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Journal ArticleDOI

Online palmprint identification

01 Sep 2003-IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence (IEEE Computer Society)-Vol. 25, Iss: 9, pp 1041-1050
TL;DR: The system consists of a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition, and a robust image coordinate system is defined to facilitate image alignment for feature extraction.
Abstract: Biometrics-based personal identification is regarded as an effective method for automatically recognizing, with a high confidence, a person's identity. This paper presents a new biometric approach to online personal identification using palmprint technology. In contrast to the existing methods, our online palmprint identification system employs low-resolution palmprint images to achieve effective personal identification. The system consists of two parts: a novel device for online palmprint image acquisition and an efficient algorithm for fast palmprint recognition. A robust image coordinate system is defined to facilitate image alignment for feature extraction. In addition, a 2D Gabor phase encoding scheme is proposed for palmprint feature extraction and representation. The experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed system.

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Citations
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The nth-order LDP is proposed to encode the (n-1)th -order local derivative direction variations, which can capture more detailed information than the first-order local pattern used in local binary pattern (LBP).
Abstract: This paper proposes a novel high-order local pattern descriptor, local derivative pattern (LDP), for face recognition. LDP is a general framework to encode directional pattern features based on local derivative variations. The nth-order LDP is proposed to encode the (n-1)th -order local derivative direction variations, which can capture more detailed information than the first-order local pattern used in local binary pattern (LBP). Different from LBP encoding the relationship between the central point and its neighbors, the LDP templates extract high-order local information by encoding various distinctive spatial relationships contained in a given local region. Both gray-level images and Gabor feature images are used to evaluate the comparative performances of LDP and LBP. Extensive experimental results on FERET, CAS-PEAL, CMU-PIE, Extended Yale B, and FRGC databases show that the high-order LDP consistently performs much better than LBP for both face identification and face verification under various conditions.

996 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
01 Dec 2008
TL;DR: In this paper, the design of a biometric system is discussed from the viewpoint of four commonly used biometric modalities -fingerprint, face, hand, and iris.
Abstract: Summary form only given. Biometrics refers to the automatic identification (or verification) of an individual (or a claimed identity) by using certain physical or behavioral traits associated with the person. By using biometrics it is possible to establish an identity based on `who you are?, rather than by `what you possess? (e.g., an ID card) or `what you remember? (e.g., a password). Therefore, biometric systems use fingerprints, hand geometry, iris, retina, face, vasculature patterns, signature, gait, palmprint, or voiceprint to determine a person?s identity. The purpose of this tutorial is two-fold: (a) to introduce the fundamentals of biometric technology from a pattern recognition and signal processing perspective by discussing some of the prominent techniques used in the field; and (b) to convey the recent advances made in this field especially in the context of security, privacy and forensics. To this end, the design of a biometric system will be discussed from the viewpoint of four commonly used biometric modalities - fingerprint, face, hand, and iris. Various algorithms that have been developed for processing these modalities will be presented. Methods to protect the biometric templates of enrolled users will also be outlined. In particular, the possibility of performing biometric matching in the cryptographic domain will be discussed. The tutorial will also introduce concepts in biometric fusion (i.e., multibiometrics) in which multiple sources of biometric information are consolidated. Finally, there will be a discussion on some of the challenges encountered by biometric systems when operating in a real-world environment and some of the methods used to address these challenges.

705 citations

Book
17 Nov 2011
TL;DR: This tutorial is to introduce the fundamentals of biometric technology from a pattern recognition and signal processing perspective by discussing some of the prominent techniques used in the field and to convey the recent advances made in this field especially in the context of security, privacy and forensics.
Abstract: Biometric recognition, or simply biometrics, is the science of establishing the identity of a person based on physical or behavioral attributes. It is a rapidly evolving field with applications ranging from securely accessing ones computer to gaining entry into a country. While the deployment of large-scale biometric systems in both commercial and government applications has increased the public awareness of this technology, "Introduction to Biometrics" is the first textbook to introduce the fundamentals of Biometrics to undergraduate/graduate students. The three commonly used modalities in the biometrics field, namely, fingerprint, face, and iris are covered in detail in this book. Few other modalities like hand geometry, ear, and gait are also discussed briefly along with advanced topics such as multibiometric systems and security of biometric systems. Exercises for each chapter will be available on the book website to help students gain a better understanding of the topics and obtain practical experience in designing computer programs for biometric applications. These can be found at: http://www.csee.wvu.edu/~ross/BiometricsTextBook/.Designed for undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and electrical engineering, "Introduction to Biometrics" is also suitable for researchers and biometric and computer security professionals.

