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Proceedings ArticleDOI

On matching sketches with digital face images

TL;DR: In this article, a genetic optimization based approach is proposed to find the optimum weights corresponding to each facial region for matching, the information obtained from different levels of Laplacian pyramid are combined to improve the identification accuracy.
Abstract: This paper presents an efficient algorithm for matching sketches with digital face images. The algorithm extracts discriminating information present in local facial regions at different levels of granularity. Both sketches and digital images are decomposed into multi-resolution pyramid to conserve high frequency information which forms the discriminating facial patterns. Extended uniform circular local binary pattern based descriptors use these patterns to form a unique signature of the face image. Further, for matching, a genetic optimization based approach is proposed to find the optimum weights corresponding to each facial region. The information obtained from different levels of Laplacian pyramid are combined to improve the identification accuracy. Experimental results on sketch-digital image pairs from the CUHK and IIIT-D databases show that the proposed algorithm can provide better identification performance compared to existing algorithms.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generic HFR framework is proposed in which both probe and gallery images are represented in terms of nonlinear similarities to a collection of prototype face images, and Random sampling is introduced into the H FR framework to better handle challenges arising from the small sample size problem.
Abstract: Heterogeneous face recognition (HFR) involves matching two face images from alternate imaging modalities, such as an infrared image to a photograph or a sketch to a photograph. Accurate HFR systems are of great value in various applications (e.g., forensics and surveillance), where the gallery databases are populated with photographs (e.g., mug shot or passport photographs) but the probe images are often limited to some alternate modality. A generic HFR framework is proposed in which both probe and gallery images are represented in terms of nonlinear similarities to a collection of prototype face images. The prototype subjects (i.e., the training set) have an image in each modality (probe and gallery), and the similarity of an image is measured against the prototype images from the corresponding modality. The accuracy of this nonlinear prototype representation is improved by projecting the features into a linear discriminant subspace. Random sampling is introduced into the HFR framework to better handle challenges arising from the small sample size problem. The merits of the proposed approach, called prototype random subspace (P-RS), are demonstrated on four different heterogeneous scenarios: 1) near infrared (NIR) to photograph, 2) thermal to photograph, 3) viewed sketch to photograph, and 4) forensic sketch to photograph.

358 citations


Additional excerpts

  • ...In this paper, 1 ¼ 2 and 2 ¼ 4....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The ultimate aims of this study are to present concrete facts related to research activities in facial ageing during the past decade, provide an indication of the main methodologies adopted, present a comprehensive list of benchmark results and most importantly provide roadmaps for future trends, requirements and research directions in Facial ageing.
Abstract: The face and gesture recognition network (FG-NET) ageing database was released in 2004 in an attempt to support research activities aimed at understanding the changes in facial appearance caused by ageing. Since then the database was used for carrying out research in various disciplines including age estimation, age-invariant face recognition and age progression. On the basis of the analysis of published work where the FG-NET ageing database was used, conclusions related to the type of research carried out in relation to the impact of the dataset in shaping up the research topic of facial ageing are presented. This study also includes a review of key articles from different thematic areas, where the FG-NET ageing database was used and the presentation of benchmark results. The ultimate aims of this study are to present concrete facts related to research activities in facial ageing during the past decade, provide an indication of the main methodologies adopted, present a comprehensive list of benchmark results and most importantly provide roadmaps for future trends, requirements and research directions in facial ageing.

210 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This survey provides a comprehensive review of established techniques and recent developments in HFR, and offers a detailed account of datasets and benchmarks commonly used for evaluation.

114 citations


Cites methods from "On matching sketches with digital f..."

  • ...[101] proposed an method which used extended uniform circular local binary pattern descriptors to tackle sketch/photo matching....

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  • ...[101] Weighted Chi-square IIIT-D EUCLBP 58:173 79%...

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  • ...[101] Weighted Chi-square CUFS EUCLBP 78:233 94%...

