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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH18052567

Occupational Exposure in the Lombardy Region (Italy) to SARS-CoV-2 Infection: Results from the MUSTANG-OCCUPATION-COVID-19 Study.

04 Mar 2021-International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health (MDPI AG)-Vol. 18, Iss: 5, pp 2567
Abstract: Sero-epidemiological surveys are valuable attempts to estimate the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 in general or selected populations. Within this context, a prospective observational study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and persistence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in different categories of workers and factors associated with positivity, through the detection of virus-specific immunoglobulin G and M (IgG/IgM) in serum samples. Enrollees were divided in low exposure and medium-high groups on the basis of their work activity. Antibody responders were re-contacted after 3 months for the follow-up. Of 2255 sampled workers, 4.8% tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG/IgM antibodies, with 81.7% to IgG only. Workers who continued to go to their place of work, were healthcare workers, or experienced at least one COVID-19-related symptom were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies prevalence was significantly higher in the medium-high risk vs. low-risk group (7.2% vs. 3.0%, p < 0.0001). At 3-month follow-up, 81.3% of subjects still had antibody response. This study provided important information of SARS-CoV-2 infection prevalence among workers in northern Italy, where the impact of COVID-19 was particularly intense. The presented surveillance data give a contribution to refine current estimates of the disease burden expected from the SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (52%)
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5 results found


Open accessPosted ContentDOI: 10.1101/2021.04.29.21256236
Riccardo Polosa1, Valerio Tomaselli1, Pietro Ferrara2, A. C. Romeo  +13 moreInstitutions (4)
03 May 2021-medRxiv
Abstract: After the global spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), research has highlighted several aspects of the pandemic, focusing on clinical features and risk factors associated with infection and disease severity. However, emerging results on the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility or COVID-19 outcomes are conflicting, and their robustness remains uncertain. In this context, this project aims at quantifying the proportion of SARS-CoV-S antibody seroprevalence, studying the changes in antibody levels over time, and analyzing the association between smoking status and infection using seroprevalence data. The added value of this research is that the current smoking status of the population to be studied will be biochemically verified, in order to avoid the bias associated with self-reported smoking status. As such, the results from this survey may provide actionable metric to study the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 spread, and therefore implement the most appropriate public health measures to control the pandemic. The research design involves a 6-month prospective cohort study with serial sampling of the same individuals. Each participant will be surveyed about their demographics and COVID-19-related information, and blood sampling will be collected upon recruitment and at specified follow-up time points (namely, after 8 and 24 weeks). Blood samples will be screened for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies and serum cotinine. Overall, we expect to find a higher prevalence of antibodies in individuals at high-risk for viral exposure (i.e., healthcare or other essential workers), according to previous literature, and to refine current estimates on the association between smoking status and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Our results may serve as a reference for future clinical research and the methodology could be exploited in public health sectors and policies.

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Topics: Blood sampling (55%), Population (53%), Epidemiology (52%) ... show more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1007/S11739-021-02857-Y
Abstract: This study investigated the response to BNT162b2 mRNA COVID-19 vaccine among healthcare workers (HCWs) in an Italian teaching hospital. 444 participants were surveyed with either multiple RT-PCR assays for detection of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid in nasopharyngeal swabs or serology testing for the research of virus-specific immunoglobulins. Adverse events following immunization (AEFI) were reported. Two weeks after the first dose anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies exceeded reactivity cut-off in 82.5% the participants. Four HCWs tested positive at nasopharyngeal swab after 3 months. More than three-quarters reported AEFIs. Our findings offer an insight regarding the vaccine response after 3 months from its administration, with a special focus on effectiveness data, as well as the type and number of AEFIs complained by HCW recipients. The presented study may serve as reference for future research which will be necessary to explore the long-term safety of this vaccine, especially in population at high risk for infection, such as HCWs.

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Topics: Population (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/IJERPH182212201
Abstract: Certain professional categories are at a high occupational exposure to COVID-19. The aim of this survey was to quantify the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 among police officers in Italy and identify its correlates. In this cross-sectional study, a nationally representative sample of State police employees was tested for IgG and IgM before the start of the National vaccination campaign. A total of 10,535 subjects (approximately 10% of the total workforce) participated in the study. The overall seroprevalence was 4.8% (95% CI: 4.4-5.3%). However, seropositivity was unevenly distributed across the country with a clear (p < 0.001) North-South gradient. In particular, the seroprevalence was 5.6 times higher in northern regions than in southern regions (9.0% vs. 1.6%). Most (71.2%) seropositive subjects reported having no recent symptoms potentially attributable to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Previous dysosmia, dysgeusia, and influenza-like illness symptoms were positive predictors of being seropositive. However, the prognostic value of dysosmia depended (p < 0.05) on both sex and prior influenza-like illness. The baseline seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 in police employees is considerable. A significant risk of occupational exposure, frequent asymptomatic cases and the progressive waning of neutralizing antibodies suggest that the police workers should be considered among the job categories prioritized for the booster COVID-19 vaccine dose.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (58%)

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1093/JTM/TAAB173
Abstract: This sero-survey describes the level and time-trend of antibodies elicited by BNT162b2 COVID-19 vaccine up to 6 months. A strong seroconversion was seen at 30-day serology, with persistence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S-RBD IgG through 6 months from vaccination. However, the level of vaccine-induced antibodies started to decrease from the second month.

