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Journal ArticleDOI

On the glacial-interglacial variability of the Asian monsoon in speleothem δ18O records.

TL;DR: It is found that the records close to the monsoon moisture source show large glacial-interglacial variability, which then decreases landward, the moisture transport pathway effect, which counteracts the forcing of glacial boundary conditions.
Abstract: While Asian monsoon (AM) changes have been clearly captured in Chinese speleothem oxygen isotope (δ18O) records, the lack of glacial-interglacial variability in the records remains puzzling. Here, we report speleothem δ18O records from three locations along the trajectory of the Indian summer monsoon (ISM), a major branch of the AM, and characterize AM rainfall over the past 180,000 years. We have found that the records close to the monsoon moisture source show large glacial-interglacial variability, which then decreases landward. These changes likely reflect a stronger oxygen isotope fractionation associated with progressive rainout of AM moisture during glacial periods, possibly due to a larger temperature gradient and suppressed plant transpiration. We term this effect, which counteracts the forcing of glacial boundary conditions, the moisture transport pathway effect.
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, Wang et al. reconcile the Chinese 100 kyr problem and the sea-land precession phase paradox by comparing the results of different hydroclimatic proxies.
Abstract: The Asian summer monsoon (ASM) is a vast climate system, whose variability is critical to the livelihoods of billions of people across the Asian continent. During the past half-century, much progress has been made in understanding variations on a wide range of timescales, yet several significant issues remain unresolved. Of note are two long-standing problems concerning orbital-scale variations of the ASM. (1) Chinese loess magnetic susceptibility records show a persistent glacial-interglacial dominated ~100 kyr (thousand years) periodicity, while the cave oxygen-isotope (δ18O) records reveal periodicity in an almost pure precession band (~20 kyr periodicity)—the “Chinese 100 kyr problem”. (2) ASM records from the Arabian Sea and other oceans surrounding the Asian continent show a significant lag of 8–10 kyr to Northern Hemisphere summer insolation (NHSI), whereas the Asian cave δ18O records follow NHSI without a significant lag—a discrepancy termed the “sea-land precession-phase paradox”. How can we reconcile these differences? Recent and more refined model simulations now provide spatial patterns of rainfall and wind across the precession cycle, revealing distinct regional divergences in the ASM domain, which can well explain a large portion of the disparities between the loess, marine, and cave proxy records. Overall, we also find that the loess, marine, and cave records are indeed complementary rather than incompatible, with each record preferentially describing a certain aspect of ASM dynamics. Our study provides new insight into the understanding of different hydroclimatic proxies and largely reconciles the “Chinese 100 kyr problem“ and “sea-land precession-phase paradox”.

50 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present new pollen data and mean annual temperature reconstruction from the annually laminated sediments of Lake Suigetsu, Japan, which is an integral component of the IntCal20 radiocarbon calibration model, in which the absolute age scale is established to the highest standard.

18 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
01 Feb 2021-Catena
TL;DR: In this paper, the authors presented a high-resolution EASM precipitation record reconstructed from the loess redness in North China over the past 720 kyr, showing that the average precipitation for interglacials is 420mm/yr, higher than present (~280 mm/yr).
Abstract: The periodicity and forcing mechanism of the past East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) precipitation are the natural background for predicting future precipitation changes, but they are controversial and intensely debated. Here, we present a high-resolution EASM precipitation record reconstructed from the loess redness in North China over the past 720 kyr. The average precipitation for interglacials is 420 mm/yr, higher than present (~280 mm/yr). Combing through our EASM records and previously published data exhibits a dominated periodicity of 100 kyr on the orbital timescale, and thus supports the hypothesis of high-latitude climate forcing. More importantly, we found the precession cycle appears only after the Mid-Brunhes Transition (MBT, ~430 ka) in the EASM records and it follows the global ice volume prior to the MBT in the interglacials interiors. We argue that during the post-MBT interglacials, abruptly appearing Arctic perennial sea ice resulted southward shift of the Northern Hemisphere Westerlies jet, thereby decreasing the EASM precipitation in North China. This suggests that the precession rhythm in the EASM possibly is a result of Arctic perennial sea ice or Northern Hemisphere ice sheets changes. In the warm Marine Isotope Stages (MIS) 5e and 11e, the strongest EASM precipitation may be related to the strengthening of the moisture transport from the warming tropical ocean. Therefore, the variation of the mid-latitude EASM precipitation intensity during the interglacial interiors is the integrated effect between the North Hemisphere high latitude ice volume and low latitude climate changes.

15 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors quantitatively deconvolve these parameters affecting δ18OCc by applying three geochemical techniques in speleothems covering the penultimate glacial termination, and reveal that the different modes of the AMOC produced distinct impacts on the monsoon system.
Abstract: During glacial terminations, massive iceberg discharges and meltwater pulses in the North Atlantic triggered a shutdown of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation (AMOC). Speleothem calcium carbonate oxygen isotope records (δ18OCc) indicate that the collapse of the AMOC caused dramatic changes in the distribution and variability of the East Asian and Indian monsoon rainfall. However, the mechanisms linking changes in the intensity of the AMOC and Asian monsoon δ18OCc are not fully understood. Part of the challenge arises from the fact that speleothem δ18OCc depends on not only the δ18O of precipitation but also temperature and kinetic isotope effects. Here we quantitatively deconvolve these parameters affecting δ18OCc by applying three geochemical techniques in speleothems covering the penultimate glacial termination. Our data suggest that the weakening of the AMOC during meltwater pulse 2A caused substantial cooling in East Asia and a shortening of the summer monsoon season, whereas the collapse of the AMOC during meltwater pulse 2B (133,000 years ago) also caused a dramatic decrease in the intensity of the Indian summer monsoon. These results reveal that the different modes of the AMOC produced distinct impacts on the monsoon system. The influence of meltwater pulse events on Asian monsoon systems varied in line with the degree of AMOC weakening, according to a multi-proxy analysis of speleothems from China covering the penultimate glacial termination.