679 citations


Cites background from "Online palmprint identification"

  • ...The area of the palm is much larger than the area of a flnger and, as a result, palmprints are expected to be even more distinctive than the flngerprints [ 38 ]....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: The proposed methods are successfully applied to face recognition, and the experiment results on the large-scale FERET and CAS-PEAL databases show that the proposed algorithms significantly outperform other well-known systems in terms of recognition rate.
Abstract: A novel object descriptor, histogram of Gabor phase pattern (HGPP), is proposed for robust face recognition. In HGPP, the quadrant-bit codes are first extracted from faces based on the Gabor transformation. Global Gabor phase pattern (GGPP) and local Gabor phase pattern (LGPP) are then proposed to encode the phase variations. GGPP captures the variations derived from the orientation changing of Gabor wavelet at a given scale (frequency), while LGPP encodes the local neighborhood variations by using a novel local XOR pattern (LXP) operator. They are both divided into the nonoverlapping rectangular regions, from which spatial histograms are extracted and concatenated into an extended histogram feature to represent the original image. Finally, the recognition is performed by using the nearest-neighbor classifier with histogram intersection as the similarity measurement. The features of HGPP lie in two aspects: 1) HGPP can describe the general face images robustly without the training procedure; 2) HGPP encodes the Gabor phase information, while most previous face recognition methods exploit the Gabor magnitude information. In addition, Fisher separation criterion is further used to improve the performance of HGPP by weighing the subregions of the image according to their discriminative powers. The proposed methods are successfully applied to face recognition, and the experiment results on the large-scale FERET and CAS-PEAL databases show that the proposed algorithms significantly outperform other well-known systems in terms of recognition rate

613 citations

Proceedings ArticleDOI
23 Aug 2004
TL;DR: A new method for extracting features from palmprints using the competitive coding scheme and angular matching and the execution time for the whole process of verification, including preprocessing, feature extraction and final matching is 1s.
Abstract: There is increasing interest in the development of reliable, rapid and non-intrusive security control systems. Among the many approaches, biometrics such as palmprints provide highly effective automatic mechanisms for use in personal identification. This paper presents a new method for extracting features from palmprints using the competitive coding scheme and angular matching. The competitive coding scheme uses multiple 2-D Gabor filters to extract orientation information from palm lines. This information is then stored in a feature vector called the competitive code. The angular matching with an effective implementation is then defined for comparing the proposed codes, which can make over 9,000 comparisons within 1s. In our testing database of 7,752 palmprint samples from 386 palms, we can achieve a high genuine acceptance rate of 98.4% and a low false acceptance rate of 3/spl times/10/sup -6/%. The execution time for the whole process of verification, including preprocessing, feature extraction and final matching, is 1s.

562 citations


Cites background or methods from "Online palmprint identification"

  • ...Few papers have so far been published in this area [2-6]....

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  • ...2, the other ROC curve is obtained by our previously best method, PalmCode [6]....

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  • ...In the experiments, we have compared the Competitive Code with the PalmCode, which is our previously best approach [6]....

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  • ...The masks are used to indicate the non-palmprint pixels described in [6]....

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  • ...The detailed information about palmprint capture and preprocessing can be referred [6]....

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References
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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence, which implies a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates.
Abstract: A method for rapid visual recognition of personal identity is described, based on the failure of a statistical test of independence. The most unique phenotypic feature visible in a person's face is the detailed texture of each eye's iris. The visible texture of a person's iris in a real-time video image is encoded into a compact sequence of multi-scale quadrature 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients, whose most-significant bits comprise a 256-byte "iris code". Statistical decision theory generates identification decisions from Exclusive-OR comparisons of complete iris codes at the rate of 4000 per second, including calculation of decision confidence levels. The distributions observed empirically in such comparisons imply a theoretical "cross-over" error rate of one in 131000 when a decision criterion is adopted that would equalize the false accept and false reject error rates. In the typical recognition case, given the mean observed degree of iris code agreement, the decision confidence levels correspond formally to a conditional false accept probability of one in about 10/sup 31/. >

3,399 citations


"Online palmprint identification" refers background in this paper

  • ...Index Terms—Biometrics, online palmprint identification, texture analysis, low-resolution image....

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Journal ArticleDOI
01 Sep 1997
TL;DR: This paper examines automated iris recognition as a biometrically based technology for personal identification and verification from the observation that the human iris provides a particularly interesting structure on which to base a technology for noninvasive biometric assessment.
Abstract: This paper examines automated iris recognition as a biometrically based technology for personal identification and verification. The motivation for this endeavor stems from the observation that the human iris provides a particularly interesting structure on which to base a technology for noninvasive biometric assessment. In particular the biomedical literature suggests that irises are as distinct as fingerprints or patterns of retinal blood vessels. Further, since the iris is an overt body, its appearance is amenable to remote examination with the aid of a machine vision system. The body of this paper details issues in the design and operation of such systems. For the sake of illustration, extant systems are described in some amount of detail.

