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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MARPOLBUL.2021.112225

Occurrence of microplastics and heavy metals accumulation in native oysters Crassostrea Gasar in the Paranaguá estuarine system, Brazil.

04 Mar 2021-Marine Pollution Bulletin (Pergamon)-Vol. 166, pp 112225-112225
Abstract: The ubiquitous presence of contaminants in the marine environment is considered a global threat to marine organisms. Heavy metals and microplastics are two distinct classes of pollutants but there are interactions between these two stressors that are still poorly understood. We examined the potential relationship between heavy metals (Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Ba, Hg, Pb) and microplastic particles in oysters sampled along the Paranagua Estuarine System. The results suggested high levels of As and Zn in the bivalves, which are destined for human consumption. Microplastic particles were found in oysters from all sampled locations, demonstrating the spread of this pollutant in the marine environment and its ability to bioaccumulate in oysters. However, our data did not demonstrate a direct relationship between microplastics and heavy metals, suggesting that these particles are not the main route for heavy metal contamination of oysters in the Paranagua Estuarine System.

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Topics: Microplastics (62%), Pollutant (50%)
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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVPOL.2021.118104
Noreen Khalid1, Muhammad Aqeel2, Ali Noman3, Shujaul Mulk Khan4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
Abstract: Contamination of waters and soils with microplastics (MPs) is an emerging environmental issue worldwide. MPs constitute a cocktail of various additives and polymers besides adsorbing toxic heavy metals from the environment. This co-occurrence of MPs with heavy metals poses a threat to the health of organisms and is poorly understood. Ingestion of MPs contaminated with heavy metals may also result in subsequent transfer of heavy metals up in the food chain. MPs surfaces play a crucial role in the adsorption of heavy metals. Aged/biofouled MPs facilitate greater adsorption of metals and certain microplastic (MP) polymers adsorb some metals more specifically. External factors involved in the process of adsorption/accumulation of heavy metals are the solution pH, salinity, and the concentration of relevant heavy metals in the media. Desorption greatly depends upon pH of the external solution. This is more concerning as the guts/digestive systems of organisms have low pH which could enhance the desorption of toxic metals and making them accumulate in their bodies. The aim of this article is to discuss the abundance, distribution, adsorption, and desorption behavior of MPs for heavy metals, and their combined toxic effects on flora and fauna based on the limited research on this topic in the literature. There is an overarching need to understand the interactions of MPs with heavy metals in different ecosystems so that the extent of ecotoxic effects they pose could be assessed which would help in the environmental regulation of these pollutants.

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Topics: Microplastics (51%)

3 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JKSUS.2021.101525
Abstract: Objectives The main objective is to provide policy recommendations on the enhancement of ecological environmental protection. Methods Combined with spatial correlation analysis and spatial dynamic panel models, this paper estimates the spatial effect of the local government’s environmental protection expenditure on the improvement of the ecological environment based on China’s 30 provinces as samples from 2007 to 2017. Results We find a significant impact of the environmental protection expenditure of the local government on the ecological environment improvement of neighbouring regions rather than the local region. It reveals a “free-riding” phenomenon in environmental governance. In addition, increasing the levels of economic development, urbanization, environmental regulations and industrial structure in the local region can effectively mitigate environmental pollution in the local region on one hand and contribute to the deterioration of the ecological environment in neighbouring regions on the other. Conclusions The present study suggests that environmental regulations can significantly improve the local environment. The local governments at all levels must reinforce the supervision of the ecological protection areas to ensure the implementation of environmental regulations.

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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/OPEN.202100204
Shaoyu Lei1, Xia Meng1, Lizhen Wang1, Jianhua Zhou1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 2021-ChemistryOpen
Abstract: The selective and efficient monitoring of mercury (Hg2+ ) contamination found in the environment and ecosystem has been carried out. Thus, a new 1,8-naphthalimide-based fluorescent probe NADP for the detection of Hg2+ based on a fluorescence enhancement strategy has been designed and synthesized. The NADP probe can detect Hg2+ with high selectivity and sensitivity and a low detection limit of 13 nm. The detection mechanism was based on a Hg2+ -triggered deprotection reaction, resulting in a dramatic change in fluorescence from colorless to green at physiological pH. Most importantly, biological investigation has shown that the NADP probe can be successfully applied to the monitoring of Hg2+ in living cells and zebrafish with low cytotoxicity.