11 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The NCEP/NCAR 40-yr reanalysis uses a frozen state-of-the-art global data assimilation system and a database as complete as possible, except that the horizontal resolution is T62 (about 210 km) as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The NCEP and NCAR are cooperating in a project (denoted “reanalysis”) to produce a 40-year record of global analyses of atmospheric fields in support of the needs of the research and climate monitoring communities. This effort involves the recovery of land surface, ship, rawinsonde, pibal, aircraft, satellite, and other data; quality controlling and assimilating these data with a data assimilation system that is kept unchanged over the reanalysis period 1957–96. This eliminates perceived climate jumps associated with changes in the data assimilation system. The NCEP/NCAR 40-yr reanalysis uses a frozen state-of-the-art global data assimilation system and a database as complete as possible. The data assimilation and the model used are identical to the global system implemented operationally at the NCEP on 11 January 1995, except that the horizontal resolution is T62 (about 210 km). The database has been enhanced with many sources of observations not available in real time for operations, provided b...

28,145 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this paper, a 53-Myr stack (LR04) of benthic δ18O records from 57 globally distributed sites aligned by an automated graphic correlation algorithm is presented.
Abstract: [1] We present a 53-Myr stack (the “LR04” stack) of benthic δ18O records from 57 globally distributed sites aligned by an automated graphic correlation algorithm This is the first benthic δ18O stack composed of more than three records to extend beyond 850 ka, and we use its improved signal quality to identify 24 new marine isotope stages in the early Pliocene We also present a new LR04 age model for the Pliocene-Pleistocene derived from tuning the δ18O stack to a simple ice model based on 21 June insolation at 65°N Stacked sedimentation rates provide additional age model constraints to prevent overtuning Despite a conservative tuning strategy, the LR04 benthic stack exhibits significant coherency with insolation in the obliquity band throughout the entire 53 Myr and in the precession band for more than half of the record The LR04 stack contains significantly more variance in benthic δ18O than previously published stacks of the late Pleistocene as the result of higher-resolution records, a better alignment technique, and a greater percentage of records from the Atlantic Finally, the relative phases of the stack's 41- and 23-kyr components suggest that the precession component of δ18O from 27–16 Ma is primarily a deep-water temperature signal and that the phase of δ18O precession response changed suddenly at 16 Ma

6,186 citations


"On the glacial-interglacial variabi..." refers background in this paper

  • ...(1000 +  18 O pi ) / (1000 +  18 O vi ) = (liquid‐vapor) (8)...

    [...]

  • ...However, variation in other major paleoclimate records, such as atmospheric CO2 concentration (blue) (6) and Antarctica surface temperature anomaly (red) (7) retrieved from European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core, benthic foraminifera 18O LR04 stack (purple) (8), and global sea surface temperature (SST) stack (orange) (9), are dominated by the ~100-kyr glacialinterglacial cycle....

    [...]

  • ...(G) Benthic foraminifera 18O LR04 stack (8)....

    [...]

01 Jan 2013
TL;DR: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial-interglacial cycles.
Abstract: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial–interglacial cycles. The succession of changes through each climate cycle and termination was similar, and atmospheric and climate properties oscillated between stable bounds. Interglacial periods differed in temporal evolution and duration. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years.

5,469 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
03 Jun 1999-Nature
TL;DR: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial-interglacial cycles as discussed by the authors.
Abstract: The recent completion of drilling at Vostok station in East Antarctica has allowed the extension of the ice record of atmospheric composition and climate to the past four glacial–interglacial cycles. The succession of changes through each climate cycle and termination was similar, and atmospheric and climate properties oscillated between stable bounds. Interglacial periods differed in temporal evolution and duration. Atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and methane correlate well with Antarctic air-temperature throughout the record. Present-day atmospheric burdens of these two important greenhouse gases seem to have been unprecedented during the past 420,000 years.

5,109 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
14 Dec 2001-Science
TL;DR: The record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates and generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2).
Abstract: Oxygen isotope records of five stalagmites from Hulu Cave near Nanjing bear a remarkable resemblance to oxygen isotope records from Greenland ice cores, suggesting that East Asian Monsoon intensity changed in concert with Greenland temperature between 11,000 and 75,000 years before the present (yr. B.P.). Between 11,000 and 30,000 yr. B.P., the timing of changes in the monsoon, as established with 230Th dates, generally agrees with the timing of temperature changes from the Greenland Ice Sheet Project Two (GISP2) core, which supports GISP2's chronology in this interval. Our record links North Atlantic climate with the meridional transport of heat and moisture from the warmest part of the ocean where the summer East Asian Monsoon originates.

2,759 citations