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Journal ArticleDOI

Observing Interaction: An Introduction to Sequential Analysis, Roger Bakeman, John M. Gottman. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge (1986), ixv, +221. Price £25.00 hardback, £7.95 paperback

01 Jun 1987-Animal Behaviour-Vol. 35, Iss: 3, pp 952-953
TL;DR: It is generally believed that the teacher is the nation builder as mentioned in this paper, and therefore it is important that these same issues be addressed with access to the necessary resources or controls for small business.
About: This article is published in Animal Behaviour.The article was published on 1987-06-01. It has received 970 citations till now.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.
Abstract: This article presents a longitudinal study with four children with autism, who were exposed to a humanoid robot over a period of several months. The longitudinal approach allowed the children time to explore the space of robot–human, as well as human–human interaction. Based on the video material documenting the interactions, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in duration of pre-defined behaviours towards the later trials. A qualitative analysis of the video data, observing the children’s activities in their interactional context, revealed further aspects of social interaction skills (imitation, turn-taking and role-switch) and communicative competence that the children showed. The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.

650 citations


Cites background from "Observing Interaction: An Introduct..."

  • ...Some researchers, as described in [3], are going further and characterize kappas of 0....

    [...]

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article deals with the definition and detection of particular kinds of temporal patterns in behavior, which are sometimes obvious or well known, but other times difficult to detect, either directly or with standard statistical methods.
Abstract: This article deals with the definition and detection of particular kinds of temporal patterns in behavior, which are sometimes obvious or well known, but other times difficult to detect, either directly or with standard statistical methods. Characteristics of well-known behavior patterns were abstracted and combined in order to define a scale-independent, hierarchical time pattern type, called aT-pattern. A corresponding detection algorithm was developed and implemented in a computer program, called Theme. The proposed pattern typology and detection algorithm are based on the definition and detection of a particular relationship between pairs of events in a time series, called acritical interval relation. The proposed bottom-up, level-by-level (or breadth-first) search algorithm is based on a binary tree of such relations. The algorithm first detects simpler patterns. Then, more complex and complete patterns evolve through the connection of simpler ones, pattern completeness competition, and pattern selection. Interindividual T-patterns in a quarter-hour interaction between two children are presented, showing that complex hidden T-patterns may be found by Theme in such behavioral streams. Finally, implications for studies of complexity, self-organization, and dynamic patterns are discussed.

546 citations

Book
01 Sep 2003
TL;DR: The MIT Process Handbook presents the key findings of a multidisciplinary research group at MIT's Sloan School of Management that has worked for over a decade to lay the foundation for just such a comprehensive system of organizing and sharing business knowledge by focusing on the process itself.
Abstract: The vision of the MIT Process Handbook Project is the creation of a systematic and powerful method of organizing and sharing business knowledge. Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook presents the key findings of a multidisciplinary research group at MIT's Sloan School of Management that has worked for over a decade to lay the foundation for just such a comprehensive system. It does so by focusing on the process itself. The book proposes a set of fundamental concepts to guide analysis and a classification framework for organizing knowledge, and describes the publicly available online knowledge base developed by the project, which includes a set of representative templates and specific case examples as well as a set of software tools for organizing and sharing knowledge.Organizing Business Knowledge: The MIT Process Handbook includes twenty-one papers, some previously published and some appearing for the first time, that have come out of this decade-long project. Together, they form a comprehensive and coherent vision of the future of knowledge organization. The Handbook is organized into five parts: an introduction and overview; the presentation of a theory of process representation; "Contents of the Process Repository"; "Process Repository Uses," which gives examples from both research and practice; and a conclusion, which maps the progress so far and the challenges ahead.

524 citations

Book
18 Jul 2004
TL;DR: The importance of researcher context Discourse, Power and Ideology - Dennis K Mumby Unpacking the Critical Approach Deconstructing Discourse - Martin Kilduff and Mihaela Kelemen.
Abstract: Introduction - David Grant et al Organizational Discourse: Exploring the Field PART ONE: DOMAINS OF DISCOURSE Dialogue - Kenneth J Gergen, Mary M Gergen and Frank J Barrett Life and Death of the Organization Narratives, Stories and Texts - Yiannis Gabriel Corporate Rhetoric as Organizational Discourse - George Cheney et al Tropes, Discourse and Organizing - Cliff Oswick, Linda L Putnam and Tom Keenoy PART TWO: METHODS AND PERSPECTIVES Organizational Language in Use - Gail T Fairhurst and Fran[ce]cois Cooren Interaction Analysis, Conversation Analysis and Speech Act Schematics Discourse and Identities - Susan Ainsworth and Cynthia Hardy Interpretivist Approaches to Organizational Discourse - Loizos Th. Heracleous Multi-Levelled, Multi-Method Approaches to Organizational Discourse - Kirsten Broadfoot, Stanley Deetz and Donald Anderson Doing Research in Organizational Discourse - Craig Prichard, Deborah Jones and Ralph Stablein The Importance of Researcher Context Discourse, Power and Ideology - Dennis K Mumby Unpacking the Critical Approach Deconstructing Discourse - Martin Kilduff and Mihaela Kelemen PART THREE: DISCOURSES AND ORGANIZING Gender, Discourse and Organization - Karen Lee Ashcraft Framing a Shifting Relationship Discourse and Power - Cynthia Hardy and Nelson Phillips Organizational Culture and Discourse - Mats Alvesson Tools, Technologies and Organizational Interaction - Christian Heath, Paul Luff and Hubert Knoblauch The Emergence of Workplace Studies Organizational Discourse and New Media - Pablo J Boczkowski and Wanda J Orlikowski A Practice Perspective The Discourse of Globalization and the Globalization of Discourse - Norman Fairclough and Pete Thomas PART FOUR: REFLECTIONS - Barbara Czarniawska, Karl E Weick and Mike Reed Turning to Discourse - Barbara Czarniawska A Bias for Conversation - Karl E Weick Acting Discursively in Organizations Getting Real about Organizational Discourse - Mike Reed

