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Journal ArticleDOI

"Oh why didn't I take more notice?" Professionals' views and perceptions of pre-qualifying preparation for interprofessional working in practice.

13 Aug 2012-Journal of Interprofessional Care (Taylor & Francis)-Vol. 26, Iss: 5, pp 355-361

TL;DR: It is suggested that pre-qualifying IPL can prepare individuals to work effectively as qualified professionals with colleagues from other disciplines and that effective IPW impacts positively on service delivery.

AbstractIt is widely assumed that interprofessional learning (IPL) impacts positively on interprofessional working (IPW) in health and social care. However, there is no clear evidence that pre-qualifying IPL improves service delivery. The direct effect of pre-qualifying IPL on IPW and service delivery is difficult to demonstrate; researchers must rely on professionals' self-report in this regard. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study in which semi-structured interviews were used to collect individuals' views and perceptions about pre-qualifying IPL as preparation for practice. Two groups of participants came from four health and social care professions: adult nursing, midwifery, physiotherapy and social work. One group had experienced a substantial pre-qualifying IPL initiative, while the other group had not. Useful insights were gained from comparing the views and perceptions of individuals from these two groups. The total sample comprised 29 practitioners: 19 were educated on interprofessional curricula and 10 on traditional uniprofessional curricula. Thematic data analysis produced findings about pre-qualifying education as preparation for IPW. These findings suggest that pre-qualifying IPL can prepare individuals to work effectively as qualified professionals with colleagues from other disciplines and that effective IPW impacts positively on service delivery.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper proposes moving this area of inquiry beyond theoretical assumptions to systematic research that will strengthen the evidence base for the effectiveness of IPE and collaborative practice within the context of the evolving imperative of the Triple Aim.
Abstract: The Triple Aim unequivocally connects interprofessional healthcare teams to the provision of better healthcare services that would eventually lead to improved health outcomes. This review of the in...

214 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
25 Apr 2014-PLOS ONE
TL;DR: Although they often relied on traditional types of interaction, residents and nurses also demonstrated readiness for increased sharing of responsibilities, and Interprofessional education should insist on better redefinition of respective roles and reinforce behaviours shown to enhance teamwork quality.
Abstract: Background Effective teamwork is necessary for optimal patient care. There is insufficient understanding of interactions between physicians and nurses on internal medicine wards. Objective To describe resident physicians’ and nurses’ actual behaviours contributing to teamwork quality in the setting of a simulated internal medicine ward. Methods A volunteer sample of 14 pairs of residents and nurses in internal medicine was asked to manage one non-urgent and one urgent clinical case in a simulated ward, using a high-fidelity manikin. After the simulation, participants attended a stimulated-recall session during which they viewed the videotape of the simulation and explained their actions and perceptions. All simulations were transcribed, coded, and analyzed, using a qualitative method (template analysis). Quality of teamwork was assessed, based on patient management efficiency and presence of shared management goals and of team spirit. Results Most resident-nurse pairs tended to interact in a traditional way, with residents taking the leadership and nurses executing medical prescriptions and assuming their own specific role. They also demonstrated different types of interactions involving shared responsibilities and decision making, constructive suggestions, active communication and listening, and manifestations of positive team building. The presence of a leader in the pair or a truly shared leadership between resident and nurse contributed to teamwork quality only if both members of the pair demonstrated sufficient autonomy. In case of a lack of autonomy of one member, the other member could compensate for it, if his/her own autonomy was sufficiently strong and if there were demonstrations of mutual listening, information sharing, and positive team building. Conclusions Although they often relied on traditional types of interaction, residents and nurses also demonstrated readiness for increased sharing of responsibilities. Interprofessional education should insist on better redefinition of respective roles and reinforce behaviours shown to enhance teamwork quality.

61 citations


Cites background from ""Oh why didn't I take more notice?"..."

