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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2021.02.032

On the influence of second use, future battery technologies, and battery lifetime on the maximum recycled content of future electric vehicle batteries in Europe.

02 Mar 2021-Waste Management (Pergamon)-Vol. 125, pp 1-9
Abstract: The European Union is promoting the uptake of low emission vehicles to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from transportation. However, this transition will increase the demand for five important battery raw materials; i.e. lithium, nickel, cobalt, copper, and graphite. Therefore, a substance flow analysis and forecasting model are proposed to investigate the flow of these materials through the different lifecycle stages of electric vehicle batteries. The model forecasts that by 2040, the vehicle stock will be from 72 to 78 million vehicles, while the second use stock will be from 3 to 11 million batteries. In addition, the annual recycling waste stream in 2040 will grow to roughly 3 million batteries with a capacity of 125 GWh. Results indicate that this waste stream could cover between 10% and 300% of future raw materials demand for electric vehicles. The width of this range is dominated by uncertainties on the rapidly evolving material composition of automotive batteries and the possible commercialization of cobalt-free battery technologies. The remaining uncertainty is attributed to the battery lifetime in vehicle use and potential second use of retired batteries.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (63%), Electric vehicle (60%), Low emission vehicle (56%) ... read more
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5 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14133838
25 Jun 2021-Energies
Abstract: The main purpose of this article was to determine the impact on the equilibrium of the local transport system from privileging EVs by permitting them to use bus lanes. The study used two sets of data: information on infrastructure and traffic management; and information on the recorded road network loads and traffic volumes generated by a given shopping centre—the E. Leclerc shopping centre (an important traffic generator within the city of Łodź, Poland). These sets were then used to develop a microsimulation traffic model for the shopping centre and the associated effects on the localised transport system. The model was constructed by means of the PTV Vissim software tool. An initial simulation was conducted that formed a basis for subsequent scenarios (in total, 17 simulations were performed). On the basis of the conducted analyses, it was established that—for the researched part of the transport system—privileging the still rather uncommon battery electric vehicles (BEVs) engendered a marginal deterioration of traffic conditions. At the same time, allowing BEVs to use bus lanes within the chosen research area had no negative impact on bus journey times.

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Topics: Traffic generation model (60%), Microsimulation (60%), Sustainable transport (55%) ... read more

2 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.EGYR.2021.04.025
Zhang Xuehui, Wang Xing1, Wen Li1, Zhu Yangli1  +2 moreInstitutions (1)
01 Nov 2021-Energy Reports
Abstract: In the past decade, compressed air vehicles have attracted much attention because of their zero pollution, high efficiency, environmental friendliness and relative maturity. To further explore the potential of compressed air technology in vehicles, three-stage and four-stage compressed air engine systems are optimized in present study by analyzing the energy and exergy distribution from a technological viewpoint. Their characteristics are compared in terms of shaft work, coolth, overall efficiency, and exergy distribution. Stage expansion ratios differ under maximum work output. The shaft work and coolth of both systems are increased with the increase of working pressure, turbine inlet temperature, or stage efficiency. Three-stage compressed air engine systems have a lower work output and coolth than four-stage compressed air engine systems at given operation condition. The overall efficiencies of these two systems are comparable to those of conventional diesel engines and fuel cell vehicles. Exergy losses of the two systems are composed by the exergy loss in the turbines, heat exchangers, and exits. The analyses suggest that increasing the number of stages, improving stage efficiency, and utilizing coolth to reduce the exergy loss in heat exchangers are effective ways to decrease the total exergy loss and improve the work output and overall efficiency of the compressed air engine systems.

