790 citations

Book
01 Jan 1968

686 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Jan 1971

245 citations