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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1080/00038628.2020.1794782

Operation assessment of an air-PCM unit for summer thermal comfort in a naturally ventilated building

04 Mar 2021-Architectural Science Review (Informa UK Limited)-Vol. 64, pp 37-46
Abstract: Due to the increasing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions related to HVAC applications in the residential sector, thermal energy storage with phase change materials has caught considerable atte...

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Topics: Energy storage (60%), Thermal energy storage (59%), HVAC (58%) ... read more
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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JOBE.2020.102122
Abstract: Building envelope is a key element in providing adequate energy and thermal comfort performance to buildings. In this regard, improvement solutions are implemented in recent studies that focus on new techniques and methods. The main techniques adopted in this context are discussed to identify modern and effective methods with a particular focus on phase change materials (PCMs). Incorporating PCMs with building construction materials is a booming technology, owing to their enhancement potential of storing and releasing heat during phase transition. This work highlights the importance of PCMs in building envelope, focusing on roof and external wall applications. PCM types, general and desired properties and application area are presented and discussed. Influential parameters, incorporation techniques and methods, main numerical tools, and modelling equations are used to describe the thermal behaviour of PCM. A comprehensive assessment on the basis of recent studies has been conducted to point out the potential of PCM with the most appropriate techniques under different locations. The main findings of PCM thermal performance have been described, considering the cooling/heating load reduction, energy-saving and thermal comfort gained along with several research hiatuses for future studies.

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Topics: Building envelope (57%)

34 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14071929
31 Mar 2021-Energies
Abstract: The incorporation of phase change materials (PCM) in buildings has the potential to enhance the thermal efficiency of buildings, reduce energy cost, shift peak load, and eventually reduce air pollution and mitigate global warming However, the initial capital cost of PCM is still high, and thus the establishment of a control strategy has become essential to optimize its use in buildings in an effort to lower investment costs In this paper, an extensive review has been made with regard to various control strategies applied to PCM-enhanced buildings, such as ON/OFF control, conventional control methods (classical control, optimal, adaptive, and predictive control) and intelligent controls The advantages and disadvantages of each control strategy are evaluated The paper further discusses the opportunities and challenges associated with the design of PCM-enhanced buildings in combination with control strategies

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5 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MA14164707
20 Aug 2021-Materials
Abstract: This work aims to characterize phase change materials (PCM) for thermal energy storage in buildings (thermal comfort). Fatty acids, biobased organic PCM, are attractive candidates for integration into active or passive storage systems for targeted application. Three pure fatty acids (capric, myristic and palmitic acids) and two eutectic mixtures (capric-myristic and capric-palmitic acids) are studied in this paper. Although the main storage properties of pure fatty acids have already been investigated and reported in the literature, the information available on the eutectic mixtures is very limited (only melting temperature and enthalpy). This paper presents a complete experimental characterization of these pure and mixed fatty acids, including measurements of their main thermophysical properties (melting temperature and enthalpy, specific heats and densities in solid and liquid states, thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity as well as viscosity) and the properties of interest regarding the system integrating the PCM (energy density, volume expansion). The storage performances of the studied mixtures are also compared to those of most commonly used PCM (salt hydrates and paraffins).

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Topics: Thermal diffusivity (51%), Eutectic system (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.37135/NS.01.06.10
Miguel Chen Austin1, Carlos Boya2, Dafni Mora1Institutions (2)
01 Dec 2020-
Abstract: Debido a la actual crisis energetica mundial y como resultado de los acuerdos de las naciones participantes, se han establecido medidas por las Naciones Unidas para superar los desafios relacionados. A pesar de los esfuerzos para incluir a los paises subdesarrollados en dicho proceso de decision, la mayoria de las contribuciones continuan estando inclinadas al hemisferio norte. Asi, este trabajo se enfoca en destacar los esfuerzos realizados por los paises Latinoamericanos (LA), entre 2018-2020, para contribuir especificamente en las mejoras en el desempeno energetico en edificaciones para abordar los desafios actuales del lado de la demanda. Dichos desafios estan relacionados con la gestion de la demanda: (i) picos de demanda no controlados y (ii) capacidad de transmision y distribucion insuficiente en la red electrica. Las contribuciones de LA se clasifican en independientes, colaboracion y aplicacion. Los estudios tambien se clasificaron en teoricos, experimentales, ambos y revisiones. La metodologia de filtrado de dos etapas implementada dio como resultado un total de 176 documentos como lista inicial. Al centrarse solo en los aspectos relacionados con los ocupantes, las soluciones pasivas y de bajo consumo y las tecnicas de prevision para edificios inteligentes, la lista procesada resulto en un total de 73 estudios. Los resultados mostraron que los esfuerzos realizados por los paises LA residen en su mayoria en la implementacion de estrategias previamente desarrolladas y propuestas por paises desarrollados, para realizar estudios de caso como independiente o en colaboracion. Finalmente, se presenta un analisis de fortalezas, oportunidades, debilidades y amenazas (FODA) para explicar los resultados obtenidos.

