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Journal ArticleDOI

ONE FAMILY'S FRONTIER: LIFE HISTORY and THE PROCESS OF UKRAINIAN SETTLEMENT IN THE STUARTBURN DISTRICT OF SOUTHEASTERN MANITOBA

01 Jun 1996-Canadian Geographer (Blackwell Publishing Ltd)-Vol. 40, Iss: 2, pp 98-108
TL;DR: In this article, the life history of the Mihaychuk family, who emigrated to Canada from Bukovyna, Austria, in 1900, and who eventually settled at Arbakka in the Ukrainian bloc settlement of Stuartburn in southeastern Manitoba, is used as an illustration.
Abstract: Conventional approaches to the study of historical geography tend to use aggregate data to create discrete patterns and to formulate generalized explanations of the tumultuous process of frontier settlement and community formation. Life history, through the study of the actions of an individual or a family unit, can provide new insights into the decision-making process and the social tensions that accompanied pioneer settlement and community development on the frontier. The life history of the Mihaychuk family, who emigrated to Canada from Bukovyna, Austria, in 1900, and who eventually settled at Arbakka in the Ukrainian bloc settlement of Stuartburn in southeastern Manitoba, is used as an illustration. The process of chain migration and the economic outlook of the peasant settler is demonstrated. The capricious role of kinship linkages in settlement decision making is clarified and the fluidity of the frontier illustrated. The emerging social and economic mobility of the Canadian-born or Canadianized generation was shown by their dissatisfaction with the opportunities that their parents had sought. Remigration to new areas of frontier settlement was common, as was entry into school teaching as a springboard into the mainstream of Canadian life beyond the Ukrainian community of Stuartburn. Les demarches conventionnelles a l'etude de la geographic historique ont tendance a utiliser les donnees collectives pour creer des modeles distincts, et a formuler des explications generalisees du processus tumultueux de l' eAablissement a la frontiere et ensuite du developpement des communautes. A travers l'etude des actions d' un individu ou d' une famille, l' histoire de la vie peut parvenir a comprendre la maniere de prendre des decisions, ainsi que les tensions sociales qui caracterisaient les etablisse-ments et les communautes des pionniers a la frontiere. l' histoire de la vie de la famille « Mihaychuk » sert d'exemple. Les membres ont emigre au Canada du Bukovyna en Autriche en 1900 et ils se sont installers a Arbakka dans le hameau ukrainien de Stuartburn dans le sud-est de Manitoba. On decrit la procede de la migration en chaine et les previsions economiques des pionniers paysans. L ‘influence capricieuse des liens de parente aux decisions de la communaute se voit clairement; la variabilite des limites de la frontiere est aussi depeinte. La mobilite sociale et economique qui se developpait chez la population natale ou « canadienisee » se manifestait par le mecontentement avec les projets que leurs parents ont poursuivis. La reinstallation des families aux nouvelles regions etait commune, de meme que l'emploi dans le domaine de l' enseignement –ce qui servait de tremplin afin d' entrer au courant principal de la vie canadienne audela de la communaute ukrainienne de Stuartburn
Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The role of time, environmental change, and culture in three areas that are geographically widely separated, but retain certain cultural commonalities in radically different physical and political environments is discussed in this paper.
Abstract: Between 1891 and 1914 thousands of Ukrainian peasants left their ancestral homeland in Western Ukraine to seek land on the agricultural frontiers of Western Canada and southern Brazil. Often these emigrants who left for radically different frontiers originated from the same districts and villages; some even came from the same families. The new landscapes created in Canada and Brazil by these Ukrainian pioneers reflected environmental differences between the Old World and the New. The Ukrainian landscape in Brazil showed the most immediate response to environmental change, but the isolation of the Brazilian communities meant that evidence of traditional folkways and aspects of material culture survived far longer in Ukrainian Brazilian areas than in Ukrainian Canadian communities. At the same time as these landscapes in the Ukrainian diaspora were evolving, the landscapes of the hearth area were also experiencing change. This paper is thus an attempt to consider the role of time, environmental change, and culture in three areas that are geographically widely separated, but retain certain cultural commonalities in radically different physical and political environments. Resume: De 1891 a 1914 des milliers de paysans ukrainiens ont quitte leur patrie ancestrale en Ukraine de l’Ouest pour des terres aux frontieres agricoles de l’Ouest canadien et du Bresil du sud. Ces emigrants qui partaient pour des contrees radicalement dissemblables, provenaient souvent des memes districts et villages, si ce n’est des memes familles. La maniere dont ces pionniers ukrainiens ont reamenage ces territoires, refletait les differences environnementales du vieux et du nouveau monde. Au Bresil, ils se sont immediatement adaptes au changement geographique, mais l’isolement de leurs communautes a permis aux formes de vie traditionnelles populaires et aux caracteres culturels architecturaux de leurs villages de survivre beaucoup plus longtemps que chez les Canadiens ukrainiens. Parallelement aux transformations des paysages de la diaspora ukrainienne, d’autres mutations se faisaient aussi dans son foyer ancestral. Cet article tente donc de considerer le role du temps, du changement environnemental et de la culture dans les trois regions qui retiennent certains points culturels communs malgre leur grand eloignement geographique aux unes et aux autres et des terrains physiques et politiques radicalement differents.

