# On the Generation of Waves by Wind

18 Dec 1980-Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A (The Royal Society)-Vol. 298, Iss: 1441, pp 451-494

TL;DR: In this article, a linear stability analysis of the Laminar flow of air over water confined between two infinite parallel plates was made and the conditions at which small amplitude surface waves first begin to grow were determined.

Abstract: The fully developed laminar flow of air over water confined between two infinite parallel plates was used to study nonlinear effects in the generation of surface waves. A linear stability analysis of the basic flow was made and the conditions at which small amplitude surface waves first begin to grow were determined. Then, following Stewartson & Stuart (1971), the nonlinear stability of the flow was examined and the usual parabolic equation with cubic nonlinearity obtained for the amplitude of the disturbances. The calculation of the linear stability characteristics and the coefficients appearing in the amplitude equation was a lengthy computational task, with most interest centred on the coefficient of the nonlinear terms in the amplitude equation. In two profiles, used as crude models of a boundary layer flow of air over water, the calculations indicated that, over a range of parameters, the non-linear effects would reduce the growth rate of the surface waves and hence lead to equilibrium amplitude waves.

##### Citations

More filters

••

TL;DR: In this article, the spectral dissipation of wind-generated waves is modeled as a function of the wave spectrum and wind speed and direction, in a way consistent with observations of wave breaking and swell dissipation properties.

Abstract: New parameterizations for the spectral dissipation of wind-generated waves are proposed. The rates of dissipation have no predetermined spectral shapes and are functions of the wave spectrum and wind speed and direction, in a way consistent with observations of wave breaking and swell dissipation properties. Namely, the swell dissipation is nonlinear and proportional to the swell steepness, and dissipation due to wave breaking is nonzero only when a nondimensional spectrum exceeds the threshold at which waves are observed to start breaking. An additional source of short-wave dissipation is introduced to represent the dissipation of short waves due to longer breaking waves. A reduction of the wind-wave generation of short waves is meant to account for the momentum flux absorbed by longer waves. These parameterizations are combined and calibrated with the discrete interaction approximation for the nonlinear interactions. Parameters are adjusted to reproduce observed shapes of directional wave spect...

709 citations

••

IFREMER

^{1}TL;DR: Ardhuin et al. as discussed by the authors used satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data to estimate the dissipation of swell energy for a number of storms, and interpreted the increase of dissipation rate in dissipation with swell steepness as a laminar to turbulent transition of the boundary layer.

Abstract: Global observations of ocean swell, from satellite Synthetic Aperture Radar data, are used to estimate the dissipation of swell energy for a number of storms. Swells can be very persistent with energy e-folding scales exceeding 20,000 km. For increasing swell steepness this scale shrinks systematically, down to 2800 km for the steepest observed swells, revealing a significant loss of swell energy. This value corresponds to a normalized energy decay in time beta = 4.2 x 10(-6) s(-1). Many processes may be responsible for this dissipation. The increase of dissipation rate in dissipation with swell steepness is interpreted as a laminar to turbulent transition of the boundary layer, with a threshold Reynolds number of the order of 100,000. These observations of swell evolution open the way for more accurate wave forecasting models, and provide a constraint on swell-induced air-sea fluxes of momentum and energy. Citation: Ardhuin, F., B. Chapron, and F. Collard (2009), Observation of swell dissipation across oceans, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36, L06607, doi: 10.1029/2008GL037030.

308 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in one spatial dimension with periodic boundary conditions is studied from the viewpoint of effective low-dimensional behavior by three distinct methods.

Abstract: The complex Ginzburg-Landau equation in one spatial dimension with periodic boundary conditions is studied from the viewpoint of effective low-dimensional behaviour by three distinct methods. Linear stability analysis of a class of exact solutions establishes lower bounds on the dimension of the universal, or global, attractor and the Fourier spanning dimension, defined as the number of Fourier modes required to span the universal attractor. The authors use concepts from the theory of inertial manifolds to determine rigorous upper bounds on the Fourier spanning dimension, which also establishes the finite dimensionality of the universal attractor. Upper bounds on the dimension of the attractor itself are obtained by bounding (or, for some parameter values, computing exactly) the Lyapunov dimension and invoking a recent theorem that asserts that the Lyapunov dimension, defined by the Kaplan-Yorke formula with the universal (global) Lyapunov exponents, is an upper bound on the Hausdorff dimension. This study of low dimensionality in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation allows for an examination of the current techniques used in the rigorous investigation of finite-dimensional behaviour. Contact is made with some recent results for fluid turbulence models, and the authors discuss some unexplored directions in the area of low-dimensional behaviour in the complex Ginzburg-Landau equation.