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An automated algorithm to extract discriminating information from local regions of both sketches and digital face images is presented and yields better identification performance compared to existing face recognition algorithms and two commercial face recognition systems.
Abstract: One of the important cues in solving crimes and apprehending criminals is matching sketches with digital face images. This paper presents an automated algorithm to extract discriminating information from local regions of both sketches and digital face images. Structural information along with minute details present in local facial regions are encoded using multiscale circular Weber's local descriptor. Further, an evolutionary memetic optimization algorithm is proposed to assign optimal weight to every local facial region to boost the identification performance. Since forensic sketches or digital face images can be of poor quality, a preprocessing technique is used to enhance the quality of images and improve the identification performance. Comprehensive experimental evaluation on different sketch databases show that the proposed algorithm yields better identification performance compared to existing face recognition algorithms and two commercial face recognition systems.

114 citations


Cites background from "On matching sketches with digital f..."

  • ...Bhatt et al. [13] extended Uniform Local Binary Patterns to incorporate exact difference of gray level intensities to encode texture features in sketches and digital face images....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A multiobjective evolutionary granular algorithm is proposed to match face images before and after plastic surgery and yields high identification accuracy as compared to existing algorithms and a commercial face recognition system.
Abstract: Widespread acceptability and use of biometrics for person authentication has instigated several techniques for evading identification. One such technique is altering facial appearance using surgical procedures that has raised a challenge for face recognition algorithms. Increasing popularity of plastic surgery and its effect on automatic face recognition has attracted attention from the research community. However, the nonlinear variations introduced by plastic surgery remain difficult to be modeled by existing face recognition systems. In this research, a multiobjective evolutionary granular algorithm is proposed to match face images before and after plastic surgery. The algorithm first generates non-disjoint face granules at multiple levels of granularity. The granular information is assimilated using a multiobjective genetic approach that simultaneously optimizes the selection of feature extractor for each face granule along with the weights of individual granules. On the plastic surgery face database, the proposed algorithm yields high identification accuracy as compared to existing algorithms and a commercial face recognition system.

111 citations


Cites methods from "On matching sketches with digital f..."

  • ...Further, two feature extractors, namely Extended Uniform Circular Local Binary Pattern (EUCLBP) [5] and Scale Invariant Feature Transform (SIFT) [6], are used for extracting discriminating information from face granules....

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References
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Book
01 Sep 1988
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present the computer techniques, mathematical tools, and research results that will enable both students and practitioners to apply genetic algorithms to problems in many fields, including computer programming and mathematics.
Abstract: From the Publisher: This book brings together - in an informal and tutorial fashion - the computer techniques, mathematical tools, and research results that will enable both students and practitioners to apply genetic algorithms to problems in many fields Major concepts are illustrated with running examples, and major algorithms are illustrated by Pascal computer programs No prior knowledge of GAs or genetics is assumed, and only a minimum of computer programming and mathematics background is required

52,797 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A generalized gray-scale and rotation invariant operator presentation that allows for detecting the "uniform" patterns for any quantization of the angular space and for any spatial resolution and presents a method for combining multiple operators for multiresolution analysis.
Abstract: Presents a theoretically very simple, yet efficient, multiresolution approach to gray-scale and rotation invariant texture classification based on local binary patterns and nonparametric discrimination of sample and prototype distributions. The method is based on recognizing that certain local binary patterns, termed "uniform," are fundamental properties of local image texture and their occurrence histogram is proven to be a very powerful texture feature. We derive a generalized gray-scale and rotation invariant operator presentation that allows for detecting the "uniform" patterns for any quantization of the angular space and for any spatial resolution and presents a method for combining multiple operators for multiresolution analysis. The proposed approach is very robust in terms of gray-scale variations since the operator is, by definition, invariant against any monotonic transformation of the gray scale. Another advantage is computational simplicity as the operator can be realized with a few operations in a small neighborhood and a lookup table. Experimental results demonstrate that good discrimination can be achieved with the occurrence statistics of simple rotation invariant local binary patterns.

