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Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1088/1361-6528/ABCD60

Optical design of InGaN/GaN nanoLED arrays on a chip: toward: highly resolved illumination.

05 Mar 2021-Nanotechnology (IOP Publishing)-Vol. 32, Iss: 10, pp 105203-105203
Abstract: The physical laws of diffraction limit the spatial resolution of optical systems. In contrary to most superresolution microscopy approaches used today, in our novel idea we are aiming to overcome this limit by developing a spatially resolved illumination source based on semiconductor nanoscale light emitting diode (nanoLED) arrays with individual pixel control. We present and discuss the results of optical simulations performed for such nanoLED emitter arrays and analyze the theoretical limits of this approach. As possible designs we study arrays of GaN nanofins and nanorods (obtained by etching nanofin arrays), with InGaN/GaN multi quantum wells embedded as active regions. We find that a suitable choice of the array dimensions leads to a reasonably directed light output and concentration of the optical power in the near field around an activated pixel. As a consequence, the spatial resolution for this type of microscopy should only be limited by the pixel pitch, and no longer by the optical diffraction. Realization of optimized nanoLED arrays has a potential to open new field of chip based superresolution microscopy, making super-high spatial resolution ubiquitously available.

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Topics: Dot pitch (51%)
Citations
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6 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21103305
Sergio Moreno1, J. Canals1, Victor Moro1, Nil Franch1  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
11 May 2021-Sensors
Abstract: Recent research into miniaturized illumination sources has prompted the development of alternative microscopy techniques. Although they are still being explored, emerging nano-light-emitting-diode (nano-LED) technologies show promise in approaching the optical resolution limit in a more feasible manner. This work presents the exploration of their capabilities with two different prototypes. In the first version, a resolution of less than 1 µm was shown thanks to a prototype based on an optically downscaled LED using an LED scanning transmission optical microscopy (STOM) technique. This research demonstrates how this technique can be used to improve STOM images by oversampling the acquisition. The second STOM-based microscope was fabricated with a 200 nm GaN LED. This demonstrates the possibilities for the miniaturization of on-chip-based microscopes.

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Topics: Microscope (54%), Microscopy (52%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/ELECTRONICS10151829
30 Jul 2021-Electronics
Abstract: GaN-based light emitting diodes (LEDs) have been shown to effectively operate down to nanoscale dimensions, which allows further downscaling the chip-based LED display technology from micro- to nanoscale. This brings up the question of what resolution limit of the illumination pattern can be obtained. We show two different approaches to achieve individually switchable nano-LED arrays. We evaluated both designs in terms of near-field spot size and optical crosstalk between neighboring pixels by using finite difference time domain (FDTD) simulations. The numerical results were compared with the performance data from a fabricated nano-LED array. The outcome underlines the influence of geometry of the LED array and materials used in contact lines on the final illumination spot size and shape.

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Topics: LED display (53%), Light-emitting diode (51%)

1 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/MI12050527
J. Canals1, Nil Franch1, Victor Moro1, Sergio Moreno1  +11 moreInstitutions (4)
06 May 2021-Micromachines
Abstract: The recent advances in chip-size microscopy based on optical scanning with spatially resolved nano-illumination light sources are presented. This new straightforward technique takes advantage of the currently achieved miniaturization of LEDs in fully addressable arrays. These nano-LEDs are used to scan the sample with a resolution comparable to the LED sizes, giving rise to chip-sized scanning optical microscopes without mechanical parts or optical accessories. The operation principle and the potential of this new kind of microscope are analyzed through three different implementations of decreasing LED dimensions from 20 µm down to 200 nm.

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Topics: Microscope (63%), Microscopy (58%), Optical microscope (55%) ... show more

1 Citations



Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.3390/S21175941
03 Sep 2021-Sensors
Abstract: Lensless microscopy requires the simplest possible configuration, as it uses only a light source, the sample and an image sensor. The smallest practical microscope is demonstrated here. In contrast to standard lensless microscopy, the object is located near the lighting source. Raster optical microscopy is applied by using a single-pixel detector and a microdisplay. Maximum resolution relies on reduced LED size and the position of the sample respect the microdisplay. Contrarily to other sort of digital lensless holographic microscopes, light backpropagation is not required to reconstruct the images of the sample. In a mm-high microscope, resolutions down to 800 nm have been demonstrated even when measuring with detectors as large as 138 μm × 138 μm, with field of view given by the display size. Dedicated technology would shorten measuring time.