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1 Citations


Open accessDissertation
23 Oct 2018-
Abstract: The present work aims to design and study an air-PCM heat exchanger unit as a passive solution for thermal comfort assessment in buildings during summertime, providing tools to ease the design and building integration. The PCM present a large storage capacity per volume unit where by, they can contribute to the reduction of the energy consumption related to cooling applications. Although, theyshow some drawbacks, as a low thermal conductivity in commercial PCM, so a wellthought design of these kind of systems is necessary to achieve adequate thermal performances.The first part of this thesis surveys the existing systems through a literature review,highlighting the geometry relation with the physics and thermal performance. This search provided the bases for the development of an air-PCM unit design, following a problem-solving methodology developed by the I2M laboratory. A keyword matrix was obtained from the physical phenomena and functional analysis of the unit. From this matrix, the patents analysis provided inspiration for the design resulting in a tubebundle air-PCM heat exchanger with vertical tubes aligned perpendicular to the airflow.The development of design and integration in buildings tools was sought through a modeling that can accurately predict the thermal performance of the system.Simplified models are preferred for this task. Nevertheless, they can under predict the actual performance if the physical phenomena involved is not properly accounted. Then, local and global experimental approaches were used to achieve anunderstanding of the physics associated with charging and discharging cycles in theunit. For this, a test bench was installed, measuring temperature and airflow underdifferent in let conditions, accompanied by a visual tracking through digital images.Image and data processing were used to obtain thermal performance indicators and equivalent correlations using known dimensionless numbers for convective conductive heat transfer mechanisms in the PCM.These findings allowed the development of thermal models based on energy balances, that accounted the complexity of phenomena involved in the unit for performance prediction. Finally, the thermal performance of the system was tested intwo buildings applications: as a mobile unit in a PEH house in Gradignan and as anactive facade in a building in Talence.

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Topics: Thermal conduction (57%), Thermal energy storage (56%), Air cooling (51%) ... read more

1 Citations


References
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27 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2007.10.005
Abstract: The use of a latent heat storage system using phase change materials (PCMs) is an effective way of storing thermal energy and has the advantages of high-energy storage density and the isothermal nature of the storage process. PCMs have been widely used in latent heat thermal-storage systems for heat pumps, solar engineering, and spacecraft thermal control applications. The uses of PCMs for heating and cooling applications for buildings have been investigated within the past decade. There are large numbers of PCMs that melt and solidify at a wide range of temperatures, making them attractive in a number of applications. This paper also summarizes the investigation and analysis of the available thermal energy storage systems incorporating PCMs for use in different applications.

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Topics: Phase-change material (64%), Thermal energy storage (58%), Thermal mass (55%) ... read more