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Topics: Fluorescence (51%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/JMSE9050544
Abstract: Mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) collected at three locations in Boka Kotorska Bay, on the Montenegrin Adriatic coast, were analyzed for the first time by optical and Raman microscopy to detect microplastics (MPs) and other emerging contaminants in their soft tissues. Concentrations of six trace metals (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe, Cd, and Hg) were also measured in the same samples by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Mussels from a location near the urban area of Kotor were found to exhibit the highest content of MPs and other pollutants originating from anthropogenic sources, while farmed mussels showed higher carotenoid as well as nylon content. The hypothesis of MPs acting as a possible secondary route of trace metals ingress in mussels, a thus far scarcely studied topic, was evaluated based on a comparative analysis of the obtained results. In this context, it was noticed that nylon filaments originating from mussel farming equipment might contribute to higher trace metal content. The results showed that the simultaneous analysis of different contaminants in mussels can be a significant step forward in marine environment pollution monitoring and the assessment of human health risks associated with the consumption of contaminated seafood.

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Topics: Mytilus (58%), Microplastics (55%), Trace metal (54%) ... show more

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ECOENV.2021.112885
Peichun Lin1, Yitao Guo1, Lei He1, Xiuchun Liao1  +8 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: The coexistence of nanoplastics (NPs) and pollutants such as arsenic (As) has become an unignorable environmental problem. However, there is still a considerable knowledge gap about the impact of NPs and pollutants on human health risks. In this study, the human gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells were used as a model to investigate the toxicity of NPs with different particle sizes and As by MTT assay, western blotting, immunofluorescence and so on. The results showed that 20 nm (8 μg/mL), 50 nm (128 μg/mL), 200 nm (128 μg/mL), 500 nm (128 μg/mL), 1000 nm (128 μg/mL) polystyrene (PS) did not affect cell viability, ROS, intracellular calcium and activate apoptosis pathway in AGS cells. However, noncytotoxic concentration of NPs enhanced the cytotoxicity and intracellular accumulation of As. NPs destroys the fluidity of cell membrane and cytoskeleton, inhibits the activity of ABC transporter, and leads to the accumulation of As in cells. This work highlights that the damage caused by NPs, especially at the level of noncytotoxicity, joint with As cannot be ignored and provides a specific toxicological mechanism of NPs accompanied by exposure to As.

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Topics: Viability assay (51%)

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95 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1094559
07 May 2004-Science
Abstract: Millions of metric tons of plastic are produced annually. Countless large items of plastic debris are accumulating in marine habitats worldwide and may persist for centuries ([ 1 ][1]–[ 4 ][2]). Here we show that microscopic plastic fragments and fibers ([Fig. 1A][3]) are also widespread in the

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2,544 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1371/JOURNAL.PONE.0111913
Marcus Eriksen, Laurent Lebreton1, Henry S. Carson2, Martin Thiel3  +5 moreInstitutions (7)
10 Dec 2014-PLOS ONE
Abstract: Plastic pollution is ubiquitous throughout the marine environment, yet estimates of the global abundance and weight of floating plastics have lacked data, particularly from the Southern Hemisphere and remote regions. Here we report an estimate of the total number of plastic particles and their weight floating in the world’s oceans from 24 expeditions (2007–2013) across all five sub-tropical gyres, costal Australia, Bay of Bengal and the Mediterranean Sea conducting surface net tows (N5680) and visual survey transects of large plastic debris (N5891). Using an oceanographic model of floating debris dispersal calibrated by our data, and correcting for wind-driven vertical mixing, we estimate a minimum of 5.25 trillion particles weighing 268,940 tons. When comparing between four size classes, two microplastic ,4.75 mm and meso- and macroplastic .4.75 mm, a tremendous loss of microplastics is observed from the sea surface compared to expected rates of fragmentation, suggesting there are mechanisms at play that remove ,4.75 mm plastic particles from the ocean surface.