7 citations


Cites background from "ONE FAMILY'S FRONTIER: LIFE HISTORY..."

  • ...Indeed the greatest obstacle was mosquitoes which, although they nearly drove the settlers to distraction, did not carry malaria or other debilitating diseases (Lehr 1996)....

    [...]

01 Jan 2008
TL;DR: The authors showed a close correlation between school formation and land alienation in 35 townships in southeastern Manitoba and all rural schools in Manitoba were then plotted by year from 1871 to 1959 using GIS software.
Abstract: Most attempts to map the frontier of agricultural settlement in western Canada have used land alienation data or population density calculated from census returns. Both methods are fraught with difficul - ties. Population density data are only available at five-year intervals at the 36-square-mile township level. Land alienation does not always reflect settlement. In Manitoba, entire townships were alienated years before they were occupied. The organization and building of schools is a better indicator of actual settlement and the emergence of community-based institutions. To test this hypothesis, school formation and land alienation in 35 townships in southeastern Manitoba were plotted. This showed a close correlation between school formation and land alienation. All rural schools in Manitoba were then plotted by year from 1871 to 1959 using GIS software. Interpretation of this mapped data supports the contention that the formation of rural school districts is an ef- fective and easily employed indicator of the limits of frontier settlement. These mapped data suggest that the idea of a well-defined frontier line of settlement is not the best analogy to describe the progress of agricultural settlement in Manitoba.

6 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
06 Jul 2016
TL;DR: A review of Lehr's works on Ukrainian cultural landscape in North and South America as well as stages of stages of his scientific biography is presented in this article, which is devoted to the Canadian researcher John Lehr.
Abstract: The article is devoted to the Canadian researcher John Lehr. It presents a review of his works on Ukrainian cultural landscape in North and South America as well as consideration of stages of his scientific biography.

3 citations

References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The geography and internal structure of Ukrainian block settlements in western Canada illustrate the strength of social ties transferred from the homeland as mentioned in this paper, where settlements were structured according to kinship, village, district, provincial, and national loyalties.
Abstract: The geography and internal structure of Ukrainian block settlements in western Canada illustrate the strength of social ties transferred from the homeland. Settlements were structured according to kinship, village, district, provincial, and national loyalties. In this respect the internal geography of Ukrainian block settlements in Canada replicated that of the western Ukraine in microcosm. Although Settlement within a familiar social- cultural milieu offered many advantages for the immigrant, the ultimate result was not always beneficial, since a determination to pursue social advantage in settlement led to the occupation of much agriculturally marginal land. La geographie et la structure interne des implantations en masse des Ukrainiens dans l' ouest du Canada montrent la force des liens sociaux transmis du pays ? origine. Ces implantations furent structurees en fonction d'affinityes provenant de liens soit de parente ou de loyaute qui existaient a des niveaux diffgrents, tel que dans le village, ou dans le quartier, au meme en province ou dans des coins lointains du pays. A cet egard, la geographie interne de ce type d'implantation au Canada fut la replique en microcosme de celle de l' ouest de l' Ukraine. Bien que l' implantation au sein d'un milieu socio-culturel connu ait offert beaucoup d'avantages a l' immigrant, le resultat final n'a pas toujours etea son avantage, surtout lorsque la determination de maintenir ces liens sociaux mena a l' occupation de nombreuses terres qui etaient faibles en rendements agricoles.

14 citations

Book ChapterDOI
31 Dec 1991

10 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors present a case study of an Italian-Canadian family living in an industrial city in Canada and discuss how the case informs on ethnic identity and identity retention, and what the life history approach means for the practice of research.
Abstract: The paper reviews the nature and uses of life history as method, grounding it in both philosophy and theory- that is, neo-pragmatism and symbolic interactionism, respectively. It goes on to review the practical issues of doing life histories before presenting a case study of an Italian-Canadian family in an industrial city. The paper concludes with two commentaries: the first on how the case informs on ethnic identity and identity retention, the second on what the life history approach means for the practice of research. Cet article examine la nature et les emplois du vecu humain en tant que systeme, systeme dont la source est dans la phitosophie et la theorie - c'est-a-dire, respectivement, dans le neo-pragmatisme et ľon;interactionisme symbolique. II examine ensuite les resultats pratiques obtenus par ľon;analyse de vecus humains, avant de presenter ľon;etude du cas ?on;une famille italo-canadienne dans une ville industrielle. Le document conclut par deux commentaires: le premier, sur la facon dont le cas nous renseigne sur ľon;identite ethnique; le second, sur ľon;apport a la pratique la recherche de cette approche basee sur le vecu humain.

10 citations