  • ...This argues for reinforcement of interprofessional education at the pre- and postgraduate levels, as exemplified by existing programs [33,34,35,36,37]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The study shows that even limited interprofessional simulation exposure enabled students to acquire knowledge of other professions and develop a better appreciation of interprofessional learning.
Abstract: Background Interprofessional simulation at the undergraduate level has been tested but is still very scarcely used because of curriculum and logistical issues. Over a 3-year period, we have conducted extracurricular immersive simulation sessions for multiprofessional groups of final year health care students. Methods After ethical approval, a series of scenarios requiring various combinations of health care professionals' inputs were designed for students attending the simulation sessions on offer. Another team of faculty were involved in the creation of a questionnaire to test students on discipline-specific knowledge and about their perception of multidisciplinary working. Students recruited to the study were semi-randomly selected to either a control or experimental group, which determined whether they completed the knowledge questionnaire before or after simulation exposure. Results Participants were 237 students from adult/children/learning disability/mental health nursing, paramedic, radiography, physiotherapy, and pharmacy. Questionnaire data analysis showed that experimental group students reported a higher perceived level of knowledge of other professions and were more confident about working as part of a multidisciplinary team than control group students ( p p Conclusions The study shows that even limited interprofessional simulation exposure enabled students to acquire knowledge of other professions and develop a better appreciation of interprofessional learning. Discussions during the debriefings highlighted the fact that interprofessional training is important and valued by students, especially if it is well contextualized and facilitated through the exposure to realistic scenarios.

54 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: The healthcare setting is a rich learning environment for students to experience interprofessional working (IPW) and interprofessional education (IPE). However, opportunities for IPE are limited, and student experiences of effective IPW are varied. This raises the question of how IPW and IPE are valued by health or social care professionals. A search of the literature was carried out to identify studies of health and social care staff attitudes to IPW and IPE. This review provides a summary of the main factors found to influence attitudes and the strengths and limitations of these studies. Professional background and prior IPE experience were identified as the influencing factors for which there is most evidence. The main limitations of the studies accessed included a focus on the value of IPE for staff, as opposed to students, and a limited number of studies considering the relationship between attitudes to IPW and the value placed on IPE. It is important that health and social care professionals lead by example by working collaboratively and providing students with opportunities for IPE. Identifying the variables influencing attitudes to IPW and IPE may assist in improving IPW and experiences of IPE for students learning in the healthcare setting.

33 citations


Cites background from ""Oh why didn't I take more notice?"..."

  • ...However, only four of these studies focused on attitudes to both IPE and IPW (Baker et al., 2011; Braithwaite et al., 2012, 2013; Pollard et al., 2012); two of these studies included health and social care staff (Baker et al....

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  • ...Staff with experience of IPE as students, reflected on varied experiences of IPE and IPW and reported more awareness of barriers to effective IPW such as professional boundaries, hierarchies, and poor communication (Pollard et al., 2012)....

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  • ...Prior IPE as an influence on attitudes to IPW IPE as an influence on staff attitudes to IPW was explored in a number of studies (Bailey et al., 2006; Braithwaite et al., 2012; Gibbon et al., 2002; Kvarnström, 2008; Pollard & Miers, 2008; Pollard et al., 2012; Robben et al., 2012)....

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  • ...However, only four of these studies focused on attitudes to both IPE and IPW (Baker et al., 2011; Braithwaite et al., 2012, 2013; Pollard et al., 2012); two of these studies included health and social care staff (Baker et al., 2011; Pollard et al., 2012); and only one study by Baker et al. (2011)…...

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  • ..., 2012); two of these studies included health and social care staff (Baker et al., 2011; Pollard et al., 2012); and only one study by Baker et al....

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Journal ArticleDOI
Abstract: Effective collaboration between early childhood teachers and social workers is now considered critical to providing children with adequate psycho-social supports and services in early childhood settings. In order for this interdisciplinary collaboration to be more effective, opportunities for each discipline to learn about each other's knowledge, skills, roles, and responsibilities need to occur well before these professionals enter early childhood settings. This pilot study engaged 2nd-year, preservice, graduate early childhood education and social work students in an interprofessional training and collaborative activity as part of their graduate coursework. Following this training and activity, the early childhood education graduate students and the social work graduate students were invited to participate in uni-professional focus groups as a way to explore their experiences. Findings suggest that although there is general agreement among graduate students that interdisciplinary training and learning a...