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Topics: Plastic pollution (60%), Marine debris (58%), Microplastics (53%) ... show more

2,189 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1098/RSTB.2008.0284
Abstract: Plastics debris in the marine environment, including resin pellets, fragments and microscopic plastic fragments, contain organic contaminants, including polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, petroleum hydrocarbons, organochlorine pesticides (2,2′-bis(p-chlorophenyl)-1,1,1-trichloroethane, hexachlorinated hexanes), polybrominated diphenylethers, alkylphenols and bisphenol A, at concentrations from sub ng g–1 to µg g–1. Some of these compounds are added during plastics manufacture, while others adsorb from the surrounding seawater. Concentrations of hydrophobic contaminants adsorbed on plastics showed distinct spatial variations reflecting global pollution patterns. Model calculations and experimental observations consistently show that polyethylene accumulates more organic contaminants than other plastics such as polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride. Both a mathematical model using equilibrium partitioning and experimental data have demonstrated the transfer of contaminants from plastic to organisms. A feeding experiment indicated that PCBs could transfer from contaminated plastics to streaked shearwater chicks. Plasticizers, other plastics additives and constitutional monomers also present potential threats in terrestrial environments because they can leach from waste disposal sites into groundwater and/or surface waters. Leaching and degradation of plasticizers and polymers are complex phenomena dependent on environmental conditions in the landfill and the chemical properties of each additive. Bisphenol A concentrations in leachates from municipal waste disposal sites in tropical Asia ranged from sub µg l–1 to mg l–1 and were correlated with the level of economic development.

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Topics: Waste disposal (57%), Plastic pollution (54%), Microplastics (51%) ... show more

1,629 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/ES800249A
Abstract: Plastics debris is accumulating in the environment and is fragmenting into smaller pieces; as it does, the potential for ingestion by animals increases. The consequences of macroplastic debris for wildlife are well documented, however the impacts of microplastic (< 1 mm) are poorly understood. The mussel, Mytilus edulis, was used to investigate ingestion, translocation, and accumulation of this debris. Initial experiments showed that upon ingestion, microplastic accumulated in the gut. Mussels were subsequently exposed to treatments containing seawater and microplastic (3.0 or 9.6 microm). After transfer to clean conditions, microplastic was tracked in the hemolymph. Particles translocated from the gut to the circulatory system within 3 days and persisted for over 48 days. Abundance of microplastic was greatest after 12 days and declined thereafter. Smaller particles were more abundant than larger particles and our data indicate as plastic fragments into smaller particles, the potential for accumulation in the tissues of an organism increases. The short-term pulse exposure used here did not result in significant biological effects. However, plastics are exceedingly durable and so further work using a wider range of organisms, polymers, and periods of exposure will be required to establish the biological consequences of this debris.

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1,262 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENVINT.2017.02.013
H.S. Auta1, C.U Emenike2, S.H. Fauziah1Institutions (2)
Abstract: The presence of microplastics in the marine environment poses a great threat to the entire ecosystem and has received much attention lately as the presence has greatly impacted oceans, lakes, seas, rivers, coastal areas and even the Polar Regions. Microplastics are found in most commonly utilized products (primary microplastics), or may originate from the fragmentation of larger plastic debris (secondary microplastics). The material enters the marine environment through terrestrial and land-based activities, especially via runoffs and is known to have great impact on marine organisms as studies have shown that large numbers of marine organisms have been affected by microplastics. Microplastic particles have been found distributed in large numbers in Africa, Asia, Southeast Asia, India, South Africa, North America, and in Europe. This review describes the sources and global distribution of microplastics in the environment, the fate and impact on marine biota, especially the food chain. Furthermore, the control measures discussed are those mapped out by both national and international environmental organizations for combating the impact from microplastics. Identifying the main sources of microplastic pollution in the environment and creating awareness through education at the public, private, and government sectors will go a long way in reducing the entry of microplastics into the environment. Also, knowing the associated behavioral mechanisms will enable better understanding of the impacts for the marine environment. However, a more promising and environmentally safe approach could be provided by exploiting the potentials of microorganisms, especially those of marine origin that can degrade microplastics. Capsule The concentration, distribution sources and fate of microplastics in the global marine environment were discussed, so also was the impact of microplastics on a wide range of marine biota.

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Topics: Microplastics (73%)

825 Citations