208 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, the authors describe a global database of these parameters, estimated from a well-validated numerical wave model, that uses traditional forms of the wave generation and dissipation parameterizations, and covers the years 2003-2007.

161 citations

### Cites background from "On the Generation of Waves by Wind"

...However, that spectrum lacks the overshoot of the spectral peak (Darbyshire, 1958) and appears less realistic for the long waves....

[...]

••

TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a classification,scheme for the various instabilities arising in parallel two-phase flow, and the equation governing the rate of change of the linetic energy of the disturbances is evaluated for relevant values of the physical parameters.

152 citations

##### References

More filters

•

01 Jan 1967TL;DR: The dynamique des : fluides Reference Record created on 2005-11-18 is updated on 2016-08-08 and shows improvements in the quality of the data over the past decade.

Abstract: Preface Conventions and notation 1. The physical properties of fluids 2. Kinematics of the flow field 3. Equations governing the motion of a fluid 4. Flow of a uniform incompressible viscous fluid 5. Flow at large Reynolds number: effects of viscosity 6. Irrotational flow theory and its applications 7. Flow of effectively inviscid liquid with vorticity Appendices.

11,187 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, a reference record was created on 2005-11-18, modified on 2016-08-08 and used for the purpose of ondes ; chocs ; onde de : choc reference record.

Abstract: Keywords: ondes ; chocs ; onde de : choc Reference Record created on 2005-11-18, modified on 2016-08-08

4,774 citations

••

TL;DR: In this paper, an approximate solution to the boundary value problem is developed for a logarithmic profile and the corresponding spectral distribution of the energy transfer coefficient calculated as a function of wave speed.

Abstract: A mechanism for the generation of surface waves by a parallel shear flow U(y) is developed on the basis of the inviscid Orr-Sommerfeld equation. It is found that the rate at which energy is transferred to a wave of speed c is proportional to the profile curvature -U"(y) at that elevation where U = c. The result is applied to the generation of deep-water gravity waves by wind. An approximate solution to the boundary value problem is developed for a logarithmic profile and the corresponding spectral distribution of the energy transfer coefficient calculated as a function of wave speed. The minimum wind speed for the initiation of gravity waves against laminar dissipation in water having negligible mean motion is found to be roughly 100cm/sec. A spectral mean value of the sheltering coefficient, as defined by Munk, is found to be in order-of-magnitude agreement with total wave drag measurements of Van Dorn. It is concluded that the model yields results in qualitative agreement with observation, but truly quantitative comparisons would require a more accurate solution of the boundary value problem and more precise data on wind profiles than are presently available. The results also may have application to the flutter of membranes and panels.

1,399 citations

••

TL;DR: In this article, it was shown that the most prominent waves are ripples of wavelength λcr = 1·7 cm, corresponding to the minimum phase velocity c = (4gT/ρ)1/4 and moving in directions cos-1(c/Uc) to that of the mean wind, where Uc is the "convection velocity" of the surface pressure fluctuations of length scale λ cr or approximately the average wind speed at a height λCr above the surface.

Abstract: A theory is initiated for the generation of waves upon a water surface, originally at rest, by a random distribution of normal pressure associated with the onset of a turbulent wind. Corrlations between air and water motions are neglected and the water is assumed to be inviscid, so that the motion of the water, starting from rest, is irrotational. It is found that waves develop most rapidly by means of a resonance mechanism which occurs when a component of the surface pressure distribution moves at the same speed as the free surface wave with the same wave-number.The development of the waves is conveniently considered in two stages, in which the time elapsed is respectively less or greater than the time of development of the pressure fluctuations. An expression is given for the wave spectrum in the initial stage of development (§ 3.2), and it is shown that the most prominent waves are ripples of wavelength λcr = 1·7 cm, corresponding to the minimum phase velocity c = (4gT/ρ)1/4 and moving in directions cos-1(c/Uc) to that of the mean wind, where Uc is the ‘convection velocity’ of the surface pressure fluctuations of length scale λcr or approximately the mean wind speed at a height λcr above the surface. Observations by Roll (1951) have shown the existence under appropriate conditions, of waves qualitatively similar to those predicted by the theory.Most of the growth of gravity waves occurs in the second, or principal stage of development, which continues until the waves grow so high that non-linear effects become important. An expression for the wave spectrum is derived (§ 4.1), from which follows the result where the mean square turbulent pressure on the water surface, t the elapsed time, Uc the convection speed of the surface pressure fluctuations, and ρ the water density. This prediction is consistent with published oceanographic measurements (§ 4.3).It is suggested that this resonance mechanism is more effective than those suggested by Jeffreys (1924, 1925) and Eckart (1953), and may provide the principal means whereby energy is transferred from the wind to the waves.

749 citations