14,245 citations


"On matching sketches with digital f..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(1) and (2): 𝐶𝑁,𝑅(𝑝, 𝑞) = 𝑁−1∑ 𝑖=0 𝑓(𝑛𝑖 − 𝑛𝑐)2𝑖, (1) 𝑓(⋅) = { 1 𝑖𝑓 𝑛𝑖 − 𝑛𝑐 ≥ 0 0 𝑜𝑡ℎ𝑒𝑟𝑤𝑖𝑠𝑒 , (2) where N is the number of neighbors, 𝑛𝑐 corresponds to the gray-level intensity of center pixel of the circle, and 𝑛𝑖 corresponds to the gray-level intensities of 𝑁 evenly spaced pixels on a circle of radius 𝑅. CLBP is extended to Uniform Circular Local Binary Patterns [10] to achieve robustness to rotation variations and dimensionality reduction....

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  • ...Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based descriptor [9], [10] is a widely used texture operator because of its robustness to gray level changes and high computational efficiency....

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  • ...CLBP is extended to Uniform Circular Local Binary Patterns [10] to achieve robustness to rotation variations and dimensionality reduction....

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  • ...The algorithm extracts texture features computed using the proposed Extended Uniform Circular Local Binary Patterns (EUCLBP) at each level of the Laplacian pyramid....

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  • ...An extension of this approach is to have the pixel neighbors well separated on a circle around a central pixel [2] [10]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: This paper evaluates the performance both of some texture measures which have been successfully used in various applications and of some new promising approaches proposed recently.

6,650 citations


"On matching sketches with digital f..." refers background or methods in this paper

  • ...Local Binary Patterns (LBP) based descriptor [9], [10] is a widely used texture operator because of its robustness to gray level changes and high computational efficiency....

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  • ...Basic LBP [9] is a window based feature extractor where the texture descriptor is computed based on the neighborhood....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide an up-to-date critical survey of still-and video-based face recognition research, and provide some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces.
Abstract: As one of the most successful applications of image analysis and understanding, face recognition has recently received significant attention, especially during the past several years. At least two reasons account for this trend: the first is the wide range of commercial and law enforcement applications, and the second is the availability of feasible technologies after 30 years of research. Even though current machine recognition systems have reached a certain level of maturity, their success is limited by the conditions imposed by many real applications. For example, recognition of face images acquired in an outdoor environment with changes in illumination and/or pose remains a largely unsolved problem. In other words, current systems are still far away from the capability of the human perception system.This paper provides an up-to-date critical survey of still- and video-based face recognition research. There are two underlying motivations for us to write this survey paper: the first is to provide an up-to-date review of the existing literature, and the second is to offer some insights into the studies of machine recognition of faces. To provide a comprehensive survey, we not only categorize existing recognition techniques but also present detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category. In addition, relevant topics such as psychophysical studies, system evaluation, and issues of illumination and pose variation are covered.

6,384 citations

01 Oct 2008
TL;DR: The database contains labeled face photographs spanning the range of conditions typically encountered in everyday life, and exhibits “natural” variability in factors such as pose, lighting, race, accessories, occlusions, and background.
Abstract: Most face databases have been created under controlled conditions to facilitate the study of specific parameters on the face recognition problem. These parameters include such variables as position, pose, lighting, background, camera quality, and gender. While there are many applications for face recognition technology in which one can control the parameters of image acquisition, there are also many applications in which the practitioner has little or no control over such parameters. This database, Labeled Faces in the Wild, is provided as an aid in studying the latter, unconstrained, recognition problem. The database contains labeled face photographs spanning the range of conditions typically encountered in everyday life. The database exhibits “natural” variability in factors such as pose, lighting, race, accessories, occlusions, and background. In addition to describing the details of the database, we provide specific experimental paradigms for which the database is suitable. This is done in an effort to make research performed with the database as consistent and comparable as possible. We provide baseline results, including results of a state of the art face recognition system combined with a face alignment system. To facilitate experimentation on the database, we provide several parallel databases, including an aligned version.

5,742 citations


"On matching sketches with digital f..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...In this database, 67 sketch-digital image pairs correspond to images in the FG-NET aging database [1], 92 sketchdigital image pairs are from images present in the Labeled Faces in Wild database (LFW) [4], and 72 sketch-digital image pairs belong to the students and faculty members at IIIT-Delhi....

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  • ...proposed a method to encode the exact difference of gray-level intensities and reported a marked improvement in the performance of texture descriptors [4]....

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