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Proceedings ArticleDOI

On developing smart applications for VANETs: Where are we now? some insights on technical issues and open problems

04 Dec 2009-pp 1-6

TL;DR: Partially reviewing the research in this space and finding out how well can applications such as peer-to-peer file sharing and gaming can be supported, and an understanding of how far ahead in time is the implementation of the cited scenarios on a distributed vehicular ad hoc network.

AbstractThe advances in research on ad hoc networks, the availability of cheap radio interfaces (e.g. WiFi) and the increasing amount of electronic devices installed in vehicles have set the path for vehicular ad hoc networks. In the past few years, vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) research has addressed all layers, trying to optimize from the physical layer to the application layer to support the design of new possible application scenarios. It is often difficult to find a comprehensive approach to VANETs, due to their complexity. It is also often difficult to realize how far, technically, is the implementation of VANET-based application scenarios. We here propose to take one step in such direction, partially reviewing the research in this space and finding out how well can applications such as peer-to-peer file sharing and gaming can be supported. Our final scope is to provide an understanding of how far ahead in time, from the technological point of view, is the implementation of the cited scenarios on a distributed vehicular ad hoc network.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A lightweight authentication protocol for RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification devices) has been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing solutions and to provide better performance in terms of low detection time, low CPU and memory consumption to strengthen the existing IoV environment.
Abstract: Internet of Vehicles (IoV) is an emerging concept in intelligent transportation systems (ITS) to enhance the existing capabilities of VANETs by integrating with the Internet of Things (IoT). IoV has dominated the transportation systems due to numerous special traits like dynamic topological structures, huge network scale, reliable internet connection, compatibility with personal devices and high processing capability, etc. In this review, an in-depth survey of IoV is carried out by discussing the applications of IoV in different areas, as well as the comparative study of IoV and VANETs, is being done. Intelligent transportation system involves a huge amount of dynamic real-time critical data so its security is a major concern. Different security aspects of IoV are studied in this review which includes security requirements, security challenges, and security attacks. After this, existing security solutions of all attacks are elaborated and discussion section is provided to highlight the drawbacks of security solutions deployed for each attack as well as it emphasizes on the attacks for which no security solutions are available. Based on the extensive study conducted on this, it has been found that existing security solutions use conventional cryptographic techniques that affect the performance of the delay sensitive network i.e. IoV and VANETs. So, a lightweight authentication protocol for RFID (Radio-Frequency Identification devices) has also been proposed to overcome the drawbacks of existing solutions and to provide better performance in terms of low detection time, low CPU and memory consumption to strengthen the existing IoV environment.

70 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An algorithm is devised that, exploiting probe vehicles, for any given road, identifies if it is congested or not and provides the estimation that a current congested state will last for at least a given time interval and can be applied to any type of road.
Abstract: While vehicular congestion is very often defined in terms of aggregate parameters, such as traffic volume and lane occupancies, based on recent findings, the interpretation that receives most credit is that of a state of a road where traversing vehicles experience a delay exceeding the maximum value typically incurred under light or free-flow traffic conditions. We here propose a new definition according to which a road is in a congested state (be it high or low) only when the likelihood of finding it in the same congested state is high in the near future. Based on this new definition, we devised an algorithm that, exploiting probe vehicles, for any given road 1) identifies if it is congested or not and 2) provides the estimation that a current congested state will last for at least a given time interval. Unlike any other existing approach, an important advantage of ours is that it can generally be applied to any type of road, as it neither needs any a priori knowledge nor requires the estimation of any road parameter (e.g., number of lanes, traffic light cycle, etc.). Further, it allows performing short-term traffic congestion forecasting for any given road. We present several field trials gathered on different urban roads whose empirical results confirm the validity of our approach.

69 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
09 Jan 2014
TL;DR: This work has addressed the utility of metaheuristic algorithms (PSO, GA) for inter VANET sensor data handovers in order to study the performance analysis to maximize the throughput & reliability improvement in real VANet.
Abstract: VEHICULAR ad hoc networks (VANETs) are the self-configuring networks where the nodes are vehicles (equipped with on-board computers), elements of roadside infrastructure, sensors, and pedestrian personal devices. In the current state of the art in this field there is a need of studies on real outdoor experiments to validate the new VANETs optimizing protocols and applications. Thus exchanging up-to-date information among vehicles is the most salient feature of a VANET. In order to do so, the packets have to travel through the network from one node to the others & thus give rise to concept of inter VANET data handovers & VDTP (Vehicular data transfer Protocol). In this work, we have addressed the utility of metaheuristic algorithms (PSO, GA) for inter VANET sensor data handovers in order to study the performance analysis to maximize the throughput & reliability improvement in real VANET.

8 citations


Cites methods from "On developing smart applications fo..."

  • ...So as per previous observations the successful design and implementation of an application depends on a correct interpretation of the key elements like Broadcast Optimization, Fairness and Admission Control [4] underlying to which the behavior of the network can be specified which runs on it....

    [...]


Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Mar 2012
TL;DR: This article analyzes the different approaches and opportunities related to the use sensor-equipped smartphones to generate and distribute context related data both automatically and through appealing user applications (e.g., games).
Abstract: In this article, we explore the technical implications related to Web Squared paradigm. Representing an evolution of Web 2.0 that emphasizes the interaction between the cyber world and the real world, Web Squared contemplates the use of sensors to share huge amounts of data and foster the creation of new services. In this context, we analyze the different approaches and opportunities related to the use sensor-equipped smartphones to generate and distribute context related data both automatically and through appealing user applications (e.g., games). We discuss a general methodology to adopt when devising smartphone-based distributed sensing applications and explore both the issues and adopted solutions in this context. Finally, we identify unresolved technical challenges limiting the widespread deployment of Web Squared services, which deserve future research effort.