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Topics: Compressed air (64%), Exergy (61%), Pneumatic motor (57%) ... read more

Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.WASMAN.2021.07.016
Yasunori Kikuchi1, Izuru Suwa1, Aya Heiho1, Yi Dou1  +6 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Aug 2021-Waste Management
Abstract: This series of papers addresses the recycling of cathode particles and aluminum (Al) foil from positive electrode sheet (PE sheet) dismantled from spent lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) by applying a high-voltage pulsed discharge. As concluded in Part I of the series ( Tokoro et al., 2021 ), cathode particles and Al foil were separated in water based on a single pulsed power application. This separation of LIB components by pulsed discharge was examined by means of prospective life cycle assessment and is expected to have applications in LIB reuse and recycling. The indicators selected were life cycle greenhouse gas (LC-GHG) emissions and life cycle resource consumption potential (LC-RCP). We first completed supplementary experiments to collect redundant data under several scale-up circumstances, and then attempted to quantify the uncertainties from scaling up and progress made in battery technology. When the batch scale of pulsed discharge separation is sufficiently large, the recovery of cathode particles and Al foil from PE sheet by pulsed discharge can reduce both LC-GHG and LC-RCP, in contrast to conventional recycling with roasting processes. Due to technology developments in LIB cathodes, the reuse of positive electrode active materials (PEAM) does not always have lower environmental impacts than the recycling of the raw materials of PEAM in the manufacturing of new LIB cathodes. This study achieved a proof of concept for resource consumption reduction induced by cathode utilization, considering LC-GHG and LC-RCP, by applying high-voltage pulsed discharge separation.

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Topics: Cathode (53%), Pulsed power (52%), Battery (electricity) (52%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RESCONREC.2021.106076
Ka Ho Chan1, Monu Malik1, Gisele Azimi1Institutions (1)
Abstract: With the expansion of lithium-ion battery market and the awareness of environmental protection, the development of green and sustainable technologies to recycle waste lithium-ion batteries has become urgent. Electrodialysis is an emerging green process to recover valuable metals from postconsumer lithium-ion batteries. This study focuses on the separation and recovery of lithium, nickel, manganese, and cobalt from LiNi0.33Mn0.33Co0.33O2 chemistry of lithium-ion batteries using electrodialysis. Prior to the electrodialysis experiment, complexation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with four different metals is assessed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy. Using the developed three-stage electrodialysis process, 99.3% of nickel is separated in stage 1 and 87.3% of cobalt is then separated in stage 2 using electrodialysis coupled with EDTA. About 99% of lithium is sequentially separated from manganese in stage 3 using electrodialysis with a monovalent cation-exchange membrane. After the electrodialysis experiment, nickel and cobalt are decomplexed from EDTA at pH below 0.5 and all four metals are recovered with high purity of >99%. Electrodialysis offers a new route to recycle lithium-ion batteries with twofold benefits of providing a secondary source for strategic materials and reducing the number of lithium-ion batteries that are landfilled after they reach their end of life.

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Topics: Electrodialysis (73%)

Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CEJ.2021.133528
Yanbo Liu1, Yining Zou1, Manying Guo1, Zhenxin Hui1  +1 moreInstitutions (1)
Abstract: Aqueous zinc ion batteries (ZIBs) have attracted extensive attention because of its high cost-performance and high safety. This study reports a structural engineering method that embeds Mn ions as pillars into the VO2 layered structure, and improves the morphology through polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) to increase the specific surface area, thereby obtaining MnVO2-PVP. Increasing the number of electrochemically active sites allows it to have faster ion diffusion kinetics and better long-term cycle stability. The synthesized MnVO2-PVP with nanoprism and nanosheet composite structure shows a remarkable capacity of 470.2 mAh g-1 at 0.5 A g-1, and also has excellent cycle stability at 5000 times at 10 A g-1. The capacity after cycling is 176.5 mAh g-1, with high energy density (179 W h kg-1) and power density (7000 W kg-1). The synthesis method and marvelous performance of MnVO2-PVP can lay a foundation for the improvement of the synthesis method of ZIBs cathode materials in the future.

