Proceedings Article•

# On the Computation of Multidimensional Aggregates

03 Sep 1996-pp 506-521

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present fast algorithms for computing a collection of group bys, which is equivalent to the union of a number of standard group-by operations, and show how the structure of CUBE computation can be viewed in terms of a hierarchy of groupby operations.

Abstract: At the heart of all OLAP or multidimensional data analysis applications is the ability to simultaneously aggregate across many sets of dimensions. Computing multidimensional aggregates is a performance bottleneck for these applications. This paper presents fast algorithms for computing a collection of group bys. We focus on a special case of the aggregation problem - computation of the CUBE operator. The CUBE operator requires computing group-bys on all possible combinations of a list of attributes, and is equivalent to the union of a number of standard group-by operations. We show how the structure of CUBE computation can be viewed in terms of a hierarchy of group-by operations. Our algorithms extend sort-based and hashbased grouping methods with several .optimizations, like combining common operations across multiple groupbys, caching, and using pre-computed group-by8 for computing other groupbys. Empirical evaluation shows that the resulting algorithms give much better performance compared to straightforward meth

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01 Mar 1997

TL;DR: An overview of data warehousing and OLAP technologies, with an emphasis on their new requirements, is provided, based on a tutorial presented at the VLDB Conference, 1996.

Abstract: Data warehousing and on-line analytical processing (OLAP) are essential elements of decision support, which has increasingly become a focus of the database industry. Many commercial products and services are now available, and all of the principal database management system vendors now have offerings in these areas. Decision support places some rather different requirements on database technology compared to traditional on-line transaction processing applications. This paper provides an overview of data warehousing and OLAP technologies, with an emphasis on their new requirements. We describe back end tools for extracting, cleaning and loading data into a data warehouse; multidimensional data models typical of OLAP; front end client tools for querying and data analysis; server extensions for efficient query processing; and tools for metadata management and for managing the warehouse. In addition to surveying the state of the art, this paper also identifies some promising research issues, some of which are related to problems that the database research community has worked on for years, but others are only just beginning to be addressed. This overview is based on a tutorial that the authors presented at the VLDB Conference, 1996.

2,835 citations

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IBM

^{1}TL;DR: CLIQUE is presented, a clustering algorithm that satisfies each of these requirements of data mining applications including the ability to find clusters embedded in subspaces of high dimensional data, scalability, end-user comprehensibility of the results, non-presumption of any canonical data distribution, and insensitivity to the order of input records.

Abstract: Data mining applications place special requirements on clustering algorithms including: the ability to find clusters embedded in subspaces of high dimensional data, scalability, end-user comprehensibility of the results, non-presumption of any canonical data distribution, and insensitivity to the order of input records. We present CLIQUE, a clustering algorithm that satisfies each of these requirements. CLIQUE identifies dense clusters in subspaces of maximum dimensionality. It generates cluster descriptions in the form of DNF expressions that are minimized for ease of comprehension. It produces identical results irrespective of the order in which input records are presented and does not presume any specific mathematical form for data distribution. Through experiments, we show that CLIQUE efficiently finds accurate cluster in large high dimensional datasets.

2,782 citations

01 Jan 2006

TL;DR: There have been many data mining books published in recent years, including Predictive Data Mining by Weiss and Indurkhya [WI98], Data Mining Solutions: Methods and Tools for Solving Real-World Problems by Westphal and Blaxton [WB98], Mastering Data Mining: The Art and Science of Customer Relationship Management by Berry and Linofi [BL99].

Abstract: The book Knowledge Discovery in Databases, edited by Piatetsky-Shapiro and Frawley [PSF91], is an early collection of research papers on knowledge discovery from data. The book Advances in Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, edited by Fayyad, Piatetsky-Shapiro, Smyth, and Uthurusamy [FPSSe96], is a collection of later research results on knowledge discovery and data mining. There have been many data mining books published in recent years, including Predictive Data Mining by Weiss and Indurkhya [WI98], Data Mining Solutions: Methods and Tools for Solving Real-World Problems by Westphal and Blaxton [WB98], Mastering Data Mining: The Art and Science of Customer Relationship Management by Berry and Linofi [BL99], Building Data Mining Applications for CRM by Berson, Smith, and Thearling [BST99], Data Mining: Practical Machine Learning Tools and Techniques by Witten and Frank [WF05], Principles of Data Mining (Adaptive Computation and Machine Learning) by Hand, Mannila, and Smyth [HMS01], The Elements of Statistical Learning by Hastie, Tibshirani, and Friedman [HTF01], Data Mining: Introductory and Advanced Topics by Dunham, and Data Mining: Multimedia, Soft Computing, and Bioinformatics by Mitra and Acharya [MA03]. There are also books containing collections of papers on particular aspects of knowledge discovery, such as Machine Learning and Data Mining: Methods and Applications edited by Michalski, Brakto, and Kubat [MBK98], and Relational Data Mining edited by Dzeroski and Lavrac [De01], as well as many tutorial notes on data mining in major database, data mining and machine learning conferences.

2,591 citations

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26 Feb 1996TL;DR: The data cube operator as discussed by the authors generalizes the histogram, cross-tabulation, roll-up, drill-down, and sub-total constructs found in most report writers.