4 citations


Cites background from "On developing smart applications fo..."

  • ...Nowadays, any object casts an information shadow which, if captured and processed intelligently, could be used to generate new pervasive services [4, 5, 6, 7, 8]....

    [...]


Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This work set up to propose Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) methodologies that take advantage of information available in vehicular networks such as the vehicles’ position and speed, in order to design an ant-based algorithm that performs well in the dynamics of such networks and adapts to the conditions appropriately.
Abstract: When Vehicles communicating among themselves, and communicating to devices located in the margins of roads and highways form Vehicular Ad hoc Networks (VANETs) that are a suitable type of Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs). VANET can go upto a high speed of network nodes that can go up to 200 km/h, and which impacts directly on the capability the network has to deliver data, we can have a network formed for a small amount of time. Ant-based routing can be successfully incorporated to both wireless and wired networks as it has been checked it various tests. This work set ups to propose Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) methodologies that take advantage of information available in vehicular networks such as the vehicles’ position and speed, in order to design an ant-based algorithm that performs well in the dynamics of such networks and adapts to the conditions appropriately.

3 citations


References
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Proceedings ArticleDOI
25 Feb 1999
TL;DR: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure and the proposed routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad- hoc networks.
Abstract: An ad-hoc network is the cooperative engagement of a collection of mobile nodes without the required intervention of any centralized access point or existing infrastructure. We present Ad-hoc On Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), a novel algorithm for the operation of such ad-hoc networks. Each mobile host operates as a specialized router, and routes are obtained as needed (i.e., on-demand) with little or no reliance on periodic advertisements. Our new routing algorithm is quite suitable for a dynamic self starting network, as required by users wishing to utilize ad-hoc networks. AODV provides loop-free routes even while repairing broken links. Because the protocol does not require global periodic routing advertisements, the demand on the overall bandwidth available to the mobile nodes is substantially less than in those protocols that do necessitate such advertisements. Nevertheless we can still maintain most of the advantages of basic distance vector routing mechanisms. We show that our algorithm scales to large populations of mobile nodes wishing to form ad-hoc networks. We also include an evaluation methodology and simulation results to verify the operation of our algorithm.

11,180 citations


"On developing smart applications fo..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In Figure 1 we plot the delivery ratio, using the AODV [30] routing protocol, with and without the use of the AP infrastructure....

    [...]


01 Jan 2002
TL;DR: A survey of mobility models that are used in the simulations of ad hoc networks and illustrates how the performance results of an ad hoc network protocol drastically change as a result of changing the mobility model simulated.

4,523 citations


Journal ArticleDOI
01 Aug 2002
Abstract: In the performance evaluation of a protocol for an ad hoc network, the protocol should be tested under realistic conditions including, but not limited to, a sensible transmission range, limited buffer space for the storage of messages, representative data traffic models, and realistic movements of the mobile users (i.e., a mobility model). This paper is a survey of mobility models that are used in the simulations of ad hoc networks. We describe several mobility models that represent mobile nodes whose movements are independent of each other (i.e., entity mobility models) and several mobility models that represent mobile nodes whose movements are dependent on each other (i.e., group mobility models). The goal of this paper is to present a number of mobility models in order to offer researchers more informed choices when they are deciding upon a mobility model to use in their performance evaluations. Lastly, we present simulation results that illustrate the importance of choosing a mobility model in the simulation of an ad hoc network protocol. Specifically, we illustrate how the performance results of an ad hoc network protocol drastically change as a result of changing the mobility model simulated.

4,282 citations


Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Aug 1999
TL;DR: This paper proposes several schemes to reduce redundant rebroadcasts and differentiate timing of rebroadcast to alleviate the broadcast storm problem, which is identified by showing how serious it is through analyses and simulations.
Abstract: Broadcasting is a common operation in a network to resolve many issues. In a mobile ad hoc network (MANET) in particular, due to host mobility, such operations are expected to be executed more frequently (such as finding a route to a particular host, paging a particular host, and sending an alarm signal). Because radio signals are likely to overlap with others in a geographical area, a straightforward broadcasting by flooding is usually very costly and will result in serious redundancy, contention, and collision, to which we call the broadcast storm problem. In this paper, we identify this problem by showing how serious it is through analyses and simulations. We propose several schemes to reduce redundant rebroadcasts and differentiate timing of rebroadcasts to alleviate this problem. Simulation results are presented, which show different levels of improvement over the basic flooding approach.

3,767 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...broadcast storms [11]) overwhelms the communication network....

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Journal ArticleDOI
12 Nov 2000
TL;DR: Key requirements are identified, a small device is developed that is representative of the class, a tiny event-driven operating system is designed, and it is shown that it provides support for efficient modularity and concurrency-intensive operation.
Abstract: Technological progress in integrated, low-power, CMOS communication devices and sensors makes a rich design space of networked sensors viable. They can be deeply embedded in the physical world and spread throughout our environment like smart dust. The missing elements are an overall system architecture and a methodology for systematic advance. To this end, we identify key requirements, develop a small device that is representative of the class, design a tiny event-driven operating system, and show that it provides support for efficient modularity and concurrency-intensive operation. Our operating system fits in 178 bytes of memory, propagates events in the time it takes to copy 1.25 bytes of memory, context switches in the time it takes to copy 6 bytes of memory and supports two level scheduling. The analysis lays a groundwork for future architectural advances.

3,624 citations