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Topics: Nanosheet (53%)
References
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29 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.MATTOD.2014.10.040
Naoki Nitta1, Feixiang Wu1, Feixiang Wu2, Jung Tae Lee1  +1 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Jun 2015-Materials Today
Abstract: This review covers key technological developments and scientific challenges for a broad range of Li-ion battery electrodes. Periodic table and potential/capacity plots are used to compare many families of suitable materials. Performance characteristics, current limitations, and recent breakthroughs in the development of commercial intercalation materials such as lithium cobalt oxide (LCO), lithium nickel cobalt manganese oxide (NCM), lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide (NCA), lithium iron phosphate (LFP), lithium titanium oxide (LTO) and others are contrasted with that of conversion materials, such as alloying anodes (Si, Ge, Sn, etc.), chalcogenides (S, Se, Te), and metal halides (F, Cl, Br, I). New polyanion cathode materials are also discussed. The cost, abundance, safety, Li and electron transport, volumetric expansion, material dissolution, and surface reactions for each type of electrode materials are described. Both general and specific strategies to overcome the current challenges are covered and categorized.

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3,696 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.CPC.2009.09.018
Abstract: Variance based methods have assessed themselves as versatile and effective among the various available techniques for sensitivity analysis of model output. Practitioners can in principle describe the sensitivity pattern of a model Y = f ( X 1 , X 2 , … , X k ) with k uncertain input factors via a full decomposition of the variance V of Y into terms depending on the factors and their interactions. More often practitioners are satisfied with computing just k first order effects and k total effects, the latter describing synthetically interactions among input factors. In sensitivity analysis a key concern is the computational cost of the analysis, defined in terms of number of evaluations of f ( X 1 , X 2 , … , X k ) needed to complete the analysis, as f ( X 1 , X 2 , … , X k ) is often in the form of a numerical model which may take long processing time. While the computational cost is relatively cheap and weakly dependent on k for estimating first order effects, it remains expensive and strictly k-dependent for total effect indices. In the present note we compare existing and new practices for this index and offer recommendations on which to use.

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Topics: Variance-based sensitivity analysis (63%), Morris method (56%), Elementary effects method (55%) ... read more

1,763 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2013.05.040
Abstract: Lithium-ion batteries have become the focus of research interest, thanks to their numerous benefits for vehicle applications. One main limitation of these technologies resides in the battery ageing. The effects of battery ageing limit its performance and occur throughout their whole life, whether the battery is used or not, which is a major drawback on real usage. Furthermore, degradations take place in every condition, but in different proportions as usage and external conditions interact to provoke degradations. The ageing phenomena are highly complicated to characterize due to the factors cross-dependence. This paper reviews various aspects of recent research and developments, from different fields, on lithium-ion battery ageing mechanisms and estimations. In this paper is presented a summary of techniques, models and algorithms used for battery ageing estimation (SOH, RUL), going from a detailed electrochemical approach to statistical methods based on data. In order to present the accuracy of currently used methods, their respective characteristics are discussed. Remaining challenges are deeply detailed, along with a discussion about the ideal method resulting from existing methods.

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (56%)

938 Citations


Open accessDataset
01 Jan 2018-
Abstract: the following topics are currently covered by the mineral commodity summaries domestic production and uses u s salient statistics recycling import sources tariff depletion allowance government stockpile events trends and issues world production reserves and reserve base world resources and substitutes

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Topics: Commodity (Marxism) (51%), Tariff (50%)

793 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOULE.2017.08.019
Elsa Olivetti1, Gerbrand Ceder2, Gerbrand Ceder3, Gabrielle Gaustad4  +1 moreInstitutions (4)
11 Oct 2017-Joule
Abstract: Summary Sustained growth in lithium-ion battery (LIB) demand within the transportation sector (and the electricity sector) motivates detailed investigations of whether future raw materials supply will reconcile with resulting material requirements for these batteries. We track the metal content associated with compounds used in LIBs. We find that most of the key constituents, including manganese, nickel, and natural graphite, have sufficient supply to meet the anticipated increase in demand for LIBs. There may be challenges in rapidly scaling the use of materials associated with lithium and cobalt in the short term. Due to long battery lifetimes and multiple end uses, recycling is unlikely to provide significant short-term supply. There are risks associated with the geopolitical concentrations of these elements, particularly for cobalt. The lessons revealed in this work can be relevant to other industries in which the rapid growth of a materials-dependent technology disrupts the global supply of those materials.

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508 Citations