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Journal ArticleDOI

Online Drinking Water Quality Monitoring: Review on Available and Emerging Technologies

TL;DR: In this paper, the authors provide a thorough review of the advances in sensor technology for measurement of common water quality parameters (pH, turbidity, free chlorine, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) in drinking water distribution systems.
Abstract: Online drinking water quality monitoring technologies have made significant progress for source water surveillance and water treatment plant operation. The use of these technologies in the distribution system has not been favorable due to the high costs associated with installation, maintenance, and calibration of a large distributed array of monitoring sensors. This has led to a search for newer technologies that can be economically deployed on a large scale. This paper includes a brief description of important parameters for drinking water and current available technologies used in the field. The paper also provides a thorough review of the advances in sensor technology for measurement of common water quality parameters (pH, turbidity, free chlorine, dissolved oxygen, and conductivity) in drinking water distribution systems.
Citations
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01 Jan 2016
TL;DR: The fundamentals of analytical chemistry is universally compatible with any devices to read and is available in the authors' digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly.
Abstract: Thank you very much for downloading fundamentals of analytical chemistry. As you may know, people have look numerous times for their favorite books like this fundamentals of analytical chemistry, but end up in malicious downloads. Rather than enjoying a good book with a cup of tea in the afternoon, instead they cope with some harmful virus inside their computer. fundamentals of analytical chemistry is available in our digital library an online access to it is set as public so you can get it instantly. Our digital library hosts in multiple countries, allowing you to get the most less latency time to download any of our books like this one. Kindly say, the fundamentals of analytical chemistry is universally compatible with any devices to read.

292 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A power efficient, simpler solution for in-pipe water quality monitoring based on Internet of Things technology is presented, which provides an alert to a remote user, when there is a deviation of water quality parameters from the pre-defined set of standard values.
Abstract: Smart solutions for water quality monitoring are gaining importance with advancement in communication technology. This paper presents a detailed overview of recent works carried out in the field of smart water quality monitoring. Also, a power efficient, simpler solution for in-pipe water quality monitoring based on Internet of Things technology is presented. The model developed is used for testing water samples and the data uploaded over the Internet are analyzed. The system also provides an alert to a remote user, when there is a deviation of water quality parameters from the pre-defined set of standard values.

197 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss different physical configurations of microfabricated sensors, including potentiometric electrodes, ion-sensitive field-effect transistors, and chemo-resistors/transistors for electrochemical pH sensing.
Abstract: Continuous, real-time monitoring of the level of pH and free chlorine in drinking water is of great importance to public health. However, it is challenging when conventional analytical instruments, such as bulky pH electrodes and expensive free chlorine meters, are used. These instruments have slow response, are difficult to use, prone to interference from operators, and require frequent maintenance. In contrast, microfabricated electrochemical sensors are cheaper, smaller in size, and highly sensitive. Therefore, these sensors are desirable for online monitoring of pH and free chlorine in water. In this review, we discuss different physical configurations of microfabricated sensors. These configurations include potentiometric electrodes, ion-sensitive field-effect transistors, and chemo-resistors/transistors for electrochemical pH sensing. Also, we identified that micro-amperometric sensors are the dominant ones used for free chlorine sensing. We summarized and compared the structure, operation/sensing mechanism, applicable materials, and performance parameters in terms of sensitivity, sensing range, response time and stability of each type of sensor. We observed that novel sensor structures fabricated by solution processing and operated by smart sensing methodologies may be used for developing pH and free chlorine sensors with high performance and low cost. Finally, we highlighted the importance of the concurrent design of materials, fabrication processes, and electronics for future sensors.

134 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
19 Mar 2015
TL;DR: A low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things) that consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of theWater.
Abstract: In order to ensure the safe supply of the drinking water the quality needs to be monitor in real time. In this paper we present a design and development of a low cost system for real time monitoring of the water quality in IOT(internet of things). The system consist of several sensors is used to measuring physical and chemical parameters of the water. The parameters such as temperature, PH, turbidity, conductivity, dissolved oxygen of the water can be measured. The measured values from the sensors can be processed by the core controller. The raspberry PI B+ model can be used as a core controller. Finally, the sensor data can be viewed on internet using cloud computing.

116 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors discuss chemical, physical and electrochemical properties of pH-sensitive polymers and organic materials and their sensing mechanisms for healthcare applications and propose that miniaturized sensors can provide enhanced functionality of the sensing materials in constrained spaces.