33 citations


References
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Book
01 Jan 2001
Abstract: PART ONE ; 1. The nature and process of social research ; 2. Social research strategies: quantitative research and qualitative research ; 3. Research designs ; 4. Planning a research project and formulating research questions ; Getting started: reviewing the literature ; 6. Ethics and politics in social research ; PART TWO ; 7. The nature of quantitative research ; 8. Sampling in quantitative research ; 9. Structured interviewing ; 10. Self-administered questionnaires ; 11. Asking questions ; 12. Structured observation ; 13. Content analysis ; 14. Using existing data ; 15. Quantitative data analysis ; 16. Using IBM SPSS for Windows ; PART THREE ; 17. The nature of qualitative research ; 18. Sampling in qualitative research ; 19. Ethnography and participant observation ; 20. Interviewing in qualitative research ; 21. Focus groups ; 22. Language in qualitative research ; 23. Documents as sources of data ; 24. Qualitative data analysis ; 25. Computer-assisted qualitative data analysis: using NVivo ; PART FOUR ; 26. Breaking down the quantitative/qualitative divide ; 27. Mixed methods research: combining quantitative and qualitative research ; 28. Writing up social research

17,326 citations


Book
27 Apr 2006
TL;DR: This chapter discusses social research methods, research strategies and design, and how to get the most out of Lectures and revision skills.
Abstract: PART ONE: SOCIAL RESEARCH METHODS Introduction to Your Companion PART TWO: CORE AREAS OF THE CURRICULUM Theoretical Background Research Basics Research Strategies and Design The Nature of Data Defining the Research Problem Sampling Data Collection Methods Experimental Design Quantitative Data Analysis Qualitative Data Analysis Ethics PART THREE: STUDY AND REVISION SKILLS How To Get the Most Out of Your Lectures - (written in collaboration with David McIlroy) How To Make the Most of Seminars Revision Hints and Tips Exam Tips Tips on Interpreting Essay and Exam Questions Essay Writing Writing a Literature Review Writing a Research Proposal Writing Up a Dissertation or Research Project

6,183 citations


""Oh why didn't I take more notice?"..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...As the study aimed for in-depth exploration of the topic, one-to-one interviews were used to gather qualitative data (Bryman, 2001)....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The results indicated that feedback may be more effective when baseline performance is low, the source is a supervisor or colleague, it is provided more than once, and the role of context and the targeted clinical behaviour was assessed.
Abstract: Background Audit and feedback continues to be widely used as a strategy to improve professional practice. It appears logical that healthcare professionals would be prompted to modify their practice if given feedback that their clinical practice was inconsistent with that of their peers or accepted guidelines. Yet, audit and feedback has not been found to be consistently effective. Objectives To assess the effects of audit and feedback on the practice of healthcare professionals and patient outcomes. Search strategy We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group's register up to January 2001. This was supplemented with searches of MEDLINE and reference lists, which did not yield additional relevant studies. Selection criteria Randomised trials of audit and feedback (defined as any summary of clinical performance over a specified period of time) that reported objectively measured professional practice in a healthcare setting or healthcare outcomes. Data collection and analysis Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Quantitative (meta-regression), visual and qualitative analyses were undertaken. Main results We included 85 studies, 48 of which have been added to the previous version of this review. There were 52 comparisons of dichotomous outcomes from 47 trials with over 3500 health professionals that compared audit and feedback to no intervention. The adjusted RDs of non-compliance with desired practice varied from 0.09 (a 9% absolute increase in non-compliance) to 0.71 (a 71% decrease in non-compliance) (median = 0.07, inter-quartile range = 0.02 to 0.11). The one factor that appeared to predict the effectiveness of audit and feedback across studies was baseline non-compliance with recommended practice. Reviewer's conclusions Audit and feedback can be effective in improving professional practice. When it is effective, the effects are generally small to moderate. The absolute effects of audit and feedback are more likely to be larger when baseline adherence to recommended practice is low.

4,577 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method of analysing qualitative interview data is outlined as a stage-by-stage process and the researcher in the field of qualitative work is urged to be systematic and open to the difficulties of the task of understanding other people's perceptions.
Abstract: A method of analysing qualitative interview data is outlined as a stage-by-stage process. Some of the problems associated with the method are identified. The researcher in the field of qualitative work is urged to be systematic and open to the difficulties of the task of understanding other people's perceptions.

2,384 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...Data were analyzed thematically (Burnard, 1991)....

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1,995 citations