3,746 Citations


Open access
01 Jan 2004-
Abstract: El pasado 3 de Octubre de 2002 se llevo a cabo la ceremonia de abanderamiento de la Directiva de la Rama Estudiantil de ASHRAE en la Facultad de Ingenieria Mecanica y Electrica (FIME) de la UANL. El evento tuvo lugar en el Auditorio «Raul Quintero Flores» en donde se conto con la presencia de Fernando Gomez quien asistio en representacion del Rector de la UANL y Esteban Baez, Subdirector de Vinculacion de la FIME y representante del Director de la FIME, junto con directivos de ASHRAE Internacional. Despues de una presentacion que describe a la FIME, los asistentes escucharon las palabras del Presidente del Capitulo Monterrey de ASHRAE, Carlos Huerta, quien manifesto su orgullo en ser presidente en este momento y reconocio el trabajo que otros directivos han desarrollado a lo largo de los anos. Senalo que entre las actividades de la asociacion se encuentra el fomento a las actividades de investigacion y desarrollo. Menciono tambien la importancia que la rama estudiantil tiene en la vida de la asociacion y reitero el apoyo de ASHRAE a las actividades estudiantiles y su deseo de contribuir en su formacion. Por su parte el Director de la Region 8, Hugh McMillan, a nombre de ASHRAE internacional manifesto la satisfaccion que brinda trabajar en el area y elogio el entusiasmo de la gente de Monterrey. Comento que todos debemos prepararnos y que fortalecer la rama estudiantil es una gran manera. Se debe tener ademas presente que ya sea como lideres o como participantes, no se debe olvidar que se cuenta con la tutoria del Capitulo Monterrey para seguir adelante. Expreso que se trata de un reto, pero que con los elementos disponibles se vislumbra un futuro brillante. A continuacion el Asesor de Capitulos, Leo Stambaugh, menciono cuales son las funciones de ASHRAE, enfatizando que esta involucrada en proveer una vida mejor a la comunidad. Retomo el aspecto de investigacion con un ejemplo relacionado con una aplicacion en el telescopio espacial, en la que se da investigacion interdisciplinaria que va mas alla de los aspectos tipicos de aire acondicionado. Hablo de los capitulos con los que Monterrey interactua y les deseo a todos que disfrutaran ser parte de ASHRAE tanto como el. El Presidente Electo de ASHRAE Internacional, Richard Rooley en su mensaje menciono que el es el primer presidente de ASHRAE que no es americano, y lo ligo con una narracion en la que describe que todos los que pertenecen a ASHRAE lo hacen porque es una gran sociedad internacional, hablo de la responsabilidad que implica ser ingenieros, senalando que en este campo no hay diferencias entre idiomas, ideologias o religiones. Despues de esta reflexion, junto con el presidente de ASHRAE Monterrey realizaron la ceremonia de abanderamiento que consistio en presentar a Jesus Garza como asesor de la Rama Estudiantil de la FIME y le entregaron un manual en el que se consignan los procedimientos y que le ayudaran a cumplir con su funcion. Se presento formalmente a la directiva de esta rama, compuesta por: Miguel Angel Ruiz Silva, Presidente; Laura Cristina Grimaldo Padilla, Presidente Electo; Rosa Maria Torres Luevano, Tesorero; y Carlos Alberto Espinoza Sanchez, Secretario. Se les entrego el banderin de la Rama Estudiantil de ASHRAE en la UANL, y se les pidio que lo muestren con orgullo en cualquier evento o reunion de la asociacion que realicen. Para concluir el evento, Miguel Ruiz se dirigio a los presentes aceptando este reconocimiento, explicando que la responsabilidad que conlleva solamente podra ser enfrentada con el apoyo de catedraticos, investigadores y los propios estudiantes, invitandolos a que aprovechen el apoyo que ASHRAE otorga. Posteriormente a la ceremonia se efectuo una visita a algunas de las instalaciones de la FIME en donde se hizo mencion de las labores de investigacion y desarrollo que se llevan a cabo en la facultad, incluyendo aspectos energeticos y formas no convencionales de transferencia de calor.

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Topics: Air conditioning (59%), Refrigeration (58%)

2,095 Citations



Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.RSER.2016.03.036
Abstract: The most significant threat that mankind faces in the 21th century is global warming. Buildings, which account for 40% of global energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, play a pivotal role in global warming. Estimates show that their destructive impact will grow by 1.8% per year through 2050, which indicates that future consumption and emissions will be worse than today. Therefore, the impact of cooling systems cannot be ignored, as they, along with ventilation and heating systems, account for 60% of the energy consumed in buildings. Passive cooling techniques are a promising alternative to conventional cooling systems. Of the various passive cooling strategies, thermal energy storage by means of latent heat is an efficient way to increase the thermal inertia of building envelopes, which would reduce temperature fluctuations, leading to the improved thermal comfort of occupants. Phase change materials (PCMs) with high density for thermal energy storage can be efficiently employed to this purpose. This paper reviews recent studies of the application of PCMs for passive cooling in buildings. From the literature, a comprehensive list of different organic, inorganic and eutectic PCMs appropriate for passive cooling in buildings are reviewed. Full-scale testing and numerical modeling were found to be the most popular investigative methods used for experimental and theoretical analysis of PCMs. The combination of these two methods can provide a detailed and valid technique for PCM investigations. Finally, incorporating PCMs into building walls with macro encapsulation was also a dominant interest in previous studies.

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Topics: Passive cooling (63%), Thermal mass (60%), Phase-change material (55%) ... read more

443 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENBUILD.2016.04.006
Abstract: Cooling demand in the building sector is growing rapidly; thermal energy storage systems using phase change materials (PCM) can be a very useful way to improve the building thermal performance. The right use of PCM in the envelope can minimize peak cooling loads, allow the use of smaller HVAC technical equipment for cooling, and has the capability to keep the indoor temperature within the comfort range due to smaller indoor temperature fluctuations. This article presents an overview of different PCM applications in buildings for reducing cooling loads under different climate conditions, and the factors affecting the successful and the effective use of the PCM. Many drawbacks have been found in PCM applications, mainly the intense impact of summer weather conditions over the PCM performance, which prohibits its complete solidification during night, and thus, limiting its effectiveness during the day. Proposed solutions are reviewed in this article. Finally, a topology diagram is presented to summarize the steps leading to an effective use of PCM in building applications.

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Topics: HVAC (53%), Thermal energy storage (51%)

371 Citations