2,046 citations

Book
02 Apr 2013
TL;DR: This book covers the general principles and ideas of designing biometric-based systems and their underlying tradeoffs, and the exploration of some of the numerous privacy and security implications of biometrics.
Abstract: Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society is a comprehensive and accessible source of state-of-the-art information on all existing and emerging biometrics: the science of automatically identifying individuals based on their physiological or behavior characteristics. In particular, the book covers: *General principles and ideas of designing biometric-based systems and their underlying tradeoffs *Identification of important issues in the evaluation of biometrics-based systems *Integration of biometric cues, and the integration of biometrics with other existing technologies *Assessment of the capabilities and limitations of different biometrics *The comprehensive examination of biometric methods in commercial use and in research development *Exploration of some of the numerous privacy and security implications of biometrics. Also included are chapters on face and eye identification, speaker recognition, networking, and other timely technology-related issues. All chapters are written by leading internationally recognized experts from academia and industry. Biometrics: Personal Identification in Networked Society is an invaluable work for scientists, engineers, application developers, systems integrators, and others working in biometrics.

1,845 citations

Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: An improved version of the minutia extraction algorithm proposed by Ratha et al. (1995), which is much faster and more reliable, is implemented for extracting features from an input fingerprint image captured with an online inkless scanner and an alignment-based elastic matching algorithm has been developed.
Abstract: Fingerprint verification is one of the most reliable personal identification methods. However, manual fingerprint verification is incapable of meeting today's increasing performance requirements. An automatic fingerprint identification system (AFIS) is needed. This paper describes the design and implementation of an online fingerprint verification system which operates in two stages: minutia extraction and minutia matching. An improved version of the minutia extraction algorithm proposed by Ratha et al. (1995), which is much faster and more reliable, is implemented for extracting features from an input fingerprint image captured with an online inkless scanner. For minutia matching, an alignment-based elastic matching algorithm has been developed. This algorithm is capable of finding the correspondences between minutiae in the input image and the stored template without resorting to exhaustive search and has the ability of adaptively compensating for the nonlinear deformations and inexact pose transformations between fingerprints. The system has been tested on two sets of fingerprint images captured with inkless scanners. The verification accuracy is found to be acceptable. Typically, a complete fingerprint verification procedure takes, on an average, about eight seconds on a SPARC 20 workstation. These experimental results show that our system meets the response time requirements of online verification with high accuracy.

1,376 citations


"Online palmprint identification" refers background in this paper

  • ...Index Terms—Biometrics, online palmprint identification, texture analysis, low-resolution image....

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Journal ArticleDOI
TL;DR: A filter-based fingerprint matching algorithm which uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint as a compact fixed length FingerCode and is able to achieve a verification accuracy which is only marginally inferior to the best results of minutiae-based algorithms published in the open literature.
Abstract: Biometrics-based verification, especially fingerprint-based identification, is receiving a lot of attention. There are two major shortcomings of the traditional approaches to fingerprint representation. For a considerable fraction of population, the representations based on explicit detection of complete ridge structures in the fingerprint are difficult to extract automatically. The widely used minutiae-based representation does not utilize a significant component of the rich discriminatory information available in the fingerprints. Local ridge structures cannot be completely characterized by minutiae. Further, minutiae-based matching has difficulty in quickly matching two fingerprint images containing a different number of unregistered minutiae points. The proposed filter-based algorithm uses a bank of Gabor filters to capture both local and global details in a fingerprint as a compact fixed length FingerCode. The fingerprint matching is based on the Euclidean distance between the two corresponding FingerCodes and hence is extremely fast. We are able to achieve a verification accuracy which is only marginally inferior to the best results of minutiae-based algorithms published in the open literature. Our system performs better than a state-of-the-art minutiae-based system when the performance requirement of the application system does not demand a very low false acceptance rate. Finally, we show that the matching performance can be improved by combining the decisions of the matchers based on complementary (minutiae-based and filter-based) fingerprint information.

1,207 citations


"Online palmprint identification" refers result in this paper

  • ...This result is comparable with previous palmprint approaches and other hand-based biometric technologies including hand geometry and fingerprint verification [5], [6], [7], [11], [13], [14], [18], [19]....

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  • ...This result is also comparable with other handbased biometrics, such as hand geometry and fingerprint verification [11], [13], [14]....

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