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Topics: Microscope (57%), Microscopy (54%), Holography (51%) ... show more

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26 results found


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1126/SCIENCE.1156947
06 Jun 2008-Science
Abstract: Fluorescence light microscopy allows multicolor visualization of cellular components with high specificity, but its utility has until recently been constrained by the intrinsic limit of spatial resolution. We applied three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) to circumvent this limit and to study the mammalian nucleus. By simultaneously imaging chromatin, nuclear lamina, and the nuclear pore complex (NPC), we observed several features that escape detection by conventional microscopy. We could resolve single NPCs that colocalized with channels in the lamin network and peripheral heterochromatin. We could differentially localize distinct NPC components and detect double-layered invaginations of the nuclear envelope in prophase as previously seen only by electron microscopy. Multicolor 3D-SIM opens new and facile possibilities to analyze subcellular structures beyond the diffraction limit of the emitted light.

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Topics: Microscopy (52%)

1,014 Citations


Open accessBookDOI: 10.2277/0521832241
01 Sep 2012-
Abstract: 1. Introduction 2. Theoretical foundations 3. Propagation and focusing of optical fields 4. Spatial resolution and position accuracy 5. Nanoscale optical microscopy 6. Near-field optical probes 7. Probe-sample distance control 8. Light emission and optical interaction in nanoscale environments 9. Quantum emitters 10. Dipole emission near planar interfaces 11. Photonic crystals and resonators 12. Surface plasmons 13. Forces in confined fields 14. Fluctuation-induced phenomena 15. Theoretical methods in nano-optics Appendices Index.

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Topics: Nanophotonics (59%), Light emission (59%), Photonic crystal (58%) ... show more

906 Citations


Open accessJournal ArticleDOI: 10.1109/JLT.2011.2175090
Abstract: We report the high-frequency modulation of individual pixels in 8 × 8 arrays of III-nitride-based micro-pixellated light-emitting diodes, where the pixels within the array range from 14 to 84 μ m in diameter. The peak emission wavelengths of the devices are 370, 405, 450 and 520 nm, respectively. Smaller area micro-LED pixels generally exhibit higher modulation bandwidths than their larger area counterparts, which is attributed to their ability to be driven at higher current densities. The highest optical -3 dB modulation bandwidths from these devices are shown to be in excess of 400 MHz, which, to our knowledge, are the highest bandwidths yet reported for GaN LEDs. These devices are also integrated with a complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) driver array chip, allowing for simple computer control of individual micro-LED pixels. The bandwidth of the integrated micro-LED/CMOS pixels is shown to be up to 185 MHz; data transmission at bit rates up to 512 Mbit/s is demonstrated using on-off keying non return-to-zero modulation with a bit-error ratio of less than 1 × 10-10, using a 450 nm-emitting 24 μm diameter CMOS-controlled micro-LED. As the CMOS chip allows for up to 16 independent data inputs, this device demonstrates the potential for multi-Gigabit/s parallel data transmission using CMOS-controlled micro-LEDs.

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Topics: Photonics (54%), CMOS (53%), Amplitude-shift keying (51%) ... show more

267 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1021/NN501601E
03 Jun 2014-ACS Nano
Abstract: We present a plasmon-active hybrid nanomaterial design with electrochemical tunability of the localized surface plasmon resonances. The plasmonic-active nanostructures are composed of silver nanocube aggregates embedded into an electrochromic polymer coating on an indium tin oxide electrode with the nanocube aggregation controlled by the surface pressure. Such polymer–nanocube hybrid nanomaterials demonstrated unique tunable plasmonic behavior under an applied electrochemical potential. A significant reversible experimental peak shift of 22 nm at an electrical potential of 200 mV has been achieved in these measurements. Finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations show that, under full oxidation potential, a maximal spectral shift of ca. 80 nm can be potentially achieved, which corresponds to a high sensitivity of 178 nm per refractive index unit. Furthermore, FDTD modeling suggests that the electrochemically controlled tunability of plasmonic peaks is caused by reversible changes in the refractive in...

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Topics: Electrochromism (55%), Localized surface plasmon (55%), Electrochemical potential (52%) ... show more

258 Citations


Journal ArticleDOI: 10.1063/1.365671
Abstract: Single-crystalline hexagonal GaN (α-GaN) films have been grown on (0001) sapphire substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition at 1040 °C. The complex dielectric functions, e(E)=e1(E)+ie2(E), of the epitaxial films have been measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) for E⊥c in the region between 1.5 and 5.0 eV at room temperature. Previously published ultraviolet SE spectra of α-GaN are examined by considering the effects of surface roughness using an analysis based on an effective medium model. Ex situ atomic force microscopy is used to assess independently surface flatness. By mathematically removing the effects of surface roughness, the most reliable e(E) values for α-GaN are presented in the 1.25–10 eV photon–energy range. Theoretical dispersion analysis suggests that the E0 structure could be characterized by a three-dimensional M0 critical point and the E1α (α=A,B,C) structures by two-dimensional M1 critical points. To facilitate design of various optoelectronic devices, dielectric-functio...

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Topics: Surface roughness (55%), Ellipsometry (54%), Epitaxy (52%) ... show more

253 Citations


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