519 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An observational study is described to understand how novice and experienced designers approach design tasks.
Abstract: Research was undertaken to understand how to provide the most appropriate support for novice designers in engineering design. However, how designers apply their experience and knowledge is not understood and further research in this area is required. This paper describes an observational study to understand how novice and experienced designers approach design tasks.

457 citations


Cites methods from "Observing Interaction: An Introduct..."

  • ...ever, the coding scheme was tested for reliability using Cohen’s Kappa coefficient of reliability (described in [4])....

    [...]

References
More filters
Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a framework for analysis and comparison of service encounters using three neglected dimensions (duration, affective content, and spatial proximity) is proposed. But the authors focus on service encounte...
Abstract: The authors advance a framework for analysis and comparison of service encounters using three neglected dimensions—duration, affective content, and spatial proximity. They focus on service encounte...

774 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.
Abstract: This article presents a longitudinal study with four children with autism, who were exposed to a humanoid robot over a period of several months. The longitudinal approach allowed the children time to explore the space of robot–human, as well as human–human interaction. Based on the video material documenting the interactions, a quantitative and qualitative analysis was conducted. The quantitative analysis showed an increase in duration of pre-defined behaviours towards the later trials. A qualitative analysis of the video data, observing the children’s activities in their interactional context, revealed further aspects of social interaction skills (imitation, turn-taking and role-switch) and communicative competence that the children showed. The results clearly demonstrate the need for, and benefits of, long-term studies in order to reveal the full potential of robots in the therapy and education of children with autism.

650 citations

Proceedings Article
27 Jun 2006
TL;DR: This study demonstrates an existence proof for productive failure: engaging students in solving complex, ill-structured problems without the provision of support structures can be a productive exercise in failure.
Abstract: Contrary to the fairly established notion in the learning sciences that un-scaffolded processes rarely lead to meaningful learning, this study reports a hidden efficacy of such processes and a method for extracting it. Compared to scaffolded, well-structured problem-solving groups, un-scaffolded, ill-structured problem-solving groups struggled with defining and solving the problems. Their discussions were chaotic and divergent, resulting in poor group performance. However, despite failing in their problem-solving efforts, these participants outperformed their counterparts in the well-structured condition on transfer measures, suggesting a latent productivity in the failure. The study's contrasting-case design provided participants in the un-scaffolded condition with an opportunity to contrast the ill-structured problems that they had solved in groups with the well-structured problems they solved individually afterwards. This contrast facilitated a spontaneous transfer, helping them perform significantly better on the individual ill-structured problem-solving tasks subsequently. Implications of productive failure for the development of adaptive expertise are discussed.

576 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This article deals with the definition and detection of particular kinds of temporal patterns in behavior, which are sometimes obvious or well known, but other times difficult to detect, either directly or with standard statistical methods.
Abstract: This article deals with the definition and detection of particular kinds of temporal patterns in behavior, which are sometimes obvious or well known, but other times difficult to detect, either directly or with standard statistical methods. Characteristics of well-known behavior patterns were abstracted and combined in order to define a scale-independent, hierarchical time pattern type, called aT-pattern. A corresponding detection algorithm was developed and implemented in a computer program, called Theme. The proposed pattern typology and detection algorithm are based on the definition and detection of a particular relationship between pairs of events in a time series, called acritical interval relation. The proposed bottom-up, level-by-level (or breadth-first) search algorithm is based on a binary tree of such relations. The algorithm first detects simpler patterns. Then, more complex and complete patterns evolve through the connection of simpler ones, pattern completeness competition, and pattern selection. Interindividual T-patterns in a quarter-hour interaction between two children are presented, showing that complex hidden T-patterns may be found by Theme in such behavioral streams. Finally, implications for studies of complexity, self-organization, and dynamic patterns are discussed.

546 citations