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Topics: Seroconversion (63%), Serology (59%), Vaccination (56%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.2196/32285
Abstract: Background: After the global spread of SARS-CoV-2, research has highlighted several aspects of the pandemic, focusing on clinical features and risk factors associated with infection and disease severity. However, emerging results on the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection susceptibility or COVID-19 outcomes are conflicting, and their robustness remains uncertain. Objective: In this context, this study aims at quantifying the proportion of SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence, studying the changes in antibody levels over time, and analyzing the association between the biochemically verified smoking status and SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods: The research design involves a 6-month prospective cohort study with a serial sampling of the same individuals. Each participant will be surveyed about their demographics and COVID-19–related information, and blood sampling will be collected upon recruitment and at specified follow-up time points (ie, after 8 and 24 weeks). Blood samples will be screened for the presence of SARS-CoV-2–specific antibodies and serum cotinine, being the latter of the principal metabolite of nicotine, which will be used to assess participants’ smoking status. Results: The study is ongoing. It aims to find a higher antibody prevalence in individuals at high risk for viral exposure (ie, health care personnel) and to refine current estimates on the association between smoking status and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19. Conclusions: The added value of this research is that the current smoking status of the population to be studied will be biochemically verified to avoid the bias associated with self-reported smoking status. As such, the results from this survey may provide an actionable metric to study the role of smoking in SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 outcomes, and therefore to implement the most appropriate public health measures to control the pandemic. Results may also serve as a reference for future clinical research, and the methodology could be exploited in public health sectors and policies.

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Topics: Blood sampling (54%), Population (51%), Public health (51%)
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28 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31483-5
22 Aug 2020-The Lancet
Abstract: Summary Background Spain is one of the European countries most affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Serological surveys are a valuable tool to assess the extent of the epidemic, given the existence of asymptomatic cases and little access to diagnostic tests. This nationwide population-based study aims to estimate the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Spain at national and regional level. Methods 35 883 households were selected from municipal rolls using two-stage random sampling stratified by province and municipality size, with all residents invited to participate. From April 27 to May 11, 2020, 61 075 participants (75·1% of all contacted individuals within selected households) answered a questionnaire on history of symptoms compatible with COVID-19 and risk factors, received a point-of-care antibody test, and, if agreed, donated a blood sample for additional testing with a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay. Prevalences of IgG antibodies were adjusted using sampling weights and post-stratification to allow for differences in non-response rates based on age group, sex, and census-tract income. Using results for both tests, we calculated a seroprevalence range maximising either specificity (positive for both tests) or sensitivity (positive for either test). Findings Seroprevalence was 5·0% (95% CI 4·7–5·4) by the point-of-care test and 4·6% (4·3–5·0) by immunoassay, with a specificity–sensitivity range of 3·7% (3·3–4·0; both tests positive) to 6·2% (5·8–6·6; either test positive), with no differences by sex and lower seroprevalence in children younger than 10 years ( 10%) and lower in coastal areas ( Interpretation The majority of the Spanish population is seronegative to SARS-CoV-2 infection, even in hotspot areas. Most PCR-confirmed cases have detectable antibodies, but a substantial proportion of people with symptoms compatible with COVID-19 did not have a PCR test and at least a third of infections determined by serology were asymptomatic. These results emphasise the need for maintaining public health measures to avoid a new epidemic wave. Funding Spanish Ministry of Health, Institute of Health Carlos III, and Spanish National Health System.

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Topics: Seroprevalence (61%), Population (54%)

1,070 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMC2025179
Abstract: Covid-19 Antibodies after Mild Infection Among 34 volunteers who had recovered from mild Covid-19 illness, antiviral antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the viral spike protein declined wi...

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673 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1056/NEJMOA2026116
Abstract: Background Little is known about the nature and durability of the humoral immune response to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Methods We measure...

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Topics: Immune system (53%)

589 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CELL.2020.09.038
12 Nov 2020-Cell
Abstract: Limited knowledge is available on the relationship between antigen-specific immune responses and COVID-19 disease severity. We completed a combined examination of all three branches of adaptive immunity at the level of SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody responses in acute and convalescent subjects. SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells were each associated with milder disease. Coordinated SARS-CoV-2-specific adaptive immune responses were associated with milder disease, suggesting roles for both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in protective immunity in COVID-19. Notably, coordination of SARS-CoV-2 antigen-specific responses was disrupted in individuals ≥ 65 years old. Scarcity of naive T cells was also associated with aging and poor disease outcomes. A parsimonious explanation is that coordinated CD4+ T cell, CD8+ T cell, and antibody responses are protective, but uncoordinated responses frequently fail to control disease, with a connection between aging and impaired adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2.

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Topics: Acquired immune system (54%), Immune system (52%)

574 Citations