Abstract: Data analysis applications typically aggregate data across many dimensions looking for unusual patterns. The SQL aggregate functions and the GROUP BY operator produce zero-dimensional or one-dimensional answers. Applications need the N-dimensional generalization of these operators. The paper defines that operator, called the data cube or simply cube. The cube operator generalizes the histogram, cross-tabulation, roll-up, drill-down, and sub-total constructs found in most report writers. The cube treats each of the N aggregation attributes as a dimension of N-space. The aggregate of a particular set of attribute values is a point in this space. The set of points forms an N-dimensionaI cube. Super-aggregates are computed by aggregating the N-cube to lower dimensional spaces. Aggregation points are represented by an "infinite value": ALL, so the point (ALL,ALL,...,ALL, sum(*)) represents the global sum of all items. Each ALL value actually represents the set of values contributing to that aggregation.

2,308 citations

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TL;DR: The cube operator as discussed by the authors generalizes the histogram, cross-tabulation, roll-up, drill-down, and sub-total constructs found in most report writers, and treats each of the N aggregation attributes as a dimension of N-space.

Abstract: Data analysis applications typically aggregate data across many dimensions looking for anomalies or unusual patterns. The SQL aggregate functions and the GROUP BY operator produce zero-dimensional or one-dimensional aggregates. Applications need the N-dimensional generalization of these operators. This paper defines that operator, called the data cube or simply cube. The cube operator generalizes the histogram, cross-tabulation, roll-up, drill-down, and sub-total constructs found in most report writers. The novelty is that cubes are relations. Consequently, the cube operator can be imbedded in more complex non-procedural data analysis programs. The cube operator treats each of the N aggregation attributes as a dimension of N-space. The aggregate of a particular set of attribute values is a point in this space. The set of points forms an N-dimensional cube. Super-aggregates are computed by aggregating the N-cube to lower dimensional spaces. This paper (1) explains the cube and roll-up operators, (2) shows how they fit in SQL, (3) explains how users can define new aggregate functions for cubes, and (4) discusses efficient techniques to compute the cube. Many of these features are being added to the SQL Standard.

1,870 citations

##### References

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01 Jan 1979

42,654 citations

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01 Jan 1979

TL;DR: The second edition of a quarterly column as discussed by the authors provides a continuing update to the list of problems (NP-complete and harder) presented by M. R. Garey and myself in our book "Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness,” W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1979.

Abstract: This is the second edition of a quarterly column the purpose of which is to provide a continuing update to the list of problems (NP-complete and harder) presented by M. R. Garey and myself in our book ‘‘Computers and Intractability: A Guide to the Theory of NP-Completeness,’’ W. H. Freeman & Co., San Francisco, 1979 (hereinafter referred to as ‘‘[G&J]’’; previous columns will be referred to by their dates). A background equivalent to that provided by [G&J] is assumed. Readers having results they would like mentioned (NP-hardness, PSPACE-hardness, polynomial-time-solvability, etc.), or open problems they would like publicized, should send them to David S. Johnson, Room 2C355, Bell Laboratories, Murray Hill, NJ 07974, including details, or at least sketches, of any new proofs (full papers are preferred). In the case of unpublished results, please state explicitly that you would like the results mentioned in the column. Comments and corrections are also welcome. For more details on the nature of the column and the form of desired submissions, see the December 1981 issue of this journal.

40,020 citations

01 Jan 1950

TL;DR: A First Course in Probability (8th ed.) by S. Ross is a lively text that covers the basic ideas of probability theory including those needed in statistics.

Abstract: Office hours: MWF, immediately after class or early afternoon (time TBA). We will cover the mathematical foundations of probability theory. The basic terminology and concepts of probability theory include: random experiments, sample or outcome spaces (discrete and continuous case), events and their algebra, probability measures, conditional probability A First Course in Probability (8th ed.) by S. Ross. This is a lively text that covers the basic ideas of probability theory including those needed in statistics. Theoretical concepts are introduced via interesting concrete examples. In 394 I will begin my lectures with the basics of probability theory in Chapter 2. However, your first assignment is to review Chapter 1, which treats elementary counting methods. They are used in applications in Chapter 2. I expect to cover Chapters 2-5 plus portions of 6 and 7. You are encouraged to read ahead. In lectures I will not be able to cover every topic and example in Ross, and conversely, I may cover some topics/examples in lectures that are not treated in Ross. You will be responsible for all material in my lectures, assigned reading, and homework, including supplementary handouts if any.

10,221 citations

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TL;DR: This clearly written, mathematically rigorous text includes a novel algorithmic exposition of the simplex method and also discusses the Soviet ellipsoid algorithm for linear programming; efficient algorithms for network flow, matching, spanning trees, and matroids; the theory of NP-complete problems; approximation algorithms, local search heuristics for NPcomplete problems, more.

Abstract: This clearly written , mathematically rigorous text includes a novel algorithmic exposition of the simplex method and also discusses the Soviet ellipsoid algorithm for linear programming; efficient algorithms for network flow, matching, spanning trees, and matroids; the theory of NP-complete problems; approximation algorithms, local search heuristics for NPcomplete problems, more All chapters are supplemented by thoughtprovoking problems A useful work for graduate-level students with backgrounds in computer science, operations research, and electrical engineering Mathematicians wishing a self-contained introduction need look no further—American Mathematical Monthly 1982 ed

7,221 citations