99 citations

References
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Book
01 Jan 1992
TL;DR: The most widely read reference in the water industry, Water Industry Reference as discussed by the authors, is a comprehensive reference tool for water analysis methods that covers all aspects of USEPA-approved water analysis.
Abstract: Set your standards with these standard methods. This is it: the most widely read publication in the water industry, your all-inclusive reference tool. This comprehensive reference covers all aspects of USEPA-approved water analysis methods. More than 400 methods - all detailed step-by-step; 8 vibrant, full-color pages of aquatic algae illustrations; Never-before-seen figures that will help users with toxicity testing and the identification of apparatus used in the methods; Over 300 superbly illustrated figures; A new analytical tool for a number of inorganic nonmetals; Improved coverage of data evaluation, sample preservation, and reagant water; And much more!

78,324 citations

Journal Article
TL;DR: In soil, fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen and wastes containing organic nitrogen are first decomposed to give ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate, which are taken up by plants and used in the synthesis of organic nitrogenous compounds.
Abstract: In soil, fertilizers containing inorganic nitrogen and wastes containing organic nitrogen are first decomposed to give ammonia, which is then oxidized to nitrite and nitrate. The nitrate is taken up by plants during their growth and used in the synthesis of organic nitrogenous compounds. Surplus nitrate readily moves with groundwater (2, 3). Under aerobic conditions, it percolates in large quantities into the aquifer because of the small extent to which degradation or denitrification occurs. Under anaerobic conditions, nitrate may be denitrified or degraded almost completely to nitrogen. The presence of high or low water tables, the amount of rainwater, the presence of other organic material, and other physicochemical properties are also important in determining the fate of nitrate in soil ( 4). In surface water, nitrification and denitrification may also occur, depending on the temperature and pH. The uptake of nitrate by plants, however, is responsible for most of the nitrate reduction in surface water. Nitrogen compounds are formed in the air by lightning or discharged into it from industrial processes, motor vehicles, and intensive agriculture. Nitrate is present in air primarily as nitric acid and inorganic aerosols, as well as nitrate radicals and organic gases or aerosols. These are removed by wet and dry deposition.

4,627 citations


"Online Drinking Water Quality Monit..." refers methods in this paper

  • ...This section lists and describes in detail the sensors that can be used to measure more accurately or with more reliability and cost-efficiently the parameters (e.g., pH, turbidity, free residual chlorine, dissolved oxygen (DO), and conductivity) that have been identified in the report published by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) (2005)....

    [...]

  • ...Controlling turbidity is also a requirement according to the guidelines and regulations of the WHO and the USEPA (WHO, 2006; WHO, 2003; USEPA, 2009b)....

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  • ...A. pH Sensors It is recommended that water pH must be between 6.5 and 8.5 (USEPA, 2005; Health Canada, 2009; Federal Provincial Territory Committee, 2010) because the water pH affects the chemistry of water (Payment et al., 2003)....

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  • ...For systems that use conventional or direct filtration, at no time can 1388 M. H. Banna et al. turbidity go higher than 1 NTU, and systems that use filtration other than conventional or direct filtration must follow state limits, which must include turbidity at no time exceeding 5 NTU (USEPA, 2009a)....

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  • ...It not only contaminates water but also damages the distribution system. pH change is one of the parameters which changes with the addition of contamination (USEPA, 2005)....

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Book
01 Jan 1963
TL;DR: In this paper, the fundamental principles of analytical chemistry are discussed, together with a review of the applications of these concepts in analytical chemistry.http://www.documentaries.org.au.
Abstract: Fundamentals of analytical chemistry , Fundamentals of analytical chemistry , کتابخانه دیجیتال جندی شاپور اهواز

2,591 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: In this article, the authors explain the collapse of polyacrylamide gels in terms of mean field theory based on the extension of Flory's formula for free energy of gels.
Abstract: Collapse of polyacrylamide gels is observed upon changing temperature or fluid composition. It is explained in terms of mean-field theory based on the extension of Flory's formula for free energy of gels. Theory predicts, and I have observed, existence of a critical endpoint in the phase equilibria.

1,383 citations


"Online Drinking Water Quality Monit..." refers background in this paper

  • ...Hydrogels can change their volumes significantly when they are exposed to a small change in certain parameters, including temperature (Tanaka, 1978; Zhang et al., 2003), electrical field (Tanaka et al....

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  • ...Hydrogels can change their volumes significantly when they are exposed to a small change in certain parameters, including temperature (Tanaka, 1978; Zhang et al., 2003), electrical field (Tanaka et al., 1982), light (Suzuki and Tanaka, 1990), and pH (Zhang et al., 2003)....

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