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Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/EN14051406

Opportunities for the state-of-the-art production of LIB Electrodes – A review

04 Mar 2021-Energies (Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute)-Vol. 14, Iss: 5, pp 1406
Abstract: A sustainable shift from internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles to electric vehicles (EVs) is essential to achieve a considerable reduction in emissions. The production of Li-ion batteries (LIBs) used in EVs is an energy-intensive and costly process. It can also lead to significant embedded emissions depending on the source of energy used. In fact, about 39% of the energy consumption in LIB production is associated with drying processes, where the electrode drying step accounts for about a half. Despite the enormous energy consumption and costs originating from drying processes, they are seldomly researched in the battery industry. Establishing knowledge within the LIB industry regarding state-of-the-art drying techniques and solvent evaporation mechanisms is vital for optimising process conditions, detecting alternative solvent systems, and discovering novel techniques. This review aims to give a summary of the state-of-the-art LIB processing techniques. An in-depth understanding of the influential factors for each manufacturing step of LIBs is then established, emphasising the electrode structure and electrochemical performance. Special attention is dedicated to the convection drying step in conventional water and N-Methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP)-based electrode manufacturing. Solvent omission in dry electrode processing substantially lowers the energy demand and allows for a thick, mechanically stable electrode coating. Small changes in the electrode manufacturing route may have an immense impact on the final battery performance. Electrodes used for research and development often have a different production route and techniques compared to those processed in industry. The scalability issues related to the comparison across scales are discussed and further emphasised when the industry moves towards the next-generation techniques. Finally, the critical aspects of the innovations and industrial modifications that aim to overcome the main challenges are presented.

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Topics: Energy consumption (51%), Embedded emissions (50%)
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Open access
Huixiao Kang1, Cheolwoong Lim1, Tianyi Li1, Yongzhu Fu1  +5 moreInstitutions (3)
01 Apr 2017-
Abstract: The impact of calendering process on the geometric characteristics and electrochemical performance of LiNi1/3Mn1/3Co1/3O2 (NMC) electrode was investigated in this study. The geometric properties of NMC electrodes with different calendering conditions, such as porosity, pore size distribution, particle size distribution, specific surface area and tortuosity were calculated from the computed tomography data of the electrodes. A synchrotron transmission X-ray microscopy tomography system at the Advanced Photon Source of the Argonne National Laboratory was employed to obtain the tomography data. The geometric and electrochemical analysis show that calendering can increase the electrochemically active area, which improves rate capability. However, more calendering will result in crushing of NMC particles, which can reduce the electrode capacity at relatively high C rates. This study shows that the optimum electrochemical performance of NMC electrode at 94:3:3 weight ratio of NMC:binder:carbon black can be achieved by calendering to 3.0 g/cm3 NMC density.

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Topics: Calendering (62%)

24 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.ENSM.2021.09.015
Abstract: Li-ion battery electrode manufacturing is raising broad interest from both experimental and computational perspectives, due to its impact on the electrode and cell cost, mechanical and electrochemical properties. Among the different manufacturing processes, drying can trigger heterogeneities within the electrode mesostructure because of additive migration. Despite acknowledging that these heterogeneities significantly affect electrode properties, the drying step is often under evaluated at the experimental level and modeled through homogenized approaches. In this work, we present the first physics-based three-dimensional model able to mimic additive migration during drying, unlocking the generation of three-dimensional heterogeneous electrode mesostructures. We analyzed the effect of drying rate on the final electrode mesostructure, the dynamics of additive migration and how the developed heterogeneities affect the following manufacturing step, i.e., calendering. The results are in agreement with previous experimental findings and indicate trends not previously disclosed. Lastly, the implementation of complex drying protocols (three-stage drying) was tested and compared to its experimental counterpart.

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1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1002/BATT.202100088
Fabienne Huttner1, Axel Marth1, Jochen C. Eser2, Thilo Heckmann2  +5 moreInstitutions (2)
01 Sep 2021-
Abstract: In order to reduce the residual moisture in lithium-ion batteries, electrodes and separators need to be post-dried prior to cell assembly. On an industrial scale, this is often conducted batch-wise in vacuum ovens for larger electrode and separator coils. Especially for electrodes, the corresponding post-drying parameters have to be carefully chosen to sufficiently reduce the moisture without damaging the sensitive microstructure. This requires a fundamental understanding of structural limitations as well as heat transfer and water mass transport in coils. The aim of this study is to establish a general understanding of the vacuum post-drying process of coils. Moreover, the targeted design of efficient, well-adjusted and application-oriented vacuum post-drying procedures for electrode coils on the basis of modelling is employed, while keeping the post-drying intensity as low as possible, in order to maintain the sensitive microstructure and to save time and costs. In this way, a comparatively short and moderate 2-phase vacuum post-drying procedure is successfully designed and practically applied. The results show that the designed procedure is able to significantly reduce the residual moisture of anode and cathode coils, even with greater electrode lengths and coating widths, without deteriorating the sensitive microstructure of the electrodes.

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Topics: Anode (52%)

1 Citations



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207 results found


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/451652A
Michel Armand1, Jean-Marie Tarascon1Institutions (1)
06 Feb 2008-Nature
Abstract: Researchers must find a sustainable way of providing the power our modern lifestyles demand.

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13,749 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1212741
18 Nov 2011-Science
Abstract: The increasing interest in energy storage for the grid can be attributed to multiple factors, including the capital costs of managing peak demands, the investments needed for grid reliability, and the integration of renewable energy sources. Although existing energy storage is dominated by pumped hydroelectric, there is the recognition that battery systems can offer a number of high-value opportunities, provided that lower costs can be obtained. The battery systems reviewed here include sodium-sulfur batteries that are commercially available for grid applications, redox-flow batteries that offer low cost, and lithium-ion batteries whose development for commercial electronics and electric vehicles is being applied to grid storage.

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Topics: Grid energy storage (67%), Intermittent energy source (65%), Energy storage (63%) ... read more

8,906 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/JA3091438
John B. Goodenough1, Kyusung Park1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Each cell of a battery stores electrical energy as chemical energy in two electrodes, a reductant (anode) and an oxidant (cathode), separated by an electrolyte that transfers the ionic component of the chemical reaction inside the cell and forces the electronic component outside the battery. The output on discharge is an external electronic current I at a voltage V for a time Δt. The chemical reaction of a rechargeable battery must be reversible on the application of a charging I and V. Critical parameters of a rechargeable battery are safety, density of energy that can be stored at a specific power input and retrieved at a specific power output, cycle and shelf life, storage efficiency, and cost of fabrication. Conventional ambient-temperature rechargeable batteries have solid electrodes and a liquid electrolyte. The positive electrode (cathode) consists of a host framework into which the mobile (working) cation is inserted reversibly over a finite solid–solution range. The solid–solution range, which is...

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Topics: Battery (electricity) (66%), Anode (56%), Chemical energy (54%) ... read more

5,431 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1016/J.JPOWSOUR.2009.11.048
Bruno Scrosati1, Jürgen Garche1Institutions (1)
Abstract: Lithium batteries are characterized by high specific energy, high efficiency and long life. These unique properties have made lithium batteries the power sources of choice for the consumer electronics market with a production of the order of billions of units per year. These batteries are also expected to find a prominent role as ideal electrochemical storage systems in renewable energy plants, as well as power systems for sustainable vehicles, such as hybrid and electric vehicles. However, scaling up the lithium battery technology for these applications is still problematic since issues such as safety, costs, wide operational temperature and materials availability, are still to be resolved. This review focuses first on the present status of lithium battery technology, then on its near future development and finally it examines important new directions aimed at achieving quantum jumps in energy and power content.

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Topics: Lithium battery (56%), Lithium (51%)

3,903 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1038/NCHEM.2085
01 Jan 2015-Nature Chemistry
Abstract: Energy storage using batteries offers a solution to the intermittent nature of energy production from renewable sources; however, such technology must be sustainable. This Review discusses battery development from a sustainability perspective, considering the energy and environmental costs of state-of-the-art Li-ion batteries and the design of new systems beyond Li-ion. Images: batteries, car, globe: © iStock/Thinkstock.

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Topics: Energy storage (58%), Battery (electricity) (54%), Renewable energy (52%) ... read more

3,870 Citations


Performance
Metrics
No. of citations received by the Paper in previous years
